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1)3' 



THE 



WILTSHIRE 
Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE. 



Published under the Direction of the Society 
Formed in that County A.D. 1853. 

Edited BYrOANON E, H. Goddard, F.S.A., Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

VOL. XLIV. 
Nos. 147 — 151. December, 1927— December, 1929. 




DEVIZES : 
C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 



December, 1929. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XLIV. 



No. OXLVII. December, 1927, 

Some 18th and 19th Century Wiltshire Tokens, and a Stonehenge 
Medal in the Society's Museum at Devizes : By Capt. B. H. 

Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot , 1 — 9 

The Collection of MS. Copies of the Monumental Inscriptions in 
the Churches and Churchyards of Wiltshire in the Society's 

Library: By the Rev. E. H. Goddard, F.S.A 10— 13 

A Malmesbury Abbey Manuscript : By Sir Richard H. Luce, 

K.C.M.G., C.B., M.P 14— 22 

Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn : By C. P. Hurst ... 23— 29 
The Society's MSS. Abstracts of Deeds. &c., of Little Park, 

Wootton Bassett : By W. Gough 30— 42 

The Red Down Boring, E3ighworth, and its Geological Significance, 
with Notes on Neighbouring Wells : By W. J. Arkell, B.A., 

B. Sc, F.G.S 43— 48 

A Roman Villa at Nuthills, near Bowood : By the Marquess of 

Lansdowne 49 — 59 

Natural History Notes 60— 64 

Wilts Obituary 64— 73 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 74— 90 

Additions to Museum and Library 91 — 92 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1926 ,.... 93— 96 



No. CXLVIII. June, 1928. 

Polished Flint Knives, with particular reference to one recently 

found at Durrington : By R. C. C. Clay, M.R.C.S., F.S.A... . 97—100 

Pre-Roman Coffin Burials with particular reference to one from 

a Barrow at Fovant : By R. C. C. Clay, M.R.C.S., F.S.A. ... 101—105 

Thomas Duckett and Daniel Bull, Members for Calne : By L. B. 

Namier 106—110 

Two Shale Cups of the Early Bronze Age and other similar Cups : 

By R. S. Newall, F.S.A 111—117 

Beaker and Food Vessels from Barrow No. 25, Figheldean : By 

R. S. Newall, F.S.A 118 

The Seventy-Fourth General Meeting of the Wiltshire Archaeolo- 
gical and Natural History Society, held at Frome, July 25th, 
26th, and 27th, 1927 119—127 

Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn. II. : By Cecil P. 

Hurst 128—137 

Objects found during Excavations on the Romano-British Site at 
Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverell, 1926 : By R. de C. 
Nan Kivell 138—142 

Notes on Clyffe Pypard and Broad Town : By the late Canon 

Francis Goddard » 143—170 

Wilts Obituary 171—180 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 181—198 

Additions to Museum and Library 199—200 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1927 201—204 

List of Officers and Members of the Society, June, 1928 205-214 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XLIV. Ill 

No. CXLIX. December, 1928. 

The Society's MSS. Grittleton Manor Deeds: By the Rev. 

Canon F. H. Manley 215—235 

A Hoard of British Coins found at Chute : By Captain B. Howard 

Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot 236—239 

Field work in N. Wilts, 1926—28 : By A. D. Passmore 240—245 

Notes on Stone Implements of Material Foreign to Wiltshire in 
the Collection of Mr. A. D. Passmore: By H. H. Thomas, 

F.R.S., and A. D. Passmore 246—247 

The Seventy-fifth General Meetingof the Wiltshire Archaeological 
and Natural History Society, held at Shaftesbury, July 24th, 

25th, and 26th, 1928 248—256 

Heytesbury Almshouse Accounts, 1592: Gopiedby J. J. Hammond 257 — 259 
Notes — Crouched Burial at Winterslow. A Pillow Mound at 
Wardour. Stonehenge Avenue. Sarsen Stones at Kingston 
Deverill. Saxon Jewelry from Boundway. Books bought 
from family of Col. Will. Long. Mound at Whetham opened. 
Pottery Rings at East Kennett. Stone Celt found at Box. 
Circular Earthwork at Ratfyn, Amesbury. Roman Coins at 
Little Somerford. Roman Road at Conholt Park. Chapel 
on the Bridge, Bradford-on-Avon. Sir John Falstaff and 
Steeple Langford. Roman building at Draycott, near Huish 260 — 270 

Wilts Obituary = . 271—276 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 277 — 302 

Additions to Museum and Library 303—304 

No. CL. June, 1929. 
Sir William Petty : Presidential Address by the Most Hon. the 

Marquess of Lansdowne 305—313 

List of Goods destroyed by Fire at Marlborough, 1689 : Tran- 
scribed by Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot., from the 

Corporation Records , 314—318 

Trouble with the Bakers of Marlborough in 1634 : Transcribed 
from the Municipal Records by permission of the Corporation 

by Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot 319—321 

Tisbury in the Anglo-Saxon Charters : By the Rev. W. Goodchild 322—331 
The Recent Excavations at Stonehenge : By Lt.-Col. R. H. 

Cunnington < 332—347 

Stonehenge. The Recent Excavations : By R. S. Newall, F.S.A. 348—359 
Heraldry of the Churches of Wiltshire : By the Rev. R. St. John 

B. Battersby 360—371 

Wilts Obituary 372—379 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles .. 380—394 

Additions to Museum and Library ; 395 — 396 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1928 397—400 



iv CONTENTS OF VOL. XLIV. 

No. CLI. December, 1929. 

Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn. III. : By Cecil P. 

Hurst, F.L.S. 401-406 

Three Inventories of Plate and Furniture belonging to Salisbury 

Cathedral: Transcribed by J.J.Hammond 407—410 

Lawsuit concerning Property of Robert May,of Broughton Giflford, 

1598: By G. Kidston , 411—417 

Heraldry of the Churches of Wiltshire : By the Rev. R. St. John 

B. Battersby 418—428 

The Society's MSS. Grittleton Manor Rolls. 1613-25, 1627—47 ; 
Translated by the late Rev. C. W. Shickle, F.S.A., anno- 
tated by Canon F. H. Manley 429—473 

The Seventy-Sixth General Meeting of the Wiltshire Archaeologi- 
cal and Natural History Society held at Bath, August 7tb, 

8th, and9tb, 1929 474—480 

Wilts Obituary 481—483 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 484—492 

Additions to Library 492 

Index to Vol. XLIV 493—553 

Errata 553 



Ellugtrattons. 

A Stonehenge Medal, Figs. I. and II., 8. Red Down Boring, Highworth, 
48. Map showing site of Roman Villa at Nuthills, 49. Roman Villa at 
Nuthills, Plates I.— III., 56. Polished Flint Knife from Durrington, 98. 
Shale Cups, I. & II., in Salisbury Museum, 111, 114. Cups. Shale? 
Stowborough Dorset. Shale, Broad Down, Honiton, Devon. Amber, 
Martinstown, Dorset. Amber, Hove, Sussex. Gold, Rillaton, Cornwall, 
115. Food Vessel and Beaker from Barrow No. 25, Figheldean, 118. 
Objects found during excavations on the Romano- British Site at Cold 
Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverell, Plates I. & II., 139—140. Fragment of 
Bronze Bracelet (?) of Hallstatt Age from Cold Kitchen Hill, 1927, 141. 
The Chute iMoney Box, 238. British Gold Coins found at Chute, 238. 
Plan and View of Stone Circle on Overton Down, 244. Perforated Axe 
Hammer of Dolerite from Ogbourne St. George, 245. Stone Celt found 
at Box, 264. Circular ditch with burials in it at Ratfyn, Amesbury, 
266. Suggested Course of Roman Road at Conholt, 267. A Plan of 
Stonehenge, 348. Plans of Chambered Tumuli, Stonehenge, &c., 356. 



No. CXLVII. 



DECEMBEE, 1927. 



Vol. XLIV. 



THE 



WILTSHIRE 

Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE, 

Published under the Direction of the 

SOCIETY FORMED IN THAT COUNTY 

A. D. 18 5 3, 



EDITED BY 

REV. E. H. GODDARD, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

[The authors of the papers printed in this " Magazine" are alone responsible for all 
statements made therein.] 




DEVIZES : 

Printed foe the Society by C. H. Woodward 

Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 



Price 8s. 



Members, Gratis. 



NOTICE TO MEMBERS. 

TAKE NOTICE that a copious Index for the preceding eight 
vol nines of the Magazine will be found at the end of Vols, 
viii., xvi., xxiv., and xxxii. The subsequent Volumes are 
each fully indexed separately. 

The annual subscription is now raised to 15s. 6c?., the entrance fee 
for new Members remaining lOs. ^d. as before. Life Mem- 
bership £15 15s. 

Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society for 

the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 

. the Financial Secretary, Mr. David Owen, Bank Chambers, 

Devizes, to whom also all coTumunications as to the supply 

of Magazines should be addressed. 

The Numbers of this Magazine will be delivered gratis, as issued, 
to Members who are not in arrear of their Annual Subscrip- 
tions, but in accordance with Byelaw No. 8 *' The Financial 
Secretary shall give notice to Members in arrear, and the 
Society's publications will not be forwarded to Members whose 
Subscriptions shall remain unpaid after such notice." 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
tary : the Rev. E. H. Goddard, F.S.A., Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

THE SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS. 

To be obtained of Mr. D. OWEN, Bank Chambers, Devizes. 

THE BRITISH AND KOMAN ANTIQUITIES OF THE NORTH 
WILTSHIRE DOWNS, by the Rev. A, C. Smith, M.A. One Volume, Atlas 
4to, 248 pp., 17 large Maps, and 110 Woodcuts, Extra Cloth. Price £2 2s. 
One copy offered to each Member of the Society at £1 lis. 6d. 

THE FLOWERING PLANTS OF WILTSHIRE. One Volume, 8vg, 
504 pp., with Map, Cloth. By the Rev. T. A. Preston, M.A. Price to the 
Public 16s. ; but one copy offered to every Member of the Society at half-price. 

CATALOGUE of the STOURHEAD COLLECTION of ANTIQUITIES 
IN THE SOCIETY'S MUSEUM, with 175 Illustrations. Part I. Price Is. 6d. 

CATALOGUE of ANTIQUITIES in the SOCIETY'S MUSEUM. 
Part II. 1911. Fully illustrated. Price 2s, 

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CATALOGUE of DRAWINGS, PRINTS, and Maps, in the SOCIETY'S 
LIBRARY at the MUSEUM. Price Is. 6d. 

CATALOGUE op WILTSHIRE TRADE TOKENS in the SOCIETY'S 
COLLECTION. Price 6d. 

BACK NUMBERS of the MAGAZINE. Price to the Public, 8s., 5s. 6d., 
and 3s. 6d. (except in the case of a few numbers, the price of which is raised). 
Members are allowed a reduction of 25 per cent, from these prices. 



WILTSHIRE 
Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE. 



No. CXLVn. DECEMBEE. 1927. Vol. XLIV. 



Contents. PAGE 

Some 18th and 19th Century Wiltshire Tokens, and a 
Stonehenge Medal in the Society's M useum at Devizes: 

By Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot 1— 9 

The Collection of MS. Copies of the Monumental Inscrip- 
tions IN the Churches and Churchyards of Wilt- 
shire, in the Society's Library : By the Rev. E. H. 

Goddard, F.S.A 10—13 

A Malmesbury Abbey Manuscript : By Sir Richard H. Luce, 

K.C.M.G, C.B, M.P 14—22 

Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn 23—29 

The Society's MSS. Abstracts of Deeds, &c., of Little 

Park, Wootton Bassett : By W. Gough 30—42 

The Red Down Boring, High worth, and its Geological 
Significance, with Notes on Neighbouring Wells : By 

W. J. Arkell, B.A., B. Sc, F.G.S 43-48 

A Roman Villa at Nuthills, near Bowood : By the Mar- 
quess of Lansdowne 49—59 

Natural History Notes , 60—64 

Wilts Obituary 64—73 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 74—90 

Additions to Museum and Library 91—92 

Accounts OF the Society FOR the Year 1926. 93—96 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

A Stonehenge Medal, Figs. I. and II 8 

Red Down Boring, Highworth 48 

Map showing site of Roman Villa at Nuthills 49 

Roman Villa at Nuthills, Plates L— III. 56 



Devizes :— C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 



/^A, 



THE 



WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE. 



MULTORUM MANIBUS GRANDE LEVATUR ONUS." — Ovicl. 



No. CXLVII. December, 1927. Vol. XI.IV. 

SOME 18th AND 19bh CENTURY WILTSHIRE TOKENS, 

AND A STONEHENGE MEDAL IN THE SOCIETY'S 

MUSEUM AT DEYIZES. 

By Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.SA., Scot.^ 

The Society has recently had presented to it by Brigadier-General 
G. LI. Palmer, C.B., a most interesting collection of 17th, 18th, and 19th 
century Wiltshire tradesmen's tokens, medals, &c. Of the 17th century 
tokens, many examples were not already in the Society's collection and 
have therefore added considerably to its interest and usefulness. 

Of the 18th and 19th century tokens the Society had but a few examples 
and these were not on exhibition. 

General Palmer's donation, however, has so greatly added to the num- 
ber, and contains such excellent' examples, that it is hoped shortly to have 
them on view. 

A brief description of these later additions may be of interest and perhaps 
lead to other examples being given to the Society. 

There are 20 " Corn tokens " issued by D. Arnot, proprietor of the Spa 
House, Holt. These tokens, made of copper, have no money value on 
them and are slightly smaller than a modern penny. With the exception 
of two they are all dated 1796. The two exceptions are numbers 5 and 14 
which bear the dates 1795 — 96. The following is a descriptive list of these 
and some other tokens in the collection of the same period. 

Corn tokens issued by D. Arnot, proprietor of the Spa House, Holt. 

No. Obverse. Reverse 

1 Head of King George III. to A three-masted sailing ship with 

right with inscription " He inscription " Corn imported by 

feels his peoples wants and Government, 1796." 
relieves them." 

^ The Society is indebted to Capt. Cunnington for the cost of the plate 
illustrating this paper, 

YOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLVII. B 



2 Some 18th and 19th Century Wiltshire Tokens. 

2 As above. A plough and two harrows with the 

letter A beneath. Inscription- — 
" Success to the cultivation of 
Waste Lands." 

3 Ditto A sheaf of corn with the letter A 

beneath, Inscription — " Relief 
against Monopoly." 

4 Ditto A pair of scales (empty). Inscrip- 

tion — "Thesaleof Corn by weight 
proposed 1796." 

5 Ditto A pair of scales with a loaf in one 

scale and three weights in the 
other, 3| lbs. between the scales. 
Inscription—'* Is. worth of Bread 
1795—96. Good Lord deliver us." 

6 Ditto A pair of scales with large loaf in 

one scale and three weights in the 
other, 65 lbs. between the scales. 
Inscription — "Bread for Is., April 
1796. God be praised," 

On fourteen other examples the obverse and reverse are various com- 
binations of the reverses of numbers I to 6. 

The next, though not strictly of Wiltshire origin, was issued by the same 
D. Arnot, and refers to the same subject. 

" To the illustrious Duke of A beggar leaning on his staff with 

Beaufort, the Iriend of man, a basket on his arm and holding 

and his worthy tenants, who out his hat into which alms are 

reduced the price of their falling from a hand. Inscrip- 

wheat to 9s per Bushel, A.D. tion — " I was hungry and ye gave 

17.95." me meat." 

Round the edge of the token is 
stamped "BADMINTON 
TOKEN." 

The same D. Arnot also issued a number of tokens from the " Holt Spa 
House." 

Some of these tokens state that the Holt Spa was discovered in 1688, and 
though the discovery was probably made then it appears probable that 
these medicinal waters were first brought into favour through the efforts of 
Lady Lisle and Rev. James Lewis in 1720. Mr. A. V. H. Beaven, of Holt, 
has kindly presented to the Museum a medallion in glass (slightly chipped) 
apparently part of a bottle, which has a coat of arms surmounted by a stag 
round which are the words " H Eyre Furv[eyor of] mineral waters to Her 
Majesty. Holt Mineral W[ate]rs. 



By Capt. B. H. Cunnington. 
The following is a description of the principal examples : — 



J^o. 



Obverse. 



Reverse, 



Figure of Fame blowing a long Head of King George III. to the 

trumpet and holding two wreaths right and inscribed " He feels 

in its hands. Inscribed : — " Holt, his people's wants and relieves 

Wiltshire Mineral Waters. Dis- them." 
covered 1688." 



A representation of a large house 
with 2 doors and 22 windows. 
Inscription—" Holt Spa House. 
Neat Lodgings. Holt Water. 
Sold by Jno. Griffiths, No. 27, 
St. Albans Street, London." 



Ditto 



S Ditto. 



4 As Number L 
-5 As Number 2. 

6 As Number 2. 



In the centre : — " Sold at the Spa 
House, by D.Arnot, proprietor." 
Round the rim:— "& by Jno. 
Griffiths, No. 27, Albans Street, 
London." 

Ditto. 

To the illustrious Duke of Beau- 
fort, &c. (see above). 

Scales with bread, &c. (See corn 
tokens, No. 6, above). 



7 Representation of a house as No. 2, Reverse as No, 1. 
but inscribed ** Spa House. Neat 
Lodgings." The letter B under 
Neat Lodgings and surmounted 
with "sold by Jno. Griffiths," 
&c., as No. 2. 

There are other examples that have slight variations from the above, such 
as milled or not milled edges. 



HOLT SPA TOKENS, SPA HOUSE, HOLT. 

Some interesting particulars of this house are given in some back num- 
bers of the Holt St. Katherine Parish Magazine, extracted from '* an old 
book published in 1731 for John Roberts at the Oxford Arms in Warwick 
Lane, entitled : — 

"A Brief Account of the Holt Waters containing One hundred and 
-twelve Eminent cures performed by the use of the famous Mineral Waters 
<at Holt (near Bath) in Wiltshire. Being faithfully collected by Henry 
Eyre, Sworn Purveyor to Her Majesty for all Mineral Waters. To which 

B 2 



4 Some ISth and 19th Century Wiltshire Tokens. 

are added, Directions for Drinking the Holt Waters, and some experi- 
mental observations on the severall Wells." The dedication runs : — " To 
Edward Lisle, of Moyles Court, in the County of Southampton, Esq., Mem- 
ber of Parliament for the Borough of Marlborough, and Lord of the Manor 
of Holt, this collection of cures done by the Mineral Waters of Holt of 
which he is the Proprietor, is, with the utmost Respect, Inscribed, by his 
most obliged and most obedient Servant Henry Eyres," 

The book begins with an account of the many benefits derived from the 
use of the Mineral Waters and points out how " the discovery of such Heal- 
ing Waters prolongs Life and restores Health which is sometimes better 
than Life, both to Pdch and poor. Natives, Strangers, Meighbours and 
Travellers ... I shall confine myself only to show what effect these 
Waters have on Human Constitutions, by which imperfect account it will 
appear what a blessing these waters are to the Publick by recovering them 
that have long been afflicted with most obstinate and almost desperate 
diseases." 

An account of the discovery of the wells then follows, from which it 
appears that "an inhabitant sank a well near his house about eleven feet 
deep and found an abundant Spring. Anticipating a visit from some 
friends he brewed a barrel of ale with the water and boiled a leg of mutton 
as well. But when the meat came to be set on the table it appeared so dis- 
coloured and of such a sooty hue that he was almost ashamed to set it 
before his guests. However, no doubt being hungry they sat down and ate 
and drank plentifully and freely." We will not quote more of this incident 
except to add that " in a little time the mineral water began to exert its 
operation " and the whole party were decidedly unwell. 

The foregoing occurred about 1690 and although Lady Lisle tried to get 
a doctor of Bath to take up with the enterprise nothing came of it. 

About 1713 the well passed into the hanris of a lady named Harding who 
had a daughter about five years old sufi'ering from the " King's Evil," and 
finding all other means of cure ineffectual dosed the child with water from 
her well and ultimately cured her. This wonderful result led Mrs. Harding 
to publish the fact far and wide, and she ultimately built up a considerable 
trade, selling the water in bottles which were sent to Bristol, London, and 
other parts of the country. A long list of " Eminent Cures," many of 
which were attested by the Rev. John Lewis, who was Curate at Holt at 
the time, was published and the business continued to increase. There 
were some drawbacks occasionally and this was usually blamed to the fact 
"that the bottles used were not perfectly new and clean and though 
the utmost care be taken at the Wells yet sometimes a small straw will pass 
unperceived in a Bottle and when it does stink the Stench is beyond Im- 
agination^ Later on the writer complains that " The mischief is, few 
people have Patience to wait a Cure. Distempers are fixed and interwoven 
with the Principles of Life." In course of time the water drinkers made 
great complaints '* on occasion of the' Foulness of the Water." The well 
apparently had not been cleared out for ten years, rival wells were sunk, 
and ill feeling sprang up between the different parties concerned. The 
popularity of the Holt Waters began to decline soon after 1730 ; but 



By Capt. B. H. Cunnington. 5 

whether due to keen competition or to " Stench beyond Imagination " 
history does not say, 

I am indebted to Mr. A. V. H. Beaven, of The Retreat, Holt, for the loan 
of the magazines from which the foregoing is taken. 

Amongst other copper tokens in this collection are the following : — 

Obverse. Reverse. 

The Arms of the Town of Devizes A Stag. Inscription 1. " Baster 
in a Shield. Devizes, Wilts, 1796." 

Round the edge of one example is the following, very finely cut in the 
milled edge, " Payable in Anglecy, Liverpool, London," and round the un- 
milled edge of another is " Breeches and glove Manufactory." 

Obverse. Reverse. 

E. Topley, Cheap Clothing and Commerce House, 

Drapery Establishment. Silver Street, 

Warminster, 

Bust of man to left bearing a wig. J. O. M. In a three-quarter wreath 
Inscription — *' Payable at Salis- and surrounded by " James Met- 

bury." calf Bedal, Yorks." 

Round the edge are the words "Skidmore, Holborn." 

Wiltshire Yeomanry. 
Obverse. Reverse. 

Mounted officer galloping, carrying Three mounted men, two carrying 
sword. Inscription — " Wiltshire their swords, and the third with 

Yeomanry Cavalry, 1794." unfurled flag. Inscription "Their 

Token, P. A. E. F." (Pro Aris 
et Focis). 

Bust of man to left. " Payable at "Mur<^ by the Factious. Louis XVI. 
Salisbury." Jan. 21. M. Antoinette. Oct. 

16, 1793." 

A man hanging in chains from a *' For the Murder of Wolf Myers, 
gallows. Inscription—" E. CUR- Dec. 28, 1767." 

TIS hung in chains near Sarum, 
March 14th, 1768." ^ 

Extract from "The Salisbury Journal," February 1st, 1768. 
*' On Monday last, the 25th ult., the body of a person who had been most 
barbarously murdered, was found thrown into a pit on the road's side near 
Coombe, about two miles from this city, supposed to have been done at the 
beginning of the fall of snow, as the legs and thighs were still covered with 
it, and round the head lay several large flint stones ; and not far from the 
place was found some little time before, the blade of a large knife, with 

^ The account of this murder has kindly been extracted from the SaliS' 
bury and Winchester Journal by the editor of that paper. 



6 Some 18^7z. and 19th Century Wiltshire Tokens. 

which it is supposed one of the wounds in the body was given : the next 
day the Coroner's inquest sat on it and brought in their verdict wilful mur- 
der, by some person or persons unknown. On examining the body there 
appeared to be a large fracture in the skull, a deep and mortal stab in the 
lower part of the belly from the groin upwards, another in the right breast, 
several cuts in the right hand, and many bruises from head to foot. 

Upon enquiry, he appears to be a travelling Jew, Woolfe by name, be- 
tween thirty and forty years of age, who lodged on Sunday night, the 27th 
of last month, at the Running Horse in this city, where he also breakfasted 
the next morning, and went from thence about 9 o'clock with his box at his 
back, and enquired the way to Coombe. 

The above discovery and particulars were no sooner publickly known, but 
it was presently concluded, that John Curtis (as he called himself) a sailor 
(who came into the town the very day, and a few hours after the Jew went 
out, and pretended he had been robbed and wounded on the Blandford road 
about two miles off, and was therefore had to our Infirmary, to be cured, as 
mentioned in this Journal of the 4th ult) was the very man that committed 
the murder, and accordingly the Coroner immediately issued his warrant, and 
sent two persons with it to Gosport after him, where he was taken the same 
day on board the Achilles man of war, and carried before Edward Bedford, 
Esq., Justice of the Peace for the County of Hants, who committed him to 
the house of correction at Gosport, from whence he is to be moved this day 
to the county jail. 

On searching his chest and bedding, a pedlar's box, with drawers in it, 
and pedlary wares of various sorts, such as the Jews commonly carry, were 
found in his possession, which he said he dealt in, but could give no good 
account how he came by them ; they also found upon him, a very remark- 
able circumstance of his guilt, a printed handbill of " Jacob Cohen, at the 
sign of the Thistle and Crown, in the market-place Froom, Somerset, sells 
all sorts of silver ware, &c., &c.," one of the very same sort in all respects 
being found in the pocket of the man that was murdered. 

Among his letters was also found a letter from a girl at Plymouth, 
wherein she wonders " he pretended to be robbed of so much money, when 
he said he only had three guineas when he left Plymouth. " ; there was 
also another letter in his chest, supposed to be of his own writing, directed 
to Mr. Edward Bedford, of Gosport, to advise him to sue the county for the 
money he therein said he had been robbed of. From the above, and many 
other circumscances needless to mention, there is great reason to believe 
him guilty of what is laid to his charge. He said his name was John 
Curtis, and that he was born in Jersey, but 'tis supposed he is a Portugeze,^ 
and that his name is Courtine." 

Extract from "The Salisbury Journal," March 14th, 1768. 

*' At our assizes, which ended on Thursday last, John Curtis, for murder- 
ing the Jew (the particulars of which were mentioned in our Journal of the 
1st of February) . . . were all capitally convicted and received sen- 
tence of death." 

"John Curtis will be executed this morning, and afterwards hung in 



By Ca'pU B. H. Cunnington. 7 

irons, on a gibbet which is erected for that purpose, near the spot where he 
committed the murder, which is on the road-side, about a quarter of a mile 
on this side Coombe turn-pike gate." 

Extract from "The Salisbury Journal," March 21st, 1768. 

" On Monday last John Curtis was executed for murder persuant to his 
sentence, as mentioned in our last, and afterwards hung in chains near the 
place where he had committed the fact, tie was carried round the pit into 
which he threw the body, and asked if he remembered the place, to which 
he said no, though ardently pressed to confess the crime for which he was 
instantly going to suffer, denied it to the last, and just before he was 
drawn up delivered the following paper to an acquaintance that stood 
by him under the gibbet. 

The last dying words of me John Curtis. 

I recommend my soul to God, in hopes of pardon and forgiveness for all 
my sins ; as for the crime I am going to die for, I am not guilty, and as I 
am wronged in this world, I rely upon the mercy of God Almighty to re- 
ward me in the next. God Almighty keep everyone from false swearing, 
and forgive them all as I do, and die in charity with all men. 

John Curtis, 27 years of age. March 14th, 1768." 

Three tokens were issued by the Staverton Mills, at Holt, viz : — 

Staverton Half-Crown. 
Obverse. Reverse. 

View of Mills over a River with a 2s. 6d. 1811 between palm branches, 
clock tower on the centre mill. " Prosperity to the Woollen Man- 

" Staverton Factory, near Brad- ufactory." 

ford, Wiltshire." 

Penny Copper. 
Obverse. Reverse. 

The same as the half-crown above A fleece suspended from a ribbon, 
except that there are the letters "One Penny Token, 1811." 

T. W. on the ground at the right. 

In a second example the letters T. W. on the obverse are missing. These 
three Wiltshire tokens are extremely rare. 

MAELBOROUGH. 

Marlborough Shilling. 

Obverse. Reverse. 

"One Shilling 1811" in centre. "King, Gosling Tanner & Griffiths." 

Legend. "Marlborough Old Bank In centre "For necessary change." 
Token." 

Four hands joined in centre. "King "One shilling token 1811." In cen- 

Gosling Tanner & Griffiths." tre " Marlborough x Old x Bank 

The centre of the Cuff lines to the x." 



S in Gosling. 



^ A similar token to the above except that the centre of the Cuff lines to 
the O in Gosling. 



8 8ome l^th and \Mh Century Wiltshire Tokens 

As above. One Shilling Token " in centre. 

" Marlborough Old Bank." No 
date. 

Sixpence. 
As above but smaller. " Sixpence Token 1811 " with Staf- 

fordshire Knot above. " Marl- 
borough Old Bank." 
[As the Society has a number of Wiltshire Trade Tokens to sell or ex- 
change, the curator will be glad to hear from members who would like to 
purchase them or make exchanges for other Wiltshire examples not in the 
Society's collection.] 



A STONEHENGE MEDAL. 

An interesting medal, of which the accompanying plate is a reproduc- 
tion, has recently been presented to the Museum by Mr. J. E. Pritchard, 
F.S.A., of Clifton. It is of silver, weighs 1 oz. 1 dwt. 20 grs. (Troy), 
and is nearly 2 inches in diameter. The obverse (Fig. I.) represents a view 
of Stonehenge in relief, surrounded by a bank. Above is the draped head of 
a man with a beard, within an oval garland of oak leaves.' A scroll bears 
the latin quotation, " TANTUM RELIGIO POTUIT." ^ Below the view 
of Stonehenge is a groundwork of oak leaves and acorns with STONE- 
HENGE and the date, 1796. Immediately under the surrounding bank, 
above and between the word Stone- Henge, is T. Wyon ; probably the name 
of the person who struck the medal. 

The reverse (Fig. II.) is divided up into degrees and minutes round the 
extreme edge, inside which are the twelve signs of the Zodiac ; Taurus, the 
Bull, being due N.W. of the so-called altar stone. Inside the circle of 
signs is a scroll with the words, " DUM TACENT CLAMANT." ^ Below 
are the words, " CHOIR GAVR " (The Great Choir). In the centre is a 
plan in relief of Stonehenge with 30 stones for the great outer circle, and 
SO for the inner circle, then two sprays ofjoak leaves and acorns. Within 
these sprays are fourteen stones forming an oval, and then a horseshoe of 
fifteen stones, five of which at the top form a straight line. Below the 
centre of this straight line is one large stone, the " Altar Stone," and in the 
centre of the horse shoe the words, " ORRERY OF THE DRUIDS," from 
which it may be presumed the Druids discoursed on the lessons to be learnt 
from the position, motions, and meanings of the planets of our solar system. 
It will be seen that the stones of the inner oval and horseshoe vary in size. 

^ A similar head appears on the 18th Century token of " The Anglesey 
Mines Halfpenny, 1788"; "The North Wales Halfpenny, 1793"; "The 
Paris Miners (Anglesey) Halfpenny, 1791, and Penny, 1787." 

^ " Oh Religion, what crimes have been perpetrated in thy name." 

^ " Though silent, they cry out." " And he answered and said unto them, 
I tell you that, if these should hold their peace, the stones would 
immediately cry out." St. Lukey chap, xix., verse 40. 




*f5 




bD 



\^^^ 






By Capt. B. H. Cunnington. 9 

There are two examples in the British Museum, one in silver as the above, 
and another in pewter. 

Mr. T. Ireland, the Corresponding Councillor of " The Druid Universalist 
Council," to whom I sent a photograph of the medal, has kindly written 
the following account of its origin, *' The medal was engraved and issued 
by A. D. U. B. The engraver was William Blake. He had not seen Stone- 
henge, and gathered his idea of it from drawings by Stukely that were in 
his possession. The medal was issued for the purpose of raising funds to 
help one of the martyrs of our movement, Muir, of Edinburgh. 

I know of six or seven of them among our members and there must be 
others concealed away in some corners, for 750 of them were struck. There 
are also 250 struck in silver, and 50 in gold. There is a silver medal in 
Leamington Office. There is a gold one with the Varrach Lodge of A. D. U. B. 
in Edinburgh. The Berashith Lodge owns one in silver and three in bronze. 

A similar medal was struck two years later by Thomas Spence, and is 
very rare, I know of but one in existence in Scotland. America possesses 
several of this rare medal, but none of the English Lodges have one. This 
rare medal was struck in the name of Thomas Paine, and bears the initial 
letters of his name, T. P., in the bottom of the Stonehenge engraving. 

The gold medals were sold at £50 each, the silver at £10, and the bronze 
at £1. The total sum raised by this means for the " Muir " fund was ^'5750. 
All the medals struck were sold. 



10 



THE COLLECTION OF MS. COPIES OF THE MONUMENTAL 

INSCEIPTIONS IN THE CHURCHES AND CHURCHYARDS 

OF WILTSHIRE, IN THE SOCIETY'S LIBRARY. 

By THE Rev. E. H. Goddard, F.S.A. 

The collection of MS. copies of the monumental inscriptions in the 
Churches and churchyards of Wilts, which have for many years been in 
the possession of the Society but have not hitherto been in a condition to 
be referred to, have now (1927) been mounted and bound up in twenty-two 
folio volumes and have been placed on the shelves of the Society's Library. 
The inscriptions of Salisbury Cathedral and cloisters are not included in 
this series, but are now being printed in instalments in the Wiltskiy^e Gazette^ 
and when complete will be bound up separately and placed with the others. 
Altogether some 208 Churches and churchyards, cemeteries, and chapels 
and their graveyards are dealt with. The majority of these were copied by 
Mr. T. H. Baker, of Mere Down, and afterwards of Salisbury, probably 
between 1890 and 1903, and his original note books are now in the Cathedral 
Library at Salisbury. These were carefully transcribed for the Society as 
they were completed. Of these some were copied by Miss M. M. Bradford, 
and Mr. A. Coleman, of Swindon, but by far the greater number were the 
work of the Bev. G. P. Toppin, Vicar of Broad Town. The intention at 
that time was that the inscriptions should be printed, and consequently in 
making the transcriptions no attention was paid to the provision of a 
sufficient margin for binding up. The result of this has been that almost 
all the sheets of the MS., numbering some 2,500 or more, have had to be 
either mounted or grafted before they could be placed in the hands of the 
binder, A certain number of the more important Wiltshire Churches were 
dealt with by Mr. A. Schomberg and his copies were printed in the Genealo- 
gist or Miscellanea Genealogica. Where copies of these were available they 
have been bound up in their place in these volumes. There are also a cer- 
tain number of Churches and churchyards which have been copied from 
time to time by other hands, as for instance by Mr. A. b\ Smith, of Swin- 
don, who sent in copies of three churchyards in N. Wilts last year, which 
have of course been bound up in their places. Mr. Baker's copies of in- 
scriptions in the Chuyxhes were probably all of them complete up to the 
date when he made them, cir. 1900, but that is not the case with some 
of the Churchyards copied either by him or by others, which are certainly 
not complete, though the majority probably are so up to the date when they 
were copied. Moreover except in one or two cases it has not been possible 
to attempt to bring the record up to the present date. But in spite of these 
inevitable imperfections, it has to be remembered that though Hoare, and 
Sir Thomas Phillips, Mr. A. Schomberg, and others have done much to- 
wards recording the inscriptions in the Churches ; no one, before Mr. Baker set 
the example, ever even attempted to record the inscriptions of our Wiltshire 
Churchyards — a vastly greater labour. A great mass of material for family 
history and topography has thus been rescued from the destruction which 



Monumental Inscriptions of Wiltshire. 



11 



awaits all tombstone inscriptions in the open air, from perhaps one- third of 
the entire number of churchyards in the county. It need hardly be said 
that the librarian will be most grateful if any member of the Society feels 
moved to fill the gaps in the accompanying list with copies of the inscrip- 
tions in Churches or churchyards, not to be found therein. Supplementary 
volumes can always be added to the twenty-two now on the shelves. The 
following list gives in alphabetical order, as they are bound up, the whole 
of the Churches, Churchyards, and Cemeteries, dealt with in this collection. 
It remains to be added that the Society is indebted to Mr. Baker's daughters, 
Mrs. J. L. Lovibond and Miss Baker, for the expense of the binding, as a 
gift in memory of their father. 



Alderbury ch. and ch. yd. 

Allington ch. yd. 

Alton Barnes ch. 

Amesbury ch., ch. yd., and cemet'y • 

Ansty ch. and ch. yd. 

Atworth ch. 

Avebury ch. and ch. yd. 

Barford St. Martin ch. and ch. yd. 

Baverstock ch. and ch. yd. 

II. 

Bedwyn, Gt. ch. & ch. yd. (pt. only). 
Beechingstoke ch. 
Bemerton St. Andrew ch. 

St. John's(newch.j ch.yd. 

Berwick Bassett ch. and ch. yd. 
Biddestone & Slaughterford ch's. 
Bishopstone (S. Wilts) ch. & ch. yd. 
Bishopstrow ch. and ch. yd. 
Blacklands ch. and ch. yd. 
Bonham, liom. Cath. cemetery. 
Boscombe ch. and ch. yd. 
Box ch. 
Boyton ch. 

Bradford-on-Avon, H. Trinity ch. 
and ch. yd. (part only). 

III. 
Bramshaw (^now in Hants), ch. and 

ch. yd. 
Bremhill ch. 
Britford ch. and ch. yd. 
Brixton Deverill ch. and ch. yd. 
Broad Chalke ch. and ch. yd. 



IV. 
Broad Hinton ch. and ch. yd. 
Broad Town ch. and ch. yd., and 
Prim. Methodist Chapel grave- 

yd. 

Bromhain ch. and ch. yd. 
Broughton Gifford ch. 
Bulford ch. and ch. yd. 
Burcombe ch. and ch. yd. 
Calne ch. 
Chalfield, Gt., ch. 
Charlton All Saints ch. and ch. yd. 
Cherhill ch. and ch. yd. 
Chicklade ch. and ch. yd. 
Chippenham ch. 

V. 
Chirton ch. and ch. yd. 
Cholderton ch. yd. 
Clyffe Pypard ch. and ch. yd. 
Colerne ch. 

CoUingbourne Ducis ch. 
Collingbourne Kingston ch. 
Compton Bassett ch. and ch. yd. 

(part only). 
Compton Chamberlaine ch. and 

ch. yd. and cemetery. 
Combe Bissett ch. and ch. yd. 
Corsham ch. 
Cricklade St. Mary's ch. 
Dean, West, ch. and new ch. yd. 

VI. 

Devizes St. John's ch. 

St. Mary's ch. 

Dinton ch. and ch. yd. 
Ditcheridge ch. and ch. yd 



12 



Monumental Inscriptions of Wiltshire. 



Durnford ch. and ch. yd. 

VII. 

Durrington ch. and ch. yd. 
Earlstoke old ch. and ch. yd. 
Enford ch. and ch. yd. (part only)- 
Erchfont ch. 
Farley ch. and ch. yd. 
Figheldean ch. and ch. yd. 
Fisherton Anger old ch. yd., ch. and 
cemetery, old and new 

VIII. 

Fisherton Delamere ch. yd. 
Fittleton ch. 

Fonthill, Fishops, ch. yd. (not com- 
plete). 
Fovant ch. and ch. yd. 
Froxfield ch. and ch. yd. 
Fugglestone ch. and ch. yd. 
Fyfield ch. and ch. yd. 
Grimstead, West, ch. and ch. yd. 
Hannington ch. and ch. yd. 
Harnham, East, ch. and ch. yd. 

■ West, ch. and ch. yd. 

Heddington ch. and ch. yd. 
Highway ch. and ch. yd. 

IX. 

Highworth ch. and ch. yd. 

■ — - Nonconformist burial gr'd. 

X. 

Hill Deverill ch. and ch. yd. 
Hilmarton ch. and ch. yd. (incom- 
plete). 
Hindon ch. yd. 
Holt ch. (printed). 
Homington ch. and ch. yd. 
Horningsham ch. yd. 
Huish ch. (printed) and ch. yd. 
Idmiston ch. and ch, yd. 
Inglesham ch. and ch. yd. 
Kelloways ch. 

Kennet, East, ch. and ch. yd. 
Kingston Deverell ch. yd. 
Kington St. Michael ch. 
Knook ch. and ch. yd. 



Knoyle, East, ch. and ch. yd. 
Knoyle, West, ch. and ch. yd. 

XI. 

Lacock ch. (printed). 
Landford ch. and ch. yd. 
Langford, Little, ch. and ch. yd. 

Steeple, ch. and ch yd. 

Langley Burrell, ch. and ch. yd. 
Laverstock ch. and ch. yd. 
Lavington, Market, ch. (printed). 

West, ch. (printed). 

Leigh, The, ch. yd. 

Limpley stoke, ch. yd.(incomplete). 

XII. 
Longbridge Deverell ch. yd. 
Ludgershall ch. and ch. yd. 
Maddington ch. and ch. yd. 
Maiden Bradley ch. and ch. yd. 
Harden ch. (printed). 
Marlborough St. Mary's ch. and 

ch. yd. 
- — St. Peter's ch. and ch. yd. 
Melksham ch. (printed). 

XIIL 
Mere ch. and ch. yd. 
Milston ch. and ch. yd. 
Monkton Deverill ch. yd. 

XIV. 
Netheravon ch. (printed). 
Netherhampton ch. and ch. yd. 
Nettleton ch. 

Newton, South, ch. and ch. yd. 
Newton Toney ch. and ch. yd. 
Nunton ch. and ch. yd. 
Oaksey ch. 

Odstock ch. and ch. yd. 
Ogbourne St. Andrew ch. & ch. yd. 

St. George, ch. & ch. yd. 

Overton, West, ch., ch. yd., and 

cemetery. 
Pertwood, Higher, ch. 
Pewsey ch. (printed). 
Pitton ch. and ch. yd. 
Porton ch. yd. and Old Baptist 

burial ground. 



Monumental Inscriptions of Wiltshire. 



13 



Potterne ch. (printed). 
Poulshot ch. (printed). 

XV. 

Preshute ch. and ch. yd. 
Redlynch ch. and ch. yd. 
Rollestone ch. and ch. yd. 
Rowde ch. (printed). 
Rushall ch. (printed). 
Salisbury St. Edmund's ch. and 
ch. yd. 

XVI. 

Salisbury St. Martin's ch. & chyd. 

St. Thomas's ch. and ch. yd. 

Baptist Chapel, Brown St. 

Congregational ch. 

Primitive Methodist Chapel. 

Wesleyan Chapel. 

XVII. 
Salisbury Cemetery. 

XVIII. 

Sedgehill ch. and ch. yd. 
Seend ch. (printed). 
Sevenhampton ch. and ch. yd. 
Sherrington ch. 
Shorncote ch, 
Shrewton ch. and ch. yd. 
Somerford Keynes ch. 
Southbroom ch. (printed). 
Standlynch ch. and ch. yd. 
Stanton Fitz warren ch. and ch. yd. 
Stanton St. Bernard ch. (printed) 
Stapleford ch. yd, (incomplete). 
Stockton ch. and ch. yd. 
Stourton ch. and ch. yd. 

XIX. 

Stratford sub Castle, ch. & ch. yd. 
Stratford Tony, ch. and ch. yd. 
Stratton St. Margaret ch. and ch. 

yd. (incomplete). 
Sutton Mandeville ch. and ch. yd. 



Swallowcliffe ch. and ch. yd. (old 

and new). 
Tedworth, North, ch. and ch. yd. 
Teffont Ewyas, ch. and ch. yd. 
Tisbury, ch. and ch. yd. 

Zion Hill chapel & graveyard. 

Tockenham ch. yd. 
Trowbridge ch. 
Tytherton Lucas ch. 

XX. 

Upavon'^ch. (printed). 
Upton Lovel ch. and ch. yd. 
Wardour, Rom. Catholic cemetery. 
Warminster, St. 'John's ch. yd. 

Nonconformist cemetery. 

Whiteparish ch. and ch. yd. 
Wilsford ch. and ch. yd. 
Wilton, new ch. and ch. yd. 

XXI. 
Wilton, old ch. and ch. yd. 

Congregational ch. and grave- 

yd. 

Cemetery. 

Winterbourue Bassett ch. & ch.yd. 

Dauntsey ch. yd. (old). 

Earls ch. & ch. yd. (old & new). 

Gunner ch. and ch. yd. 

Monkton ch. and ch. yd. 

Stoke ch. and ch. yd. 

Winterslow ch. and ch, yd. 

XXII. 
Wishford ch. and ch. yd. 
Woodborough ch. (printed). 
Woodford ch. and ch. yd. 
Wootton Bassett ch. 
Wraxall, South, ch. (printed). 
Wylye ch. and ch. yd. 
Yatesbury ch. 

Yatton Keynell ch. and ch. yd. 
Zeals ch. yd. 



14 



A MALMESBURY ABBEY MANUSCRIPT. 
By Sir Richard H. Luce, K.C.M.G., CB., M.P. 

This paper deals with a small Latin manuscript to be found in the Cotton 
Collection, in the British Museum. There can be little doubt that it was 
written by one of the monks of Malmesbury. Nothing is known of its 
history or of how it came into the hands of that omnivorous collector, Sir 
Robert Cotton, who lived in the reigns of James I. and Charles L, but it 
must have passed with the rest of his vast collection into the hands of the 
nation in the year 1700. 

It consists of three parchment folios, with writing on both sides of each 
leaf. The folios are bound up with other manuscripts in a book catalogued 
as Vitellius A. x. and are numbered 158, 159, and 160. 

The folios are evidently not complete, as the last page breaks ofif in the 
middle of a sentence. Moreover, the first folio has had a strip torn ofif it. 
Part of the writing is what is known as " Palimpsest," that is written on a 
sheet from which previous writing has been erased. The erasure has been 
so carefully done that though the lettering is here and there visible it is too 
faint or too much covered to be decipherable. We have no hint, therefore, 
as to the subject with which it deals. 

The first two folios, and part of the third, contain an abbreviated history 
of the Kings of England and of their gifts to Malmesbury Abbey, carried 
down from the time of its foundation to that of the writer. The last king 
mentioned is King John, and the last abbot, also a John, must be the John 
of Wells who ruled the Abbey from 1222—1224, in the first half of the reign 
of Henry III. 

This section of the manuscript finishes with a complete list of the Abbots 
of Malmesbury, written in a less careful hand and with some suggestion of 
having been added after the rest of the matter had been completed. 

The remainder of the manuscript consists of three separate exscripts. 
The first, probably taken from one of the early fathers, is a story connected 
with St. John the Apostle. The second is a short story from the life of St. 
Ivemigius, the origin of which is not discoverable ; and the third is a short 
account of St. Aldhelm, the first Abbot of Malmesbury. 

In attempting to decipher the manuscript, it soon became evident that 
the first part was an abridgement from the " Gesta Pontificum" of William 
of Malmesbury, and that it contained numerous direct quotations from that 
work. This discovery of course greatly facilitated the task of reading the 
manuscript. I^ater on it was by chance discovered that the last section, 
dealing with the history of St. Aldhelm, was an extract from the " Eccles- 
tical History " of the Venerable Bede, who though living in the northern 
kingdom of Northumbria, was a contemporary of St. Aldhelm. 

The writing is on the whole good and the letters well formed, so that 
apart from the tear in the first folio, and a few places where the manuscript 
has been rubbed, especially at the edges, it is not difficult to make out. 



A Malmeshury Ahhey Manuscript. 15 

It is written, like all similar Latin manuscripts, in a sort of shorthand, 
with many signs and abbreviations, which have to be learned by a beginner 
at this work. A considerable amount of the matter of the missing portion 
could be restored from the original text of William of Malmesbury, and 
some more from the context. The last sentence of the final section could 
be completed from the text of Bede. 

There are one or two marginal notes on the manuscript referring to 
matter in the text, and one on the first page of the last folio, in a different 
hand and much cramped, which could only with difficulty be deciphered. 
It consists of two quotations from Ovid, both incorrectly rendered as if 
from memory, which are evidently intended to point a moral from the life 
of Roger. 

The manuscript is mentioned by Thomas Tanner, the archaeologist, in a 
list of documents relating to the Abbey of Malmesbury, given in his " Notitia 
Monastica," published in 1734. He describes it as " a fragment of a certain 
history of Malmesbury." This is the only reference to it that has been found, 
and as far as can be discovered it has never, hitherto, been described or 
published. 

From an historical point of view it contains little that is new or impor- 
tant. 

The list of abbots which it contains is fuller than any other list that we 
have, and does not completely agree with any of them. The name of 
Daniel is given second on the list, but there is no evidence from William's 
history that he was ever really abbot of Malmesbury. He is known to 
have been a monk there and was appointed Bishop of Winchester at the 
same time that Aldhelm was made Bishop of Sherborne, in 705 Aldhelm 
died in 709, retaining the abbacy pf Malmesbury, as well as his bishopric, 
to the time of his death. Daniel is said by Bede to have still been Bishop 
of Winchester when he was writing in 731. William says that Daniel re- 
signed his bishopric in 744, and retired to Malmesbury as a monk. It is 
therefore very doubtful if he could ever have been abbot there. Meidulph 
is third on the list, but as he was the founder of the convent before it be- 
came an abbey and was also the teacher of Aldhelm, who is always described 
as the first abbot, there is obviously an error here. Forthere and Elmodus, 
also in the list, were both Bishops of Sherborne after Aldhelm's time, and 
William gives no hint that they were ever directly connected with Malmes- 
bury. Unless we can suppose that after Aldhelm's death the Bishops of 
Sherborne kept the abbacy of Malmesbury in their own hands and 
that William purposely refrained from mentioning this, we must 
assume that here too our author was in error. Where he got the 
names of some of the other abbots on his list we do not know, but some of 
them are certainly not mentioned anywhere by William. 

In his account of the kings the author seems to have been trapped into 
another mistake. He describes certain properties of the abbey as having 
been given to it by King Ethelred the Unready, whereas in reality they 
came from another Ethelred, a King of Mercia, who lived fully 300 years 
earlier. 

It is not easy to decide what was the object of the author in writing this 



16 A Malmesbury Abbey Manuscript. 

manuscript. The diversity of the subjects dealt with, the fact that it was 
written on sheets of parchment which had already been used before, and 
that the subject matter is largely taken from well-known writers, whose 
works must have been in the library of the monastery, suggest that the ob- 
ject of the writer was educational, rather than historical, and that he wrote 
it either as practice for himself, or for the use of pupils who could not be 
entrusted with the original copies of these valuable works. In fact, that it 
was of the nature of a copybook or a text book for the school of the 
monastery. 

As far as any intrinsic value of the matter contained in it goes, the man- 
uscript seems hardly worth publishing, but from the fact that it is very old 
and almost certainly the work of a monk of one of our county monasteries, it 
is perhaps worth recording in our county archaeological journal. 

The actual work of deciphering it has been extremely interesting. Apart 
from the hope, ever before one, that some new point of history might be 
divulged, it is an amusement which compares favourably with the present 
fashionable one of working out cross-word puzzles. 

The following is a translation of the text : — 

N. B.— The words or parts of words not in the text, which have been added 
from the original versions or from the context are printed in black type. 

The numbers in the margin refer to the sections in William of Malmes- 
bury's Gesta Pontificum from which the matter is extracted. 

These are the names of the Christian Kings who endowed the 
church of Malmesbury and enriched it with goods and possessions. 
Kenfrith, earl of the Mercians gave to St. Aldhelm, ten cassati^ in 
Wooton. After him King l^^thelred gave 30 cassati. Berth wold, 

205 under king, gave to God and to 8t. Aldhelm 45 cassati in the place 
which is called Somerford. Kentwinus, King of the West Saxons, 
burdened with disease and old age, had appointed Cad walla, a youth 
of the royal house, as his successor. Though he was not yet a king 
or a Christian, he was looking forward with hope to the kingdom and 
with faith was seeking baptism. And on this account he both de- 
lighted to call himself king and while making many gifts to the 
monasteries around, provided liberally for this monastery. Indeed 
he signalled out the monastery for a gift in one place of 140 manentes.* 
in another of 30, and in a third of 5. When therefore he went 

206 to Rome the kingdom was renewed in the person of Ina. Ina, the 
uncle of Aldhelm, reigned 34 years and gave to God and to St. 
Aldhelm 45 cassati, 5 manentes namely in the place which is called 
Iserdun ; 20 where rises the stream which is called Corsa- 
burne, 10 in another place, near the same stream, and 10 near the 
water which is called Rodbourne. To Ina succeeded Ethelard 
for 14 years. To him, Cuthred, for a like period. He gave to 

234 this church 10 mansiones^ in the place which is called Wooton. 



^ Cassatus is the area of land tillable by one man. 
^ Manentes= Permanent Tenants. ^ Mansiones=D welling Houses. 



By Sir Richard H. Luce, K.G.M.G., G.B., M.P. 17 

To King Cuthred succeeded Sigebriht for one year. The suc- 
cessor of Sigebriht was Kinewulf, for 31 years. In the third 
year of his reign this king conferred on that monastery 30 
manores' in the place where the two waters of Mearden and 
Rodburna join. Egfirth, King of the Mercians, gave to this mon. 
astery 35 manentes in the place which is called et-Pirigean, on 

235 the east side of Bradon Wood. To Kinewulf succeeded 
Brihtric for 16 years. To Brihtric succeeded Egbert for 37 
years, who made all the kingdoms of the English bow to the 
West Saxon power. To him succeeded his sou Ethelwolf 

236 for 18 years, whom some call Athulfus. This king con- 
ferred on the monastery the following estates, Ellendune,^ 

237 Elhamstede,^ Wooton,'*Gherlatune,'' Minti,® Keodburne/ Tachenham, 
Lacoc,® Suttune,^ Corsaburna,^" Credevella," Dentesa,'^ Pereton.^' To 

240 him followed in continuous series, his three sons and reigned 16 
years. The fourth also, Alfred by name, for 30 years less 6 months. 
He was the first of all the kings to receive the crown from the 
blessed pope,*^ namely Leo. He was buried in the Abbey of Win- 
chester. When he died he was succeeded by his son Edward who 

246 reigned 24 years. To him succeeded his son Athelstan for 16 years, 
who ruled the kingdom of England most nobly. He gave to God and 
and to St. Aldhelm 6 manores, namely, Bremel,'^ Hiwei,^^ Norton, 

250 Sumerford, Wooton, Ewlme.^' But having been snatched away 
by early death at Gloucester, he was brought to Meldunum^^ and 

246 buried there under the altar af St. Mary in the tower. To Athel- 
stan succeeded Edmund for 6 years, Edred for 9 years. To Edred, 
Edwy, the son of Edmund for 4 years, who gave Broceneburg to 
the church of Mendunum. To him succeeded his brother Edgar for 

252 16 years. He gave Escotum'^ to the Church and was succeeded by 
his son St. Edward for 4 years and a half. For him was substitu- 

256 ted his brother Ethelered. He gave to the Church of iMalmesbury 
the town of Tetbury and 15 cassati near Tetbury. When Ethel- 
red was dead after 37 years reign, Canute succeeded for 20 years. 

258 To Canute, his son Harold for four years. To him, Hardicaoute 
for one year. To him St. Edward for 24 years. In these 86 
years, after Ethelward, the following were abbots, — Kineward, 
Brihtelm, Brihtwold, Ederic, Wulsinus. Brihtwold, as we have 
learned from the English writings, brought many disasters on 
the convent, either by alienating lands altogether, or by mort- 
gaging them for a small price. To Brihtwold succeeded Ethel- 
ward for 10 years. Soon came Elwinus for a year and a 

^ Manores=Manors. 
* Elingdon Wroughton. ^ Elmstead. ^ Wootton Bassett. ^ Charlton. 
^Minety. ^ Rodbourne. ® Lacock. ^ Sutton Benger. '° Corston. ^' Crudwell. 
^^ Dauntsey. ^^ Purton. 

^* Alfred went to Rome to be crowned. 
'5 Bremhill. '" Highworth. ? ^7 Ewelm. ^^ Malmesbury. *^ Eastcourt. 
VOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLVII. C 



18 A Malmeshury Ahbey Mamcscript, 

half. Brihtwold succeeded him for 7 years. Inert towards 
good, but keen towards evil he was, and old age drove him on 
to perish by a miserable death. When he had died by his own hand, 

264 Herman, Bishop of Salisbury,* thought to fill the vacant abbacy with 
his own See. But the monks warned their patrons, Earls Godwin 
and Harald, and by means of their support, Brithric was made abbot 
and ruled the convent gloriously for 7 years. But when William, 
from being Earl of Normandy, became King of England, he forced 

265 upon them a certain monk of Fescamp, named Turold, while Brithric 
was still alive. This Turold, while he was still exercising despotic 
sway over his subjects, was moved to Peterborough. ^ Harald, son of 
Godwin, reigned 40 weeks. William II., Duke of Normandy, reigned 
for 13 years less 5 weeks. At the request of Archbishop Lanfranc 
and Queen Mathilda,^ he instituted annual markets at the festival of 
St. Aldhelm. Queen Mathilda, it was, who gave Garsdon to the 
Church, For Turold was substituted Warin, a monk of Lira.^ An 
efficient man, especially in this respect, that he habituated the monks 
to regulations ; but for the rest he was not otherwise of much use, 
because he was, for the most part, taken up with the hope of greater 
honour, for the sake of which he was capable of emptying the purses of 
the monks, whenever he could get hold of them, and of seizing the 
money. But not so much with a desire to hoard the gains as to squander 
the goodsof the church, on both sides of the sea, in order that he might 
obtain greater glory with those who were powerful and that he might 
make a show before those who had seen him formerly as a poor man. 
Finally as regards the bones of Meidulf,^ of holy memory, and of those 
others, once abbots there and afterwards prelates in various places, who 
had for reverence for their patron Aldhelm, given orders that they should 
be buried in the place ; these, I say, he piled together in a rough heap 
as if they were the remains of common servants and removed them out 
of the Church. He aggravated the shame of his deed by this jocular 
remark, — " Let those who can in any way do so help the others." Oh 
what times ! What manners! That anyone should follow up such 
an act of audacity with a taunt so worthy of it ! The shamelessness 
of man ! that we, trifiers that we are, and born to mockery should 
destroy that which the Blessed Dunstan and the other wisest and 
most religious of men have either done themselves or permitted others 

271 to do. 



^ Herman was at this time Bishop of Ramsbury. The see was moved to 
Salisbury a few years later. 

2 Turold was moved to Peterborough in order that he might use his 
military prowess against Here ward the Wake, then in revolt in the Fens. 
2 Mathilda of Flanders, wife of William I. 
^ A convent in Normandy, 
^ The founder of the Convent at Malmesbury. 



By Sir Richard H. Luce, K.C.M.G., CM., M,P. 19 

On the death of Abbot Warin, in the time of William the 
younger, who reigned 13 years, Godfrey, who had been a monk of 
Jumieges,^ straightway succeeded after 15 days. In his time and by 
bis industry, the honour of the church increased greatly and religion 
advanced. Very many adornments were added, as much as could be 
done by a man whose means were limited and whose time was so 
occupied. The monks, who for the most part had previously been 
merely stammering at their letters were properly instructed. The 
service of God was established on a liberal scale and was punctually 
performed. So that no monastery in England excelled that of 
Malmesbury and many had to give place to it. But when King 
William the younger imposed an unbearable tax upon England, be- 
cause he was engaged in buying Normandy from his brother Robert,^ 
Godfrey, that he might the more easily get together his quota, basely 
alienated the treasures of the church which the carefulness of his 
predecessors had accumulated, accepting the advice of his worst 
counsellors. True indeed it is that '* a crime shared with others 
brings to the same level all those whom it defiles."^ Indeed, on one 
day, 12 texts of the Evangelists, 8 crosses, and 8 shrines were stripped 
of their silver and gold and left bare. But it happily turned out 
that his avarice was disappointed by the scantiness of the result, 
which did not suffice for his wishes, in as much as they did not bring 
in more than 72 marks. And, indeed, the following night he thought 
he. saw a man, of terrible countenance and bearing, who made an 
assault upon him and threw hot water in his face from a pitcher. 
Roused from sleep by his terror, he realised by the pain which speedily 
followed, the truth of his dream. For he wasted away with a horrible 
disease, first of the face and then of the whole body, and was carried 
off by the disease of the King's Evil. In narrating this here we are 
following the private and universally accepted custom of St. Aldhelm, 
that one should endure one's adversities as long as one can, but 
when one has decided to bear them no longer, one should ex- 
pose the injurer a spectacle to all the world. 

When Abbot Godfrey was dead Abbot Edulf succeeded him. 
And when he died,"* in the time of King Henry the elder, who reigned 
36 years, Roger, Bishop of Salisbury, usurped the vacant abbey by 
force and by means of the royal power and held it in his own hands 
for many years. Until Stephen, Earl of Boulogne, son of the sister^ 
of King Henry, succeeded the aforesaid King on the throne of Eng- 
land. {In margin — " When you are happy you will have many 



' Jumieges, an Abbey in Normandy, on the banks of the Seine. 

^ Robert wanted the money to fit out his contingent for the first crusade. 

2 Quotation from Lucan, the Latin poet. Pharsalia V., 290. 

^ Some accounts say Edulf was deposed. 

5 Adela. 



20 A Malmesbury Ahhey Manuscript. 

friends. If the times are clouded over you will be alone.^] " He, in- 
deed, having been adorned with the crown of the kingdom, placed 
Roger 2 under custody as a prisoner in the castle of Devizes until the 
day of his death, and appointed John,' a monk of Malmesbury, who 
had been elected, to rule the church of Malmesbury. [i»i margin — 
" Ever we strive after that which is refused, and whatever is denied 
is thought most precious. Thus the sick man craves th& 
forbidden waters^]. And when John had been carried off by an 
early death, Peter, a monk of Cluny, was substituted in his place. 
This Peter restored the dignity of the monastery at Malmesbury 
given to it in the time of St. Aldhelm by the blessed Pope Sergius, 
by privileges he obtained from Pope Innocent of venerable memory, 
from Pope Eugenius the glorious and most excellent, and from Pope 
Anastasius. When Peter was dead, Abbot Gregory took over the rule 
of the church. Stephen, when he had reigned 19 years, suffered many 
wars at the hands of Henry, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, who 
was son of Geoffrey, Earl of Anjou and of Mathilda,^ the Empress^ 
When he was dead, this same Henry took over the government of the 
kingdom and reigned 34 years and 5 months. This Henry among 
certain liberties which he conferred on the church at Malmesbury at 
the request of St. Thomas,^ the Archbishop, gave them quittance of the 
6 pounds, ten shillings annually which is called Hundred Silver. To 
King Henry and to the rule of England succeeded his two sons, Richard, 
for 91 years, John, his brother, for 18 years and 5 months. \^In 
margin—*' Richard died in his eleventh year.^] That John granted 
to this Church the castle of Malmesbury, to be destroyed, and he 
confirmed to it the hundreds pertaining to its fee farm. After 
Gregory, Robert, Osbert, Nicholas, Robert, Walter and John were 
Abbots. 

{In Margin — Abbots of Malmesbury.] St. Aldhelm, Daniel, 
Meidulf, Forthere, Xambriht, Sigibriht, Othelard, Wulfred, . . , ered, 
Ethelmodus, Aluric, Ethelward, Cyneward, Brihelm, Brihtwold, 
Cynebert, Etheric, Wulsinus Ethelward, Alwyn, Brihtwold, Brihtric, 
Turold, Warin, Godfrey Kdulf, John, Peter, Gregory, Robert, Osbert, 
Nicholas, Robert, Walter, John. 

It is told in the narrative of the Fathers how, when a bird which 
is called a partridge, had been offered, alive and sound, to St. John 



^ Ovid Tristia I., viii., 5. 
' Roger kept the favour of Stephen for some years until he was suspected 
of helping the party of Mathilda 

3 The historian, William of Malmesbury, was probably offered the abbacy 
at this time, 

^ Ovid Amores III., iv., 17. 

^ Mathilda, daughter of Henry I. 

^ Thomas a Beckett. 

? This marginal note is incorrect. Richard reigned less than 10 years. 



By Sir Richard H. Luce, K.GM.G., G,B., M,P. 21 

the Apostle, he took it in his left hand and soothed it by strok- 
ing. And when one of the youths saw this, to make his companions 
laugh, he said " Do you see what the old man is doing with the little 
bird ? And the boy saw. But the blessed apostle, knowing by the 
spirit what had happened, called the youth to him asking him what 
he held in his hand. " Abow," he said. And the blessed Apostle said. 
** What is the use of that which you hold in your hand ? " And the 
youth replied. " We shoot beasts or birds with it or other things." 
And the blessed John said. " In what manner and with what do they 
die ? " And the youth having bent the bow strung it and held it 
strung in his hand. John said nothing further to him and after a 
short interval, he unstrung the bow. And the blessed John said. 
*' Why have you unstrung the bow ? To which the youth replied. 
" Because, if it had been kept strung longer it would have thrown its 
darts less forcibly." To which the holy apostle replied. "In like 
manner if frail man always remains in the full rigour of con- 
templation and does not make allowance for his weakness, the wings 
of his contemplation will necessarily soar less strongly." 

Story of St. Remigius. 
Now the bishop, St. Remigius, secretly used to have entertain- 
ments among his pets and used to take pleasure in the mirth 
of his dear ones. Bold sparrows used to come down to him and from 
his hand used to gather up the remains from his table. {_In 
Margin— Words of St. Remigius.] When one set departed 
satisfied, others took their places to be satisfied in like manner. 
Thus, in the practice of the virtues, the wildness of the 
birds became tamed. A sparrow is a bird, small in body, but moved 
by the greatest sagacity, and is not easily caught in the snare nor 
through gluttony of stomach deceived by the lure of a bait. On 
account of its weakness, lest it should either itself be caught by the 
hunter, or its young should be devoured by the wiles of the serpent 
it takes refuge in the lofty eaves of houses. With this merit may be 
compared a prudent and humble person, who, fleeing the wiles of the 
devil's cunning, ingloriously, and by prayers and tears of penitence, 
hastens to defend himself within the walls of Holy Church. 

Concerning St. Aldhelm.* 

In the year of the incarnation of our Lord 705, Aldfrid, King 
of the Northumbrians died, and to his empire succeeded his son 
Osred, who was about 8 years of age, and reigned 11 years. At the 
beginning of this reign, Hedda, the prelate of the West Saxons, 



* The whole of this is an extract from Bede's Ecclesiastical History, 409, 
410. 



22 A Malmesbury Abbey Manuscript. 

migrated to the heavenly life. A good man he was and just, and 
based his episcopal life and doctrines more on the love of virtue 
implanted in himself than on his reading. When he was dead 
the episcopate of that province was divided into two dioceses. One 
was given to Daniel, namely that of the Church of Winchester, the 
other to Aldhelm, namely that of the Church of Sherburne, over 
which he presided most energetically for 4 years. Indeed Aldhelm, 
when he was as yet only presbyter and abbot of the monastery at the 
town which is known as Malmesbury, wrote by order of the synod 
of his people a remarkable book against the British error, of not 
celebrating Easter at the proper time and of doing many other things 
contrary to ecclesiastical purity and peace, and thus he brought 
many of those Britons who were subject to the West 
Saxons, by the reading of this book, to the catholic 
celebration of our Lord's Easter. 



Quotations from Ovid. 
(1)— Tristia I., viii., 5. 

Donee eris sospes, multos numerabis amicos. 
Tempora si fuerint nubila, solus eris. 

Many friends you will count as long as your fortune is smiling. 
But if the sky is oercast, lonely you will be left. 

(2)— Amores III., iv., 17. 

Nitimur in vetitum semper cupimusque negata. 
Sic interdictis inminet aeger aquis. 

Ever we seek the denied and wilfully want the forbidden. 
So the sick man craves the water he cannot reach. 



23 



NATUEAL HISTOKY NOTES ROUND GREAT BEDWYN, 

By C. P. Hurst. 

Mammal. 
On the 13th December, 1926, a boy brought me a Dormouse (Muscardinus 
avellanarius), which he had found in a wood near Thistleland^ Great Bed- 
wyn. Mr. L. G. Peirson, the President of the Marlborough College Nat. Hist. 
Soc, remarks : — " I find on enquiry that it is said to be found fairly 
frequently near Marlborough, and Mr. H. L. Guillebaud tells me that he 
dug out a colony at Yatesbury some four or five years ago." 

Fish. 
In the first half of August, 1926, when the water of the Kennet and Avon 
Canal had been lowered in one of the sections between Great Bedwyn and 
Crofton, I found in the mud, two specimens of Planer's Lamprey ( Zampe^ra 
planeri) ; they were about six inches in length and were still in the larval 
state which, according to Professor A. Miiller lasts three or four years, the 
adult condition occupying only a few months. Planer's Lamprey is com- 
mon in small streams, brooks and ditches to at least as far north as Perth- 
shire, and never goes down to the sea. It differs from the Lampern 
{Lampetra fluviatilis) in being smaller, in possessing teeth of a slightly 
different form, and in having the dorsal fins connected at the base. 

MOLLUSCA. 

Mr. J. W, Taylor, of Horsforth, Leeds, very kindly sends the following 
notes on local slugs : — 

Avion ater in Tottenham Park in January. " I regard your specimen as 
a darker sub-variety of the variety aurantia approaching the variety rufula." 

Limax cinereo-niger in Savernake Forest in February. " The slug in my 
opinion is the L. ciiiereo-niger variety maura, sub-variety leucogaster. It 
is, of course, immature, and the foot may eventually become pigmented." 

L. cinereo-niger in Foxbury Wood in April. " Fawn-cloured variation of 
variety vera, but young." 

On the 24th and 25th February, the weather was very mild, and I saw 
eighteen species of laoUuscsi, including Agriolimax agrestis Ya^riety brun7iea, 
near Warren Farm in the Forest, and also near Bedwyn Wharf, on the 
Canal. 

The tarring of the roads in this district seems to have had an inimical 
effect on the molluscan life in the hedge-banks, and I do not now make the 
very interesting gatherings of Helix hortensis during rainy weather that I 
used to make before the tarring took place. 

Plant Galls. 
One gall new to the Marlborough list was observed during 1926 : — the 
swellings of the capsules of the common Toadflax ( Linaria vulgaris) caused 
by the beetle Mecinus noctis. Noticed at Froxfield on the 1 9th July. 



24 Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn. 

On the 21st July I saw some excrescences on the leaves of Ranunculus 
repens in Bedwyn Brails and sent them to the British Museum (Natural 
History), and Mr. F. W. Edwards kindly sent me the following note : — 
" The cause of the blisters on Ranunculus repens leaves does not appear 
to be known. Houard refers to it vaguely as "insect," but no trace of 
insect or mite has been found, nor does it appear to be due to a fungus." 

Other galls noted were : — 

The elongated or rounded tumours on the Common lAmQ {Tilia vulgaris) 
caused by the fly Contarinia tiliarum, near St Katharine's Church in the 
Forest, on the 18th June. 

The swelling and woolly pilosity of the leaves and flower heads of the 
Common Thyme (Thymus serpyllum) due to the mite Eriophyes 
Thomasi, near Haw Wood on the 3rd August. 

The Artichoke Gall on the oak {Quercus rohur) caused by the hymeno- 
pteron Andricus fecundator in Wilton Brails on the 9th August. 

Two galls on the Ground Ivy {Nepeta hederacea) in Wilton Brails on the 
9th August : — one, a cylindrical out-growth caused by the dipteron, Oligo- 
trophus bursarius, and the other a hard, globular, fleshy swelling, due to 
the gall-wasp, Aulax glechomae. 

Flowering Plants. 

The following species were noticed round Great Bedwyn in 1926. In 
recording them I have used the 11th edition of the London Catalogue. 

Cerastiuni viscosum var. apetalum. A plant of this form, in which the 
flowers have no petals, was noticed in Wilton Brails by Miss Todd in May. 

Ribes rubrum. The Red Currant. An escape in the depression known 
as Bird's Hole, near Stokke Common, flowering in March. 

Galium tricorne, with recurved fruit stalks, occurred in a cornfield near 
Great Bedwyn Vicarage ; it is scarce in this district. 

Leontodon taraxacoides {Thrincia hirta var. lasiolaenum), a variety with 
hairy involucres, was gathered in the north part of Tottenham Park on the 
3rd September ; it is apparently new to the Marlborough list. 

Gentiana lingulata var. praecox. Miss Todd tells me she has found this 
early flowering gentian plentifully on the downs near Aldbourne. 

Pulmonaria officinalis. A few plants of the Lungwort are naturalized 
in a hedge near Bloxham Copse on the south of Savernake Forest, and 
were in bloom in March. 

Salvia pratensis. The Meadow Sage. In a bed of nettles in a field at 
Froxfield ; a rare naturalized species with handsome blue flowers. 

Polygonum Bistorta. The beautiful flesh-coloured spikes of the Bistort 
were seen by the side of the railway near Bedwyn station in June ; it grows 
here also at Chisbury and Upper Horse Hall Hill. 

Euphorbia virgata. A rare plant occurring on the embankment of the iron 
railway bridge at Great Bedwyn, which was probably brought with ballast ; 
specimens were very kindly named by Mr. A. J, Wilmott, of the British 
Museum, who also kindly identified the rare alien hawkweed Hieracium 
Bauhini, close to which it grows. E. lathyris, The Caper Spurge, a large 
bushy, smooth-leaved, glaucous species appeared spontaneously in several 
gardens at Great Bedwyn in 1926. 



By G. P. Hurst. 25 

Anacamptis (Orchis) pyramidalis. Several plants of the very local 
Pyramidal Orchis were noted in bloom in Chisbury Wood in July. 

Scilla nutans var. bracteata. Miss Todd informs me that a plant was 
brought to her by a child from a wood near Ramsbury ; in this form, 
which was named by Dr. Druce, the bracts are coloured at the tips and ex- 
ceed the flowers. Mr. H. C. Watson found it constant in cultivation. 

Scirpus pauciflorus. In a small spongy bog near Webb's Gully Wood 
which is prolific in rare species. This tiny club rush is very rare in this 
district, and, a plant of the moorland, is commoner in Scotland and northern 
England than in the south. It was first found near Marlborough in boggy 
ground near Chilton Foliat in 1897 on a field day of the Marlborough Col- 
lege Natural History Society, and was again noted there in 1898, I first 
gathered it near Bedwyn in 1925. S, com^oress^s.— Miss Todd tells me that 
S. compressus is plentiful near the River Kennet about a mile east of Chil- 
ton Foliat ; Dr. Druce mentions in the ^* Flora of Berkshire " that he 
gathered specimens of this sedge near Chilton Foliat fifteen inches high. It 
does not seem to have been recorded in the Marlborough lists. It may be 
just outside our county boundary, in Berkshire, but even if so, its occurrence 
so near our limits is worth noting, so that it may be looked for in Wiltshire. 

Setaria verticillata, the " Rough Panick-grass " of Smith's " English 
Botany," was seen by Miss Todd in an old fowl run at Aldbourne, and 
appears to be new to the Marlborough flora. 

Avena strigosa. Cultivated field at Aldbourne (Miss E. S. Todd); also 
at Shalbourne (Mr. Andrew Briant) ; a rare alien grass hitherto unrecorded 
for Marlborough. A. fatua.— The Wild Oat. Cornfield near Wilton 
Brails. Flowers with tawny hairs at the base. 

Bromus secalinus. Three localities in cornfields at Bedwyn. 

Lolium temulentum var. arvense. Cultivated field at Aldbourne (Miss E. 
S. Todd) ; a very rare awnless variety of the Darnel, which has not pre- 
viously been found near Marlborough. The Darnel is supposed to be the 
Tares of Scripture ; the seeds of this grass are very poisonous. 

Fungi. 
The following fungi were seen around Great Bedwyn in 1926. The 
drought in September and October caused the fungus season here to be 
rather a fiasco, and the few plants that appeared were cut down by the end 
of the latter month, but owing to the heavy rainfall of November (over 7 
inches at Marlborough) fungi were well represented in the coppices and 
plantations till well after the middle of December. Pholiota terrigena, dingy 
yellow and with a scaly stem, an uncommon species, was noted in Chisbury 
Wood, in Wilton Brails, and on Wilton Common. The conspicuous and easily 
recognized black-and-white Magpie Mushroom {Goprinus picaceus) appeared 
in a beech avenue near Haw Wood ; it is a rare species that is occasionally 
seen here in the autumn. Two very poisonous plants grew in close proximity 
in Foxbury Wood : — the brown variety umbrina of the deadly Amanita 
phalloides and Entoloma lividum^ " le grand empoisonneur de la Cote d' 
Or," as the French call it ; the latter is one of the best-known poisonous 
species, the illness caused by it generally lasting from three to six days, 
and, except in exceptional cases, the recovery is complete. There was a 



26 Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn. 

very interesting invasion of Foxbury Wood by the large red-capped ^o/e^ws 
versipellis, which has a stout whitish stem bristling with blackish, recurved 
scales ; many big plants grew in a clearing in this wood, and one I measured 
was a foot across. The brown -capped, greyish-gilled Rypholoma capnoides 
occurred in fine tufts on sawdust near Rhododendron Drive in December. 
Some plants of Trametes rubescens, the flesh of which turns red when bruised, 
were seen on a stile leading into Webb's Gully Wood. An immature speci- 
men of the large Amamtopsis strangulata, the buff cap of which has a 
markedly striate margin, was noticed in Wilton Brails in June, and in July 
the deep orange ^./m^V(X was gathered in the usual station near London 
Ride. Boletus impolitus, an infrequent plant which has a yellow zone at 
the summit of the stem, grew by the side of the Grand Avenue in the Forest ; 
the pale yellow tubes turn olivaceous green when bruised. In Bedwyn 
Brails, Hygrophorus hypothejus with pale yellow distant gills and ashy 
cinereous cap, which occurred in fair numbers in a fir wood, was a noticeable 
plant, and the brick-red funnel-shaped Glitocyhe inversa, in a shrubbery 
near Rhododendron Drive in December, was also an interesting 
species. The shining white Tricholoma respleridens was collected in Fox- 
bury Wood in September. The plants recorded below appear to be new ta 
the Marlborough list. Noteworthy fungi included are the pretty little 
Lepiota felina, pure white with the cap flecked with blackish scales and a 
blackish disc, which grew among conifers in Bedwyn Brails — near by, a 
little later, appeared the livid-grey Glitocyhe brumalis, a typical species of 
December — the sweet-scented and edible G.fragranSt with a strong smell 
and taste of aniseed, noticed near Stokke Common — the d.u^k.y Gollyhia coni- 
gena, growing on cones near Rhododendron Drive — the large, handsome^ 
yellow Pholiota adiposa, very slimy and glutinous, on a log near London 
Ride — the shaggy-capped, whitish, edible Goprinus comatus, observed on 
Wilton Common and, as recorded below, seen last year in the heart of 
London — the interesting parasite, Nyctalis parasitica^ growing on dead 
Russula in Chisbury Wood — the gregarious patches of the uncommon, 
whitish Boletus albidus, under oaks near Haw Wood, and also on West 
Leas, the curious, blackish, trumpet-shaped Horn of Plenty, Graterellus 
cornucopioides in Foxbury Wood, and the White Truffle, Ghoiromyces 
mea7idriformis literally unearthed in Birch Copse in the Forest. My ack- 
nowledgments are due to Mr. E. W. Swanton, of the Educational Museum, 
Haslemere, who very kindly named many of the following plants. 

Amanita aspera. A few specimens under oaks near Folly Farm ; an un- 
common Amanita with pale brownish cap covered with sharp-pointed 
warts ; the base of the stem is globose and is surmounted by sulphur- 
coloured flocci which become brownish. 

Lepiota f el ina A few examples in a coniferous plantation in Bedwyn 
Brails at the end of September ; a small, white plant with the cap dotted 
with blackish scales, and the disc blackish ; not uncommon. 

Tricholoma chry sites. Black and yellow cap, yellow gills, and white stem 
stained with yellow ; a specimen of this not infrequent fungus was seen in 
Chisbury Wood in the middle of October ; the coloration is rather 
distinctive and easily recognised. 



By G. P. Hurst. 27 

Clitocyhe rivulosa. One or two plants near Rhododendron Drive, in 
mid-December ; my plants were greyish and had umbilicate caps and tough 
elastic stems ; a very common, poisonous Clitocyhe growing on heaths and 
in pastures. 

C hrumalis. A little colony under conifers in Bedwyn Brails, in Decem- 
ber ; livid-grey pileus, with darker disc, depressed in the centre ; an aptly 
named fungus, the specific hrumalis^ pertaining to winter, referring to the 
time of its appearance. 

C. ditopus. In December, in a wood near Stokke Common ; with grey 
cap, stem and gills. It is a common species growing in woods, among dead 
leaves, in autumn and winter. 

C.fragrans, Another common plant noticed near Stokke Common, and 
also near Rhododendron Drive ; a small, pale brownish fungus with a strong 
pleasant smell of aniseed, it is plentiful in the woods, appearing from July 
to January. 

Collyhia conigena. A common agaric, with brown cap and stem, and 
white gills, observed growing in December among fir needles, and also on a 
spruce cone, near Rhododendron Drive ; the specific conigena is indicative 
of its occurence on coniferous fruits. 

Omphalia stellata. Some specimens of this pretty, white and diaphanous 
species were found on a stump on the 11th September, and were kindly 
named by Mr. W. B. Grove, of Birmingham University. 

Eccilia griseo-rubella. A little pink-spored brownish agaric noticed grow- 
ing in a sloping pasture near Shalbourne Newtown on the 26th April ; a 
not infrequent toadstool. 

Pkoliota adiposa. A large, handsome, very viscid fungus, a few specimens 
of which grew on a log in a wood near London Drive in October ; this 
species is described by Berkeley as " extremely beautiful " and " coloured 
like a ripe pineapple" and it certainly is a very striking plant. The yellow 
pileus is covered with brownish scales and is extremely sticky, this greasi- 
ness giving to it the specific name, adiposa^ fatty ; the stem is also viscid 
and covered with brownish scales. It is a species that is at once recognized. 

Stropharia merdaria. A few examples in a meadow near Burridge 
Heath, in May ; a not uncommon plant with yellowish pileus and straw- 
white tough stem. 

Panaeolus campanulatus. In fields, on dung ; a common species, with 
bell-shaped dark cap, at length convex and often umbonate, reddish stem, 
and blackish, often white-edged gills, distilling watery drops ; West Leas, 
near Mirl Down, etc. 

Coprinus comatus. A large, well-known fungus with white shaggy cap, 
whitish, ringed stem and gills which are at first white, then pink and at 
length black and deliquescent ; near a pond on Wilton Common, etc. It 
is a common and widely spread species, and on the 29th October last year 
I saw a group, of specimens under trees in the Thames Embankment Gar- 
dens, near Charing Cross District Railway Station in London. 

Russula 7'uhra. A fair number of specimens in Foxbury Wood ; the 
crimson, sometimes somewhat pruinose, cap of this not infrequent plant 



28 Natural History Notes round Qrea^ Bedwyn. 

contrasts with the yellow gills and shining white stem, and it should be an 
easily recognized species, if attention is also paid to the very acrid taste. 

R. atropurpurea. Stokke Common ; a common Russula with a deep 
blood-red cap, almost black at the disc ; the gills are white and then 
yellowish and the spores are pure white ; I noticed a small form in the 
Forest. 

Nyctalis parasitica. Observed growing on dead Russula in Chisbury 
Wood, in October ; this species has a longer stem and more conical cap than 
iV^. asterophora, which I have recorded as growing on Russula nigricans in 
Savernake Forest, in the Report of the Marlborough College Nat, Hist. 
Soc. for 1923. 

Boletus calopus. A specimen was found near Bedwyn in September ; 
this fungus has a brownish cap and is very like the common B. chrysenteron 
in general form, etc. ; but it has a beautifully reticulated stem, whence the 
specific calopus — Kalos, beautiful, poiis, foot ; it is not uncommon in 
woods, especially coniferous woods, from July to November. 

B. alhidus. An interesting plant, two patches of which were noticed 
under oaks in September : — one not far from Haw Wood, and the other near 
Foxbury Wood ; it is a very pale Boletus, as the specific alhidus implies. 
The plants were rather large and the whitish caps had a distinct greenish 
tinge, the pale stems were swollen and reticulated with a fine network, and 
the pores of the tubes were of a very pale yellow ; it is an uncommon 
species, 

Craterellus cornucopioides. Horn-of- Plenty. This curious, blackish, 
trumpet-shaped fungus, the Craterelle corne d' abondance, and, also, from its 
funereal colour, the Trompette des Morts of the French, is not uncommon 
in our woods, I have noticed it especially in Foxbury Wood. It is an 
edible species, having a little the taste of the Truffle, and was formerly sold 
in Covent Garden market. 

The uncommon, milk-white, and pruinose Corticicium lacteum was 
noticed in Foxbury Wood at the end of February. 

Clavaria rugosa, a common white Clavaria, with wrinkled surface, grew 
by the side of Rhododendron Drive in the middle of December ; the plants 
seen were unbranched and club-like. 

C.fusiformis. Foxbury Wood, at the end of September ; simple yellow 
clubs, toothed or pointed at the dusky apex, and connate or joined together 
at the base ; common in woods and pastures from September to December. 

A fine example of the uncommon discomycete, Lachnea hemispherical 
with pale grey disc and with the external surface furnished with rigid 
brown hairs, was gathered near Bedwyn and kindly identified by Mr. W. B. 
Grove. 

Ghoiromyces meandriformis» An example of the White Truffle was 
found at the end of September in Birch Copse, in the Forest : it lay half 
buried in the soil and had been partly eaten away by some animal, probably 
a rabbit. White Truffles are not uncommon in oak plantations in the 
summer and autumn, and are four or five inches in diameter. The exterior 
is brown and the flesh white, with numerous very sinuous veins of a pale 
yellow colour, their sinuosity giving rise to the specific meandriformis. Th& 



By C. P. Hurst. 29 

White TruflSe is marked in one of my French Floras as an edible species, 
but so little is heard of it as an esculent, that its gastronomic value is 
probably small. 

Rust Fungi. 

Two rust fungi new to the Marlborough list were found in 1926: — 
Puccinia ohscura and P. Veronicae. 

The aecidia of Puccinia ohscura were seen on Bellis perennis in a field 
near Harding Farm on the 18th April, and the teleutospores of Puccinia 
Veronicae were observed on Veronica montana in Haw Wood on the 3rd 
August. These rusts are both uncommon. Two new hosts were Sonchus 
asper which was seen to be infected with Coleosporium Sonchi on the 3rd 
August in a field near Great Bedwyn Vicarage, and Thrincia hirta which 
was noticed to be attacked by Puccinia Leontidis on the 16th August on 
Burridge Heath. On the 9th August the crimson spots caused by the 
hypophyllous Puccinia Circeae on the upper surface of the leaves of Circaea 
lutetiana had a beautiful effect in Wilton Brails, the brown teleuto-sori of 
Puccinia Glechomatis were noticed on Nepeta hederacea in the same wood, 
where also Uromyces Alchemillae grew on Alchemilla vulgaris^ and Rumex 
viridis was seen to be parasitised by Uromyces Rumicis. In M ay appeared 
Melampsorella Symphyti on the Comfrey {Symphytum officinale) at Oakhill 
and Puccinia Betonicae on the Betony {Stachys officinalis) near Folly Farm. 
Puccinia Centaur eae on Centaurea nigra upon Burridge Heath and 
Coleosporium Euphrasiae on Euphrasia officinalis and Bartsia Odontites 
were also species that came under observation. 



30 



THE SOCIETY'S MSS. ABSTKACTS OF DEEDS, &c„ OF 

LITTLE PARK, WOOTTON BASSETT. 

By W. GouGH.^ 

[Abbreviations. — L. P.=Little Park, dat.=dated, mess.=messuage, occ.= 
occupation, P=parisb, poss.=possession, sig.=signature, surr.=;surrender, 
ten.=tenure, ten'.=tenement, wits.=witnesses. 

1. Copy of Will and Probate of William Moore, of the xVIiddle Temple, 
London, Esq., dat. 10 Nov., 23 Charles II., 1671. Testator appointed his 
friend, John Carter, of London, grocer, sole executor and bequeathed his 
spotted and perpetually existent soul unto the bottomless clemency and 
mercy of his Saviour Jesus Christ. And as to all his enormities, dis- 
obediences, and transgressions, testator trusted in the meritorious death of 
his Saviour upon the Cross and in firm assurance of reconciliation. He 
desired that his body may be decently buried at Fawley in the County of 
Berks, near his wife and children. As for his temporal fortune he could 
heartily wish and that with the greatest comfort of a father that he might 
have safely trusted his only son to provide for himself, his wife and child- 
ren, if he should marry, but knowing from a long experience that it may 
prove dangerous so to do testator directed that as his money should be paid 
in his executor should dispose therefore for the purchasing of lands to be 
settled on his son Francis Moore for his life with various powers and 
authorities. Remainder to first and other sons successively in tail male 
with care to preserve contingent remainders — and failing issue male, testa- 
tor directed that a lease of any purchased premises be made to trustees for 
21 years upon trust to raise portions for the daughters of his son. In case 
his son should die without issue then the land so to be purchased should be 
settled as testator's executor should appoint whom he had before acquainted 
with his will and mind therein. And the testator further directed that his 
lands and ten** in Wootton Bassett should be also settled in the same man- 
ner. Bequests to son of furniture, of house, and pictures in lodgings or at 
the Temple or elsewhere, and all his plate. To executor £100 for his care 
and pains. Testator declared that if his executor " should happen to dye " 
before executing the trust then he appointed Matthew Johnson, of the 
Middle Temple, and Robert Lloyd, his servant, his executors, trusting that 
Master Johnson would take that trouble if need should require for the sake 
of testator's brother-in-law, the late Sir Geoflfrey Palmer, the Attorney 
General. Further gifts of a ring each to the following : — Sir Francis North, 
Knight, Solicitor General, Sir Lewis Palmer, Percy Church, Esq., Sir 
Thomas Beverley, Sir Richard Hopkins, Richard Hopkins, Esq., Sir Henry 
Jernigan. To his servant, Robert Lloyd, £50 and £20 to buy him mourning, 

^ This parcel of deeds was given to the Society by Major G. J. Buxton, 
of Tockenham Manor, the present owner of Little Park. 



The Society s MSS. 31 

the same to be paid with the legacy Cozen BloUnt gave the testator. 
Sig., William Moore. Wits., Valentine Castillion, Joseph Taylor, Thomas 
liogers. 

By a codicil nuncupative testator gave to his three servants, Thomas 
Rogers, Elizabeth Taylor, and Alice, a year's wages over and above such 
wages as he should owe them. 

Wearing apparel unto Thomas Rogers except a velvet coat, a vest and 
breeches, a pair of silk stockings and a pair of gloves which he gave unto 
his brother Master Thomas Moore. Testator gave his beaver hat and his 
gloves embroidered and fringed unto Sir Henry Jernigan, his nephew. To 
Gabriel Cruse, "a guiney," gifts of rings of twenty shillings value to W. 
Parris, George Carter, and Agnes Carter. To Master William Brown a 
ring of the value of forty shillings. Testator gave his law books to the 
first of his name who should practise the law. Proved in the Prerogative 
Court of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Marcus Cottle, registrar. 

2. Deed Poll dat. 24th Dec, 24 Charles II., 1672. Declaration by John 
Carter that the intent of William Moore had been signified to him as 
follows :— That the lands and ten^^ to be purchased and the lands and ten** 
in Wootton Bassett should after the death of Francis Moore without issue 
of his body or in case he should die without issue male and should have any 
daughter then after the expiration of the term of twenty-one years be 
settled upon William Moore, second son of Sir Henry Moore, then of Faw- 
ley, in the county of Berks, knight and barrister, and Godson of the testator. 
8ig., John Carter. Wits., George Carter, John Coape. 

3. Indenture tripartite dat. 24 May, 28 Charles II., 1676. Parties (1) 
Sir Robert Howard of Fasterne, Wilts, Knight, Sir Robert Clayton, Knight, 
John Morris, (2) John Wyse, (3) John Carter, Francis Moore, John Coape. 
In consideration of £4925 paid to Sir Robert Howard the following messes 
and closes of land were granted to John Carter. All that mess, ten* and 
dwelling house with the orchard, garden, and backside thereunto belonging 
called L. P. House and the meadow or pasture grounds as follows : — The 
Plecke, the Grove, the Hither and Further Parke Grounds, Harris Hill, 
Browned Meade, and Dodfields, then in occ. of Hugh Jones, and the mess 
or ten* or dwelling house situate in a place called Greenhill wherein Thomas 
Brinsden did then inhabit and dwell, together with the pasture lands as 
follows : — The Home Close, 30a., the Calves Leaze, 16a., the Middle Plot 
and the Lower Leaze, 20a., Bowdeyed Ground, 13a., and the meadow called 
the Grove theretofore part of Bryning Hill bargaine 10a., Pratts Meade, 6a. 
in the occ. of John Liddall, all which messes, lands, and premises were par- 
cel of the Mannor or Lordship of Wootton Bassett als Wootton Vetus and 
situate in the Townes, parishes, fields, precincts, and territory s of Wootton 
Bassett als Wootton Vetus, Broad Hinton, Cleeve Pipard, Tockenham, 
East Tockenham, West Tockenham, Brinkworth, Lidiard Tregoes, and 
3windon, and " in the forrest of Braydon," or in some or one of them in the 
County of Wilts, Sigs. and seals, Robert Howard, Robert Clayton, John 
Morris, and Francis Moore. Wits., W. Johnson, Elobert Lloyd, C. Herbert, 
.John Wildman, George Searle. 

4. Receipt for £4,925 dat. 30 May, 28 Charles II., 1676, signed by Sir 



32 The Society's MSS. 

Robert Howard. Sig. and seal, Robert Howard. Wits., John Wildman, 
George Searle. 

5. Lease and Release 4th and 5th August, 28 Charles II., 1676. Release 
quadripartite. Parties, (I) John Carter, (2) Valentine Castillion, (3) 
Francis Moore, (4) Francis Jernigan, Edmond Plowden, William Browne, 
Gregory Gifford, Stephen Walpoole, George Carter. 

John Carter in pursuance of the Will of William Moore and also of a 
Chancery Decree settled the messes, lands, and ten*' in the County of Wilts 
to the use of Francis Moore for his life, remainder to trustees to preserve 
contingent remainders. Remainders to the first and other sons of Francis 
Moore successively in tale male. Remainder to his posthumous sons in tail 
male. Remainder to the parties of the 4th part for 21 years. Remainder 
to such person or persons as John Carter should appoint. 

Power for Francis Moore to appoint premises in joynture. 

Sigs. and seals, John Carter, Francis Moore, E. Plowden, G. Giflford, 
Stephen Walpoole. Wits., W. Johnson, Robert Lloyd, John Coape. 

6. Counterpart Indenture for augmenting joynture dat. 24 Jany, 2nd 
James II., 1686. Parties, (1) Francis Moore, (2) John Dancastle. Francis 
Moore appointed certain lands at Bayhouse and West Thorock,in Essex, to 
augment the joynture of Mary Moore, his wife, the daughter of John Dan- 
castle. 

Sig. and seal, John Dancastle. Wits., Catherine Brown, Henry Taylor, 
Philip Taylor. 

7. Articles of Agreement, dat. 14 May, 10 Anne, 1711. Parties (1) 
William Moore, son of S' Henry Moore, then late of Fawley, Knight and 
Baronet, dec<^ ; (2) Francis Moore, of Wootton Bassett, son of William 
Moore. After various recitals, the deed records that about 1690 an 
excessive flood or tempest arose in the river Thames, which broke down 
the banks and walls that had been made for the preservation of a great 
quantity of marsh lands at Bayhouse and West Thorock, Essex, part of the 
lands being those purchased by John Carter, as mentioned, and that not 
only these lands had been " drowned and spoiled " but that Francis Moore 
was threatened to be prosecuted by divers owners of other marsh lands that 
were "drowned and spoiled" by the same inundation, and that he had 
paid out great sums of money in the building of a new wall, and that after 
great damages and expenses in connection therewith he found himself 
unable to recover the lands, and that his estate in Essex grew worse and of 
less value, and that it had been decided to sell the same. 

Further recitals showing that there were controversies as to the con- 
struction of the will of William Moore, as regards the settlement of the 
lands and premises in Wiltshire. Agreement between William Moore and 
Francis Moore that for the final ending of controversies Francis Moore 
would pay to William Moore £500 in full satisfaction of his claim. Sigs. 
and seals, William Moore, Francis Moore. Wits., Tho. Dancastle, Tho. 
Smyth. 

8. Bond, dat. 14 May, 10 Anne, 1711, by William Moore for performance 
of covenants. Sig. and seal, William Moore. Wits., Tho. Dancastle, Tho. 
Smyth. 



The Society's MSS. 33 

9. Copy Act of Parliament, dat. 10 Anne, 1711, recites that divers con- 
troversies and suits were commenced, and depending, touching the 
construction of the will of William Moore, and that Francis Moore had 
had only one daughter, Elizabeth Moore, of the age of 21 years, and no 
issue male, and that being aged he was never likely to have any issue male, 
or other child or children. 

Further recitals that he had contracted debts and had no means to pay 
same or to raise the i'500 for William Moore or to pay any portion to his 
daughter on marriage, or otherwise except by a sale of the property in 
Wiltshire. It was, therefore, enacted that L.P. and the lands and premises 
therewith be vested and settled upon Henry Charles Howard and John 
Dancastle for ever freed from the provisions of the will in trust for sale 
and with directions as to the application of the proceeds. 

10. Bargain and Sale, dat. 9 March, 1 Geo. I., 1714. Parties (1) Henry 
Charles Howard, John Dancastle, Francis Moore, Elizabeth Moore, William 
Moore ; (2) Ralph Broome. 

Recites Act of Parliament, and that it had been agreed to sell property 
at L.P. to Ralph Broome. Bargain and Sale to Ralph Broome in consider- 
ation of £5,210 of all that capital mess, or ten* with the barn, stabling, 
outhousing, orchards, garden, and backside thereto called L.P. House, and 
the closes of pasture land as follows : — The Walk and Great Pound 6a , 
The Pleecke 6a., Bushey Parke 47a., The Middle Part of Bushey Parke, 
25a., The Little Enclosure 5a., The East Part of Bushey Parke 22a. 
The Green Grove 20a., The Hilly Grove 15a., Brown Meadow 8a., 
Parke Hill 20a., The Broad 3a., The Grubbed Broad 5a., Upper 
Parke 24a., The Little Ground 7a., The Bittern Pond 13a., The 
Sheep Sleight Eastward 16a., Old Sheep Sleight West 13a., Burnt Ground, 
14a., Dodfield 16a., and all that mess or ten* with the house, stable, orchard, 
garden, and outbuildings thereto, situate in a place called Greenhill in the 
P. of Wootton Bassett, and the closes of pasture land :— Battis Leaze 15a., 
Cow Leaze 37a., Calves Leaze 19a , Middle Plot 10a., Lower Ground 16a., 
then part of the " Mannor of Wootton Bassett als Wootton Vetus" Sigs. 
and seals, Henry Charles Howard, John Dancastle, Francis Moore, E. 
Moore, Will™ Moore, Ra. Broome. Wits., Thomas Gilbert, James Long, 
John Kighley, W™ Pleydell, Anne Carew. 

(Endorsement showing enrolment on 6th April, 1714.) 

10a. Articles of Agreement, dat. 30 Oct., 1 Geo., I, 1714. Parties (1) 
j Francis Moore, Mary Moore, and Elizabeth Moore ; (2) The Hon. Henry 
Charles Howard, John Dancastle, Ralph Broome ; (3) Thomas Dancastle. 
Agreement as to payment of purchase money, occupancy of premises and 
prevention of waste. Sigs. and seals, Francis Moore, Mary Moore, Elizabeth 
Moore, Ra. Broome, Thos. Dancastle. Wits., James Long, S. Cruse. 

11. Copy Will of Ralph Brome, of Lyneham, in the County of Wilts, 
dat. 14 February, j^. 

Testator, being infirm in body but of sound mind and memory, and call- 
ing to mind the mortality of our bodies gave directions as follows :— 
VOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLVII. D 



34 The Society's MSS. 

He commended his soul into the hands of Almighty God, hoping through 
the merits of Jesus Christ to receive the pardon of all his sins and to be 
received into the Heavenly Kingdom and his body to be buried at Brimble 
near his grandfather and a tomb set over him. 

Bequests as follow. To his nephew, John Brome, son of his brother, 
Francis Brome, of Preston, in the same P. and his heirs male, all that part 
of his estate called L.P. in Ps. of Wootton Bassett and Tockenham, with 
capital messuage and outhouses and containing 277 acres of land subject to 
payment as thereinafter appointed. 

To his nephew, Jacob Brome, second son of his said brother and his 
heirs male, all that other part of L. P. called the Upper Bargain with the 
dwelling houses and out buildings and 95 acres of land. To the three 
daughters of his said brother — Anne, Elizabeth, and Susanna— £100 each. 
To his niece, Mary Brome, daughter of John Brome, £100, to be paid to 
her out of the first money to be made from the stock at L. P. 

To his servant, Mary Arnold, £12 per annum for life, to be paid out of the 
estate given to nephew John Brome and all testator's wearing clothes, linen, 
and woollen, and £5 in money. 

Bequest to the P. of Lyneham of £450 to be laid out in lands the income 
to pay a schoolmaster who should yearly teach not exceeding thirty poor 
children of that P. to read, write, and cast accounts, and instruct them in 
morality and the principles of the Christian religion according to the 
Church of England gratis. 

The money was directed to be paid to testator's brother Francis and 
Christopher Pinniger who should purchase land and be trustees of the 
P. for their lives and, after their decease, the trust should be in the poss- 
essors of both parts of L.P. The schoolmaster to be chosen by the trustees 
and be subject to be removed by them, but if the P. could not find a con- 
venient house for a school and for the schoolmaster to live in then it should 
be lawful for the trustees to settle the land purchased with the money 
thereby given upon Brimble P. for same use. Bequests to brother Francis 
Broome of household goods and plate and to the poor of the P. of Lyneham 
-£20. The like sum to the poor of Brimble. 

Bequests to children of four sisters, Mary, Elizabeth, Ann, and Susanna, 
all his share and profits in the plate looking glass trade which testator held 
with Bobert Cooper & Co., of London, to be equally divided — appointment 
of brother-in-law Thomas Gilbert to be executor over part of his estate and 
his brother Francis Brome over the other part. Bequests of income to 
children of sisters until Jacob Brome attained the age of 26 as regards 
property given to him and similar bequests as regards income of property 
given to John Brome. Also the stock at L. P. not liable to payments, and 
his ready money. Declaration making provision contingently for godsons 
Ralph Brome and John Gilbert. Copy sig., Ra. Brome. Copy wits., 
Thomas Burchall, jun., Sarah, Jacob, Alice King. 

Copy memorandum endorsed on copy will dat. 12 April, 1716. Testator 
declared that it was his dying request to his brother, brothers-in-law, and 
four sisters that, having written out his will with his own hand, and having 



The Society s MSS. 35 

-expressed himself so plainly, they should not suffer themselves to be led 
into any difference about the will. Direction that testator's father and mother 
should have use of household goods while they lived at his house and that 
£20 per year be allowed to them during their joint lives. Direction as to 
payment by John Brome to Mary Arnold of ^12 per year during her life. 
Gifts of a mourning ring to each of 21 person therein mentioned. Copy 
sig., Ra. Broome. 

12. Lease and Release of Tithes 10th & 11th August, 8 Geo. I., 1721. 
Parties, (1) William Fleydell, (2) William Bartlett. In consideration of £80 
William Pleydell conveyed to William Bartlett all the tenths and tithes of 
■corn, grain, hay, and wood, and the great tithes out of L. P. then in occ. of 
Francis Broome. Sig. and seal, William Pleydell. Wits., Charles Hollis- 
ter, Lewis Long. 

13. Lease and Release of Tithes of same date, Parties, (1), William 
Pleydell, (2) Francis Broome. In consideration of £40 William Pleydell 

<;onveyed unto Francis Broome all the tenths and tithes, etc., out of Brins- 
den's Farm, Wootton Bassett, in occ. of Francis Broome. Sig. and seal, 
William Pleydell. Wits., Charles Hollister, Lewis Long. 

14. Lease and Release, dat. 1st and 2nd April, 11 Geo. I., 1725. Parties 
(1) John Brome, (2) John Collings, (3) William Bartlett. 

John Brome (having attained the age of 21 years) in order to bar all 
estates tail in the property devised to him by the will of Ralph Brome, 
granted and conveyed the same to John Collings to make him tenant to 
the precipe for suffering a recovery thereof before the end of Trinity Term 
then next, and the uses declared to John Brome in fee. Sigs. and seals, 
John Brome, John Collings, William Bartlett. Wits., James Long, Lewis 
Long. 

15. Exemplification of Recovery, dat. 10 May, 11 Geo., L, 1725, at West- 
minster. Easter Term, Co. Wilts, William Bartlett versus John Collings, 
^ent. 1 messuage, 2 gardens, 100 ac. of land, 100 ac. of meadow, 100 ac. of 
pasture and common of pasture in Wootton Bassett and Tockenham. 

16. Lease and Release, dat. 17 and 18 Nov., 11 Geo, L, 1725. Parties 
(I) John Brome and Alice, his wife (one of the daughters of William 
Bartlett), and Ralph Brome (son and heir apparent of John and Alice), (2) 
William Bartlett, (3) Thomas Tugwell. Recitals that in consideration of 
a marriage which had already taken place between John Brome and Alice 
(late Alice Bartlett), John Brome conveyed to William Bartlett the premises 
devised to him by Ralph Brome. To the use of John Brome for life, 
remainder to Thomas Tugwell for 100 years subject to provisos, remainder 
to Ralph Brome, the son, in general tail, remainder to the right heirs of 
John Brome. Proviso for cesser of term on annual payment of £20 from 
death of John Brome by Ralph Brome, the son. Sigs. and seals, John 
Brome, Alice Brome, William Bartlett, Thomas Tugwell. Wits., James 
Long, Thomas Earle. 

17. Lease, dat. 17 Feb., 1 Geo. II., 1727. Parties (1) William Bartlett, 
<2) William Waite. 

Sale to William Waite of Tithes on Lower Bargain then in possession of 

D 2 



36 The Society's MSS, 

Jolin Brome. Sig. and seal, William Bartlett. Wits., James Long, Lewis 
Long. 

18. Assignment of Tithes, dat. 1 March, I Geo. IL, 1727. Parties (1) 
William Bartlett, (2) William Waite, (3) John Brome, (4) Ralph Brome 
(son and heir apparent of John Brome). Assignment of Tithes of L. P. to 
preserve contingent uses. Sig. and seal, William Bartlett. Wits., James 
Long, Lewis Long. 

19. Lease and release of Tithes dat 20 and 21 Sept, 5 Geo. IL, 1731. 
Parties (1) Francis Brome (2) John Brome. In consideration of £40 
Francis Brome conveyed and released to John Brome all the Tithes relating 
to Brinsden's Farm. Sig. and seal Francis Broome, Wits. Lewis Long^ 
Thomas Biggs. 

[Note. — In this document as in others the name is sometimes spelt Brome 
and sometimes Broome.] 

20. Lease and release dat. 21 and 22 April, 5 Geo. IL, 1732. Parties 
(I) John Brome, (2) James Long, (3) William Bartlett. John Brome in 
order to have all estates tail in messes and closes of land therein mentioned 
granted the same to James Long to make him tenant to the precipe for 
suffering a common recovery therof before the end of Hilary Term then 
next and the uses declared to John Brome in fee. Sigs. and seals, John 
Brome, James Long, William Bartlett. Wits. Lewis Long, Thomas Miles. 

21. Exemplification of Recovery dat. 22 May, 5 Geo. II. , 1732, at West- 
minster, Easter Term, Co. Wilts. William Bartlett versus James Long, 
gent., 1 mess., 2 gardens, 20 ac. land, 40 ac. meadow, 40 ac. pasture and 
common of pasture in Wootton Bassett and Tockenham. 

22. Indenture of Mortgage dat. 1 April, 5 Geo. II., 1732. Parties (1) 
John Brome (2) Lewis Long. Mortgage on L. P. to secure sums therein 
mentioned. Sig. and seal, John Brome. Wits. W™ Fairthorne, Thomas 
Miles. 

23. Indenture tripartite dat» 26 Nov , 15 Geo. IL, 1742. Parties (1) 
John Brome, (2) Lewis Long, (3) Michael Smith the younger Recitals 
that principal monies and further monies and interest were then due to 
Lewis Long on security of last mentioned indenture and that Michael 
Smith the younger had agreed to make advance upon having an assignment 
to him. Assignment to Michael Smith the younger of remainder of 
mortgage term subject to redemption. Sigs. and seals, John Brome, Lewis 
Long. Wits. John Bull, George Greenaway. 

24. Indenture tripartite of same date. Parties (1) John Brome, (2) 
Michael Smith the elder, (3) Michael Smith the younger. Direction and 
appointment that Ralph Brome should yearly pay to Michael Smith the 
elder the sum of £20 in trust for Michael Smith the younger. Sig. and 
seal, John Brome. Wits., John Bull, George Greenaway. 

25. Indenture tripartite of same date. Parties (1) John Brome, (2) 
Lewis Long, (3) John Prior. Mortgage by John Brome for sum therein 
mentioned. Sigs. and seals, John Brome, Lewis Long. Wits., John Bull, 
George Greenaway. 

26. Indenture, Quinquepartite and Counterpart, dat. 14 June, 19 Geo. 



The Society's MSS. 37 

II., 1745. Parties (1) John Brome, Alice Rrome, Ralph Brome, (2) 
Christopher Finniger, the elder, (3) Cornelius Bradford and Anne Bradford, 
(4) Elizabeth Pinniger, (5) Jacob Pinniger and Richard Bradford. Mort- 
gage. Sigs. and seals, John Brome, Alice Brome, Ralph Brome, Jacob 
Pinniger. Wits., John Bull, George Greenaway. 

27. Indenture, dat. 27 August, 19 Geo. II., 1745. Parties (1) Michael 
Smith, the younger, (2) Lucy Baynton. Mortgage. Sig. and seal, M. 
Smith, Junr. Wits., John Bull, Dan. Bull. 

28. Indenture, quinquepartite, dat. 4th July, 23 Geo. II., 1749, Parties 
(1) John Brome, (2) Michael Smith, the elder, (3) Michael Smith, the 
younger, (4) Thomas Kington, Lucy Baynton, (5) Thomas Hancock. 
Assignment of ^20 per annum in trust for Thomas Kington and Lucy 
Baynton. Sigs. and seals, Jno. Brome, M. Smith, M. Smith, Junr., Thos. 
Kington. Wits., John Bull, Dan Bull. 

29. Indenture, quadrupartite of same date and counterpart. Parties 

(1) John Brome, (2) Michael Smith, the younger, (3) Thomas Kington, 
(4) Lucy Baynton. Assignment of mortgage to Thomas Kington in trust. 
Sigs. and seals, John Brome, M. Smith, Junr., Thos. Kington, Lucy 
Baynton. Wits., John Bull, Dan Bull. 

30. Indenture, tripartite and counterpart, dat. 5th Feb., 24 Geo. II., 
1750. (1) John Brome, (2) John Prior, (3) William Spackman, Thomas 
Spackman, Roger Spackman, and Jacob Spackman. Mortgage. Sigs. and 
seals, John Brome, John Prior, Thomas Spackman. Wits., Broome Pinniger, 
Dan Bull. 

31. Indenture of six parts and counterpart, dat. 4th May, 26 Geo. II., 
1753. Parties (1) John Brome, (2) Ijucy Baynton, (3) Thomas Kington, 
(4) John Pinniger, (5) Jacob Spackman, (6) Broome Pinniger. Assignment 
of a mortgage. Sigs. and seals, John Brome, Lucy Baynton, Thomas 
Kington, John Pinniger, Jacob Spackman, Broome Pinniger. Wits., 
John Bull, Dan Bull, D. Wheeler. 

32. Indenture of eight parts of same date. Parties, (1) John Brome* 

(2) Lucy Baynton, (3) Thomas Kington, (4) John Hancock, (5), John 
Pinniger, (6) Jacob Spackman, (7) Broome Pinniger, (8) Jacob Pinniger, 

, Assignment of sum of £20 per annum in trust for John Finniger. Sigs. and 
seals, John Brome, Lucy Baynton, Thomas Kington, John Hancock, John 
j Pinniger, Jacob Spackman, Broome Finniger. Wits., John Bull, D. 
I Wheeler. 

33. Articles of Agreement dat. 26 Sept., 32 George II., 1758. Parties, 
(1) John Brome, (2) Sir Mark Stewart Pleydell. Agreement for sale of 
L. P. and 372ac. 14p. of land. Sig. and seal, John Brome. Wits., Roger 
Spackman, James Wild. 

The following is a copy of the schedule annexed to the articles of agree- 
ment I—Annual rent, ^220. Wood per annum, £20. Land Tax at 4/-, 
£42 10s. Trees great and small, ^£1200. The following yearly discounts 
are discharged by the tenant at his own proper expense. An annual rent 
to the Rector of Tockenham, £1 6s. 8d. Small tithes to the Vicar of 
Wootton Bassett compounded at £8. Poor Rate, Church Rate, Highway 



38 The Society s MSS. 

Rate, and all rates whatsoever, and no taxes to be paid to any parish save 
that of Wootton Bassett. Poor Rate for the year 1757 was £14 15s. 6d. 
Sig., John Brome. Wits., Roger Spackman, James Wild. Note. — Jacob 
Pinniger, the tenant, paid all rates and taxes, except Land Tax. The rent 
was the sum of £220 per annum, reserving timber and an annual allowance 
of 1000 faggots. 

34. Indenture quadrupartite dat. 4th April, 1759, 32 Geo. II. (1) John 
Wicks, of Oaksey, surviving trustee of Thomas Tugwell, (2) John Brome^ 
(3) Sir Mark Stewart Pleydell, (4) Francis Warneford. Assignment of 
mortgage term in trust for Sir Mark Stewart Pleydell. Sigs. and seals, 
John Wicks, John Brome, Ralph Brome. Wits. Charles Rumboll senr., 
Charles Rumboll, junr. 

35. Articles of agreement of same date. Parties (1) Sir Mark Stewart 
Pleydell, (2) John Brome, Ralph Brome. Agreement with reference to 
purchase of tithes on part of the estate called Lower Bargain. Sigs. and 
seals, Jno. Brome, Ralph Brome. Wits., Hichard Battin, Wm. Sexstone. 

36. Lease and release dat. 3 and 4 April, 32 Geo. IT., 1759. Pa'rties,^ 
John Brome, Alice Brome, Ralph Brome (2) Sir Mark Stewart Pleydell, of 
Coleshill, in the county of Berks, Baronet. Grant to Sir Mark Stewart 
Pleydell of L.P. and closes of land therewith. Sigs. and seals, John Brome, 
Alice Brome, Ralph Broome. Wits., Richard Battin, William Sexstone. 

37. Indenture tripartrite dat. 17 July, 33 Geo. IL, 1759. Parties (1) 
Cornelius Bradford, Anne Bradford, Eloger Spackman, Thomas Spackman, 
Jacob Pinniger (administrator of the goods of Christopher Pinniger), (2> 
Richard Bradford, (3) John Brome and Ralph Brome. Surrender of the 
tithes of Lower Bargain. Sigs. and seals, Cornelius Bradford, Anne 
Bradford, Roger Spackman, Thomas Spackman, Jacob Pinniger, Richard 
Bradford. Wits., John Bull, Hen. Merewether. 

38. Indenture quinquepartite of same date. Parties (1) Sir Mark 
Stewart Pleydell, (2) John Brome, Ralph Brome, (3) Cornelius Bradford, 
Anne Bradford, (4) Roger Spackman, Thomas Spackman, (5) Jacob Pinniger, 
Assignment in trust for Sir Mark Stewart Pleydell. Sigs. and seals, Jno. 
Brome, Balph Brome, Cornelius Bradford, Anne Bradford, Roger Spackman,^ 
Thomas Spackman, Jacob Pinniger, Richard Bradford. Wits., John Bull, 
Hen, Merewether. 

[Note. — This indenture is fastened up with Indenture of 14th June, 1745]. 

39. Indenture quadrupartite dat. 17th April, 1 Geo. III., 1761. Parties 
(1) Sir Mark Stewart Pleydell, (2) John Brome, (3) William Spackman, 
Thomas Spackman, Roger Spackman, Jacob Spackman, (4) Francis 
Warneford. Assignment in trust for Sir Mark Stewart Pleydell. Sigs. and 
seals, John Brome, William Spackman, Thos. Spackman, Roger Spackman, 
Jacob Spackman. Wits., Richard Battin, William Sexstone. 

[Note. — This Indenture is fastened up with Indenture of 5th February^ 
1750.] 

40. Indenture of six parts, dat. 6 June, 3 Geo. III., 1763. Parties (1) 
Sir Mark Stewart Pleydell, (2) John Brome, (3) Elizabeth Pinniger 
(administratrix of the goods of John Pinniger), (4) Jacob Spackman, (5) 



The Society s MSS, 39 

Broome Pinniger, (6) Francis Warneford. Assignment of mortgage term in 
trust for Sir Mark Stewart Pleydell. Sigs. and seals, Jno. Brome, Eliz. 
Pinniger, Jacob Spackman, Broome Pinniger, (6) Francis Warneford. 
Assignment of mortgage term in trust for Sir Mark Stewart Pleydell. 
Sigs. and seals, Jno. Brome, Eliz. Pinniger, Jacob Spackman, Broome 
Pinniger. Wits., Richard Battin, Wm. Sexstone. [Note. — This Indenture 
is fastened up with Indenture of 4th May, 1753, No. 31]. 

41. Indenture, quadrupartite of same date. Parties (1) John Brome, 
of Greenway, Ralph Brome, of L.P., (2) Elizabeth Pinniger, of Cowage, 
(3) Jacob Spackman, of Cowage, (4) Broome Pinniger, of Odehill Farm, 
Cleeve Pipard. Surrender of the Tithes of Lower Bargain. Sigs. and seals, 
Jno. Brome, Eliz. Pinniger, Jacob Spackman, Broome Pinniger. Wits , 
Hen. Merewether, Jacob Pinniger. 

42. Indenture of seven parts of same date. Parties (1) Sir Mark 
Stewart Pleydell, (2) John Brome, (3) Elizabeth Pinniger (administratrix 
of estate of John Pinniger), 4, Jacob Spackman, (5) Broome Pinniger, (6) 
Jacob Pinniger, (7) Sir Simeon Stuart. Assignment of sum of £20 per 
annum. Sigs. and seals, Jno. Brome, Eliz. Pinniger, Jacob Spackman, 
Broome Pinniger, Jacob Pinniger. Wits., John Bull, Dan Bull, D. Wheeler. 

[Note. — This Indenture is fastened up with Indenture of 4th May, 
1753 (No. 32)]. 

43. Lease and Release, dat. 3rd and 4th July, 23 Geo. III., 1783. 
Parties (1) Jacob Pinniger, Mary Pinniger his wife (eldest daughter of 
John Brome), Christopher Pinniger (son of Jacob Pinniger), (2) Richard 
Broome, (3) Sir James Tilney Long. Release to make a tenant to the 
precipe for the purpose of suffering a common recovery. Sigs. and seals, 
Jacob Pinniger, Mary Pinniger, Christopher Pinniger, R. Broome. Wits., 
Wm. Pinniger, Jno. Heath, S. H. Ludlow, Wm. Daflfy Cane. 

44. Deed of Recovery, dat. Trinity Term, 23 Geo. III., 1783. At 
Westminster before Alexander, Lord Loughborough. Sir James Tylney 
Long, Baronet, demandeth against Richard Broome, gent., the Tithes arising 
from 4 orchards, 100 acres of land, 250 acres of pasture, 10 acres of wood 
and common of pasture for all manner of cattle in the P. of Wootton 
Bassett in which Richard hath not entry, but after the disseisin which 
Hugh Hunt thereof unjustly hath made to Sir James within thirty 
years, and whereupon he said that he was seised of the Tithes aforesaid, 
etc., and thereof he bringeth suit. And Richard comes and defends his 
right and vouches to warrant Jacob Pinniger, gentleman, and Mary, his 
wife, and Christopher Pinniger, gentleman. Let him have them here from 
the day of the Holy Trinity in three weeks by the aid of the court, and 
upon this Richard appoints Rowland Lickbarrow and George Byard his 
attornies against Sir James, at which day comes Sir James in his 
proper person as Richard by Rowland Lickbarrow, his attorney. And 
Jacob and Mary and Christopher being summoned came by George Healey, 

I the elder, their attorney, and truly warrant the Tithes to Richard, hereupon 
I Sir James demands against Jacob and Mary and Christopher tenants in 
' their own warranty the Tithes, etc., and says he was seised of the Tithes, 



40 The Society's MSS. 

etc. And Jacob and Mary and Christopher defend their right and vouch 
to warrant Thomas Francis Martin, who was present in person, and freely 
warrant to him the Tithes, etc. And hereupon Sir James demands against 
Thomas Francis, tenant, the Tithes, etc., and Thomas Francis defends his 
right and says that Hugh did not disseise Sir James of the Tithes, &c. 
Thereupon Sir James craves leave to impart, and he hath it, and afterwards 
Sir James comes again and Thomas Francis, although solemnly called, 
cometh not again, but departed in contempt of court. 

Therefore it is considered that Sir James recover his seisin against 
Richard of the Tithes, etc., and that Richard have of the land of Jacob and 
Mary and Christopher to the value, etc. 

Hereupon Sir James prays for a writ of Our Lord the King to be directed 
to the sheriff of the county to cause full seisin of the Tithes, etc., and it is 
granted to him returnable here on the morrow of All Souls. All which 
premises at the request of Sir James we have commanded to be exemplified. 
In testimony we have caused our seal to be affixed to these presents. Wit., 
Alexander Lord Loughborough, at Westminster, 9th July, in the twenty- 
third year of our reign. Large seal. 

45. Lease and Release dat. 18 and 19 Dec, 24 Geo. III. 1783. Parties 

(1) Jacob Pinniger, (2) The Right Hon. Jacob Earl of Radnor. Grant of 
Tithes of L.P. to Earl of Radnor for £258 15s. Sig. and seal, Jacob 
Pinniger. Wits., Wm. Pinniger, Wm. Sumner. 

[Note.— The following memorandum is endorsed on the above Release. 
" I hereby give the Tithes purchased as within to go with the Estate." Sig. 
Radnor, April 3, 1793]. 

46. Bond dat. 20 Deer., 24 Geo. IIL, 1783. Parties (1) Jacob Pinniger, 

(2) The Right Hon. Jacob Earl of Radnor. Indemnity against any claims 
by issue male of John Brome against the Earl of Radnor. Sig. and seal, 
Jacob Pinniger. Wits., Wm. Pinniger, Wm. Dummer. 



41 



LITTLE PAEK ESTATE, WOOTTON BASSETT. 

[Chiefly from notes by the late W. F. Parsons, of Hunts Mill, Wootton 

Bassett.] 

About a mile south of Fasterne (or Great Fasterne) is the old Farm resi- 
dence (formerly a mansion) known as Little Park (or Little Fasterne Park). 
It is brick built, with freestone quoins and gable ends, the garden front 
being constructed of stone. The entrance porch projects and contains a 
parvise or small chamber. 

Many of the rooms were formerly cased with oak panelling and in the 
upper chambers some of the panelling still remains. There was formerly 
in one of the upper rooms an extremely interesting chimney piece, richly 
gilded and coloured. The supporters on each side were two figures, male 
and female, nearly of life size, nude to rather below the waist and painted 
in natural colours. The arms thereon were those of the Moore family, who 
owned the property in the later part of the seventeenth century and in the 
earlier part of the eighteenth, and also of the Dancastle family. Both these 
families belonged to Berkshire and were Roman Catholics. Francis Moore, 
the son of William Moore, married a daughter of John Dancastle, The 
crest of Moore (on the dexter side) was a moor hen, while that of Dancastle 
(on the sinister side) was a wounded stag with gilt horns. This chimney 
piece was removed during the nineteenth century by the then owner, the 
Earl of Radnor, to Longford Castle, near Salisbury, where it still remains. 

The present Little Park Farm now consists of about 380 acres, but the 
park was not originally so large, as lands were added to it when the com- 
mon fields of the parish were enclosed, as the quota or share belonging to 
it. These were most likely the Upper Cowleaze which is on the outside of 
the wide double mound- 
There were formerly at Little Park, near the house, two large fish ponds, 
but the site of these has since been covered with wood and now forms a 
rookery. 

The district appears to have formerly been a favourite haunt of the Bit- 
tern (now extinct in Wilts) and one of the fields, containing a large pond, 
has been known for centuries as the Bittern Pond Field, and another field 
as " The Pleck." 

In the reign of James 11. the replies to the questions addressed to the 
Deputy Lieutenants and Magistrates of Wilts with reference to the repeal 
of the Test and penal statutes, contained the statement that in the Borough 
of Wootton Bassett " My Lord Rochester and Mr. Moore, Catholique, had 
the chief interest." The first reference is to Lawrence Hyde, Earl of 
Rochester, who settled at Fasterne about 1682. He had represented 
Wootton Bassett in Parliament from 1679 to 1681. The second reference 
is to Francis Moore. 

From an assessment made in May, 1697 for levying rates and duties for 
births, burials, etc., there were then residing at Little Park the following 
persons : — Francis More, Mary More (his wife), Elizabeth More (his 



42 Little Park Estate^ Wootton Bassett. 

daughter), Vallentine Castillion (bachelor), Samuel Teagle (bachelor), 
Hugh Brinsden, Jane Bowshire, and Ann Brinsden (servants). 

As regards the assessment for Land Tax it may be of interest to note 
that the amount charged in 1695 was £b3 6s., showing an annual value of 
£266 10s. In 1758 the amount of Land Tax (which was at the same rate 
as in 1695, viz., 4s. in the £) amounted to £42 10s., the annual rent being 
then £220, with a reservation of timber and an allowance of 1,000 faggots. 

In 1695 Francis Moore had other property in Wootton Bassett of the 
annual value of ^198. 

Owing to a variety of causes, especially the difficulty of construing 
the Will of William Moore and also by reason of the after effects of a great 
flood which arose in 1690 and affected other property of the Moore family 
situate in Essex, a special Act of Parliament was obtained in 1711 vesting 
the Little Park Estate in the hands of trustees for sale. The sale took 
place in 1714 when the property was purchased by Ralph Broome, of 
Lyneham, Wilts, who (by his will, in 1716) endowed the Free School at 
Lyneham with the sum of ^£450 to be laid out in lands and the income 
applied for the payment of a schoolmaster as in the will is particularly 
mentioned. Testator directed that after the decease of bis trustees the 
trust should be in the possessors of both parts of Little Park. 

The Broome family resided at Little Park until about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, and the property was sold by descendants and devisees 
of Ralph Broome and their mortgagees in 1758 to Sir Mark Stewart Pleydell. 

The Pinniger family appear to have succeeded the Broomes as tenants 
of Little Park and were resident there for many years. 

Shortly after the sale of the property in 1758 a prolonged dispute arose 
between Jacob Pinniger, the tenant of Little Park, and the Rev. Timothy 
Meredith, Vicar of Wootton Bassett, concerning the Vicarial Tithes and in 
1780 some litigation took place. The Bill of Complaint and the answer 
thereto set out fully the details of the dispute, which lasted for several 
years. 



43 



THE KED DOWN BORmG, HIGHWORTH, AND ITS 

GEOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE, WITH NOTES ON 

NEIGHBOURING WELLS. 

By W. J. Aekell, BA., B.Sc, F.G.S. 

L 

The recent publication by H.M. Geological Survey of the long-awaited 
Memoir on the Water Supply of Wiltshire,^ delayed by the death of its 
senior author, brings the county abreast of its neighbours in respect of 
possessing that valuable commodity, an official record of all wells and bor- 
ings whose histories are known. It is to be hoped that the publication of 
this memoir will act as a stimulus to civil engineers and others, whose 
privileged occupation it is to sink wells, to keep careful records of the strata 
penetrated and to communicate them to the authorities at the Geological 
Survey, Jermyn Street. By the failure to do this in the past much valuable 
information has been lost, both scientific and practical, which there is small 
chance of ever recovering. 

It is now twenty-three years since the sinking of the deep boring on Red 
Down, Highworth. Happily not only was a record of this boring kept, but 
also a series of samples of the various strata penetrated. These may now 
be examined in the Swindon Museum, where they were deposited by the 
generosity of Mr. F. Redman, the engineer in charge of the works. 

Red Down is the highest eminence in the neighbourhood of Highworth, 
rising to 443 feet. At the time of the sinking of the boring, which was be- 
gun in 1904, at the highest point of the hill, the whole of the down was 
considered to consist of Lower Calcareous Grit and was so mapped on the 
Geological Survey Map (Sheet 34). The Lower Calcareous Grit, being a 
porous deposit of clean sand resting upon the impervious Oxford Clay, is the 
common source of water in the otherwise argillaceous tract known as the 
"Yale" of North Wiltshire and Berkshire. This may have influenced the 
choice of a site, but it is understood that a dowser was also resorted to. 

Since 1904 our knowledge of the stratigraphy of the Middle and Upper 
Jurassic rocks has been considerably increased, and such records con- 
sequently have more meaning than they used to have. In 1924 — 5 the 
writer mapped geologically the neighbourhood of Highworth on the scale 
of 25" to the mile and a wider area on the 6" scale. A consideration of the 
known well records, carried out pari-passu with the mapping, proved in- 
valuable in elucidating the structure of the district and conversely the 

1 Whitaker, W., and Edmunds, F. H., "The Water Supply of Wiltshire 
from Underground Sources," Mem. Geol. Surv., 1925. H.M. Stationery 
Office, 4/6. 



44 The Bed Down Boring, Highworth, 

mapping threw much light on the interpretation of the records. It was 
while thus engaged that it was realised that the Red Down boring was no 
mere sinking, like the rest, into the Lower Calcareous Grit, but the most 
complete section of the whole Corallian formation in the Midland counties 
ever made, passing from Kimeridge Clay into Oxford Clay. 



II.— The Recoeds and their Interpretation. 

(See " The Water Supply of Wilts, p. 64.) 

Two versions, first according to the Wilts County Council, second accord- 
ing to the Rural District Council. 

Version 1. Depth. Version 2. 

ft. ins. ft. ins. ft. 

16— Loam ... ... ... 3 

15 — Clay, with thin ironstone over 

2ft. down ... ... 23 26 Clay ... 22 

14 — Stone, with three bands of clay 

one at base 
13— Stone 
12— Sandstone 
11— Sand ... 
10— Hard stone 

9— Sand ... 

8 — Bands of clay and stone 

7 — Stone ... 

6— Sand ... 

5— Stone ... 

4— Sand ... 

3— Stone ... 

2— Sand ... 

1— Oxford Clay 

The well only reaches a depth of 105ft., but a boring, from which samples 
were kept, was continued to 125ft. I have added this to the published 
record. 

Owing to the obvious shortcomings aud more sketchy character of Ver- 
sion 2, it is useful only for occasional substantiation of Version 1. 

If the entire hill consists, as shown on the survey map, of Lower Cal- 
careous Grit, an improbable thickening is involved, for in four other wells 
at Highworth, all within 1| miles of Red Down, the thicknesses of the 
Lower Calcareous Grit were proved to be 30ft., 26ft., 22ft., and about 22ft. 
respectively. 

Even if Beds 2 to 16 consist of Corallian Beds in accordance with the 
grouping adopted in " The Water Supply of Wilts," the thickness of 104ft. 
7in. is in excess of anything observed in the district ; moreover, in no 
known instance do the Corallian beds, as ordinarily developed, consist in 
their upper part of 23ft. of Clay. This clay is an unusual feature which, 



,. 8 2 


34 


2 






. ?15 10 


50 





Coral Rag ... 


27 


,. 1 


51 





Portland Oolite 


2 


..3 


54 









.. 1 10 


55 


10 


Sand 


5 


..4 9 


60 


7 






.. 18 


78 


7 


Clay 


25 


..8 


86 


7 


Portland Oolite 


8 


..2 9 


89 


4 






.. 1 


90 


4 


Sand 


7 


..4 3 


94 


7 






..2 


96 


7 


Portland Oolite 


2 


..8 


104 


7 


Sand 


7 


.. 20 5 


125 










By W. J. Arkell, F.G.S. 



45 



if it ever existed over the surrounding Corallian plateau, has been swept 
away. 

An examination of the ground alone reveals the true state of things. 
The outlier of red clay forming the summit of the down has been spread by 
surface wash down the northern and eastern sides, giving the false im- 
pression that the subsoil is the same from summit to base and thus account- 
ing for the faulty mapping of the surveyor. On the southern and western 
sides the sequence is not so obscured. The red clay is seen clearly to rest 
upon the Coral Rag and the whole sequence of the Highworth rocks can be 
followed down step by step in the arable fields and small quarries. 

Careful mapping of l»ed Down shows, in fact, that the outlier of red clay 
forming the summit is either Kimeridge Clay, possibly containing a repre- 
sentative of the Abbotsbury Iron Ore in the band of ironstone, or else it is a 
representative of the Sandsfoot Grit and Clay of Shrivenham, the ironstone 
band being on the level of the Westbury Iron Ore. The latter is the more 
probable supposition. The Red Down Boring is in either case a very val- 
uable key to the relations of the various Corallian strata and their thick- 
nesses, at a point where they are in an unusually complete state of preser- 
vation. 

Interpketation, Record. 

No. of Bed. Thickness. 



Soil 1ft. 
Kimeridge Clay and Upper Calcareous] 

Wheatley Limestones 
Coral Rag 

Pusey Flags 

Highworth Grit with band 
of doggers 



ft. in. 



ft, in. 



Grit 
Osmington / 
Oolites 24ft. \ 



25ft. 



Berkshire 
Oolites 
34ft. 



16 


3 




15 


23 




14 
13 


8 2 
15 10 




12 


1 — 
5 — 


2 
9 7 



Note. — The discrepancy between the two versions at this 
point is accounted for by the gradual passage from 
Highworth Grit to Highworth ('lay, which makes 
the point of division a matter of opinion. 



Highworth Clay 

Urchin Marls 

Trigonia perlata Limestones 

Indurated top bed 2ft, 



|{ 



18 
8 



25 



Lower Cal- 
careous Grit •( 
20ft. 



Sands and bands of sandstone 



16 — 18 



20 5 



Oxford Clay, 20ft. 5in. 

Note. — Brief descriptions of the samples from the boring are given on the 
accompanying figure. 



46 



The Bed Down Boring, Highworth. 



III. 



-Inteepeetations of other Highworth Wells, with some New 

Records. 

Wells at Marshall's Dairies, Sheep St. 

A little east of the Church, 1919. 421 a.o.d. 

(See " The Water Supply of Wilts," p. 65.) 



Boring No. 1. 



8 -Soil 

7— Clay 

6— Rock 

5 — Rock and shelly clay 

4— Sandstone 

3— Loamy sand ... 

2— Sand and veins of clay 

1 — Blue Oxford clay 



Boring No. 2. 






Made ground 
Yellow clay 

Hock 

Rock and clay 

16 

46 Blue Oxford clay 

Detailed mapping of Highworth shows that the borings started near the 
junction between Highworth Grit and Highworth Clay. 

The only possible interpretation of the borings is therefore as follows : — 



8i 

26 
5 



Interpretation. 

ft. 
Highworth Clay ... 7 

Trigonia perlata Limestones 

and Urchin Marls 14 — 15 

Lower Calcareous Grit 26—30 



Oxford Clay 



46 



Record. 

ft. 
7 — Yellow clay and clay ... 7 

6, 5 — Rock and shelly clay 14 — 15 
4, 3, 2 — Sandstone, sand, and 

sand with veins of clay 26 — 30 
1— Blue clay ... ... 46 



Well near Upper Farm, Highworth. 

Registered as Eastrop Grange, Auxiliary Supply. 1923 — 4. 

Kindly communicated by Mr. F. Redman, Engineer, Swindon. 

Surface of ground 386ft. 
Top water level about 26ft. down, normal water level 22ft. down. 



Interpretation. 

Base of Trigonia perlata 

Limestones ... 
Indurated top of L.C.G., seen 

at Hangman's Elm 



Lower Calcareous Grit 



ft. 




22 



Record. 

— Soil and brash 
— Stone 

5 — Yellow sand 

4 — Sandy clay with stones,and 
two clay bands 2"— 3" 
thick in the top 2^' 

3— Marl 

2— White sand and soft Band- 
it stone 

1 — Blue clay 



2 

6 

4i 



2 

22 



Oxford Clay 

Note. — This well record is now published in " The Water Supply of 
Wilts," p. 64, as " Eastrop Grange, Auxiliary Supply." There is a dis- 
crepancy of 5ft. in bed 4 between the version given above and the published 



By W. J. Arkell, F.G.S. 47 

version. I keep to the figures on the original plan given me by the engineer, 
Mr. Redman. An inspection of the thickness of the Lower Calcareous Grit 
in the escarpment face adjoining the well shows that this version is more 
probably the correct one — the Lower Calcareous Grit cannot be less than 
20ft. thick at this point, whereas the published version gives it a thickness 
only of 17ft. 

Well at Fennel's Farm, J-mile S. of Highworth. 

Information from Mr. Robey, the digger. Dug Sept. 1921. 

The supply (an adequate one) is from Highworth Grit. 

Combined information 
Interpretation. from Record and tip heap. 

3— Soil ... ... 1^ 

Pusey Flags, and possibly the base 2— Rubble .. ... 3 

of the Coral rag ... 
Highworth Grit and Clay ... 1— Sand, becoming clayey 

towards base ... 8| 

Well at Sheppard's Allotment, north op Botany Farm, |-mile 

S. OF Highworth. 

Information from Mr. Sheppard. Tip heaps inspected. Dug 1923 — 1924. 

Good supply from Lower Calc. Grit. 

Combined information 

Interpretation. from Record and tip heap. 

ft. 
Trigonia perlata Limestones 3— Soil and brashy stone, the 

latter with Theocosmiliae, 

containing harder bands 6 

Indurated top of Lower Calcar- 2 — Hard sandstone, which 

eous Grit ... ... had to be blasted .., 3 

Lower Calcareous Grit ... 1 — Sand ... ... 20 



IV.— Note on Water Supply. 

The greater part of the water from the Corallian in N. Wiltshire, Berk- 
shire, and Oxfordshire, is obtained, as has been said, from the base of the 
Lower Calcareous Grit, where it is held up by the Oxford Clay. Only 
occasionally in special circumstances has this source proved barren. Down 
the dip-slope, beneath the Kimeridge Clay, the Lower Calcareous Grit is 
sometimes saturated to the top, when it is liable to burst up after the 
overlying limestones are penetrated, choking the well. An instance of 
this was the well mentioned by Phillips at Even Swindon ; ^ another instance 
occurred more recently at Bourton.^ 

In the Highworth district there are many shallow wells which do not 

^ Geology of Oxford, p. 289. 
* Water Supply of Berks, Mem, Geol. Survey^ p. 27. 



48 The Red Down Boring, Highworth. 

penetrate to the Lower Calcareous Grit, but obtain an adequate supply 
from the Highworth Grit. Before the installation in 1904 of the town 
water supply, which is now brought from the deep boring on Red Down, 
most of the houses in Highworth obtained their water independently from 
shallow wells in the Highworth Grit. The supply from these was generally 
excellent, and in some houses the water level always stood flush with the 
floors of the cellars, a mild artesian effect due to the synclinal folding of the 
beds under the town. 

At Red Down, although the deep boring passed through the same strata as 
build Highworth Hill, no water was met with until the more than adequate 
supply in the Lower Calcareous Grit was struck. The explanation of this 
is probably to be found in the steep slope of the northern face of the down, 
which renders the outcrop of the Highworth Grit inclined and narrow and 
therefore unsuitable as a collecting ground ; and also in the outlier of clay 
on the summit, which spreads down the northern slope as a deep red clay 
soil, covering the outcrops of the underlying beds and preventing water 
from soaking in. 

As published in their crude form records lose much of their value from 
the point of view of anyone desirous of sinking a well, unless it be close to 
an existing recorded well. When interpreted, however, they become 
valuable guides to the depth at which water may be expected, and to the 
nature of the soil to be penetrated, at any point which the geological map 
shows to be on the surface outcrop of any of the subdivisions penetrated in 
the previous wells. 

Thus an excellent supply is obtained from the shallow well recently dug 
at Fennel's Farm, Highworth. With an intelligent use of this record and 
the geological map a similar supply may be expected at a depth of about 
12ft. anywhere on the outcrop of the Highworth Grit. If a well were 
started in the outcrop of the Highworth Clay, however, perhaps only in the 
adjoining field, it would need to be dug to a depth of at least 34ft. before 
reaching water. 

It is apparent that the keeping of records by well-sinkers for interpreta- 
tion by geologists is of no mere academic interest and brings its practical 
reward in return for the valuable information which accrues to science. 



Bed Record. 

No, 

16. Loam 3' 



EED DOWN BORING, HIGHWOllTH. 

Samples. 



Interpretation. 




Upper Calcareous Grit. 



y OsMiNGTON Oolite Seriks. 



Berkshire Oolite Series. 



Lower Calcareous Grit. 



Oxford Clay. 



49 



A KOMAN VILLA AT NUTHILLS, NEAR BOWOOD.i 
By The Marquess of Lansdowne. 

In March, 1927, T wrote at the request of the editor of the Wiltshire 
Gazette, a short account for that paper of the Roman remains which had 
been discovered at N uthills, near Bowood Park.' The excavations are now 
filled in and nothing is to be seen above ground. It seems desirable there- 
fore that the whole story should be put on record in the pages of the 
W.A.M., and that one or two inaccuracies in my former account should at 
the same time be corrected. 

The site may be located by the small sketch map which (with a ground 
plan of the remains) accompanies this article. It lies near the corner of an 
arable field at the back of N uthills Farm, Sandy Lane, between the woods 
marked on the six-inch ordnance map as " Home Wood" and " Diamond 
Clump " respectively. It is about two hundred yards from the boundary 
of Bowood Park and half-a-mile N.E. of Wans, where stood the Roman 
station of Verlucio. The site, as in the case of all Roman villas, was well 
selected. It is on the top of a gentle rise which faces south and west, there 
are several springs close by, and it commands a delightful prospect over 
the Heddington Vale of Roundway and the Downs. 




oi» ScaIc ^incU£S f» t mite 

Map showing site of Roman Villa at N uthills (indicated by arrow). 



The discovery of the " Villa " was due to Mr. Ernest Butler, the tenant of 
Nuthills Farm. Small pieces of pottery had from time to time been turned 

^ The Society is indebted to Lord Lansdowne for the cost of the blocks 
illustrating his paper. 

2 Wiltshire Gazette, March 10th, 1927. In the issue of March 17th, 1927, 
Mr. S. E. Winbolt compares the Nuthills basin with larger basins in the 
floor at Bignor and Keynsham, both probably the basins of fountains. 
VOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLVII. E 



60 A Roman Villa at Nuthills, near Bowood. 

up by the plough, but in view of the known propinquity of a large Roman 
station they were not in themselves suflBcient to attract any special attention. 
There was, however, at one point, just below the surface of the ground, a 
large stone which had constantly impeded Mr. Butler's ploughing operations, 
and he determined to remove it. In the autumn of 1 924 this was done, and it 
was found that the offending object was no natural boulder, as had been 
imagined, but a rectangular block of good stone, roughly hewn, some three 
feet square and ten inches deep. The bed from which it was extracted dis- 
closed immediately under the stone a quantity of rubble which had obviously 
once formed part of a building, and a little further spade work revealed a 
portion of a wall. Captain Cunnington was invited to come over and in- 
spect the spot and at once decided that the remains belonged to the period 
of the Roman occupation. The wall was followed up in both directions, 
its angles were soon reached and before long the outline of a room (marked 
A on the ground plan, Plate II.), seventeen feet square was exposed to view. 

During the ensuing summer (1925) this room was systematically ex- 
cavated. Some five feet of its walls were found to be standing, the floor 
being about eight feet below the present surface level. The floor consisted 
of irregular slabs of grey pennant stone and was apparently intact. Sunk 
in its centre was an octagonal stone basin (B), in appearance much resemb- 
ling a font, with a surface gutter of the same material running from it 
across the room to an outlet in the outer wall, all evidently in situ. The walls 
were observed to continue on the western side of this room and other traces 
of building were discovered to the south of it ; but no more work could be 
done at the time and further exploration was left over till the next year. 

In 1926 these indications were followed up, but the results were dis- 
appointing. Though the line of the building was traced for some distance, 
it became increasingly indefinite and eventually disappeared altogether. 
The ground outside the four walls of the room was not completely removed 
down to the old ground level, but several trial holes failed to " touch bot- 
tom," nor was anything which looked like a solid floor discovered outside 
the limits of the room which had been first exposed. In other parts of the 
same field close by there were signs of debris on or near the surface ; these 
spots also were tested by digging but nothing solid emerged, though plenty 
of rubble was found. There seemed therefore no further object to work 
for, and at the commencement of the present year the excavations were all 
filled in, most of the stones being utilized by Mr. Butler and the objects 
of interest taken to Bowood House. The ground was then restored to its 
legitimate purpose of agriculture, from which it had been withheld for more 
than two years. 

I may here mention that both the rubble and the walls v^ere marked by 
the presence of large quantities of the common " bind-weed " or wild con- 
volvulus. Mr. Butler tells me that the outcrop of this weed has seriously 
interfered with the practice of husbandry on this portion of his land, and 
that it grows in profusion not only at the spot where the excavations were 
made, but also on several patches near by. If (as seems probable) its 
appearance on the surface may be taken as indicating structural remains of 



By the Marq^uess of Lansdowne, 51 

some kind underneath the ground, this shows that the site originally ex- 
tended far beyond the small area which has been explored, a supposition 
which (as I shall show) may be supported by other considerations. 

It will be convenient to deal with the remains found on the site under 
five distinctive heads :— (1) Structural, (2) Pottery, (3) Bones, (4) Coins, 
(5) Miscellaneous. 

Structueal Remains. 

The walls, or so much of them as remained, were built of roughly shaped 
blocks of local stone of various kinds. It is curious that there was very 
little of the dark iron-stone which is to be found on the spot and has pro- 
vided the material for most of the modern cottages in Sandy Lane village 
close by. The possibility suggests itself that the iron stone may have been 
removed for smelting purposes to the " bloomerie " only a few fields away, 
where a prehistoric slag heap still forms a prominent feature in the landscape. 

There were a number of loose blocks of calcareous tufa^ a porous stone 
somewhat resembling gruyere cheese in appearance. I am informed by Dr. 
McClintock, of the Jermyn Street Museum, that this material was frequently 
^sed by the Romans for vaulting purposes on account of its lightness. The 
same or a similar type of tufa seems to have been present in considerable 
quantities in the Roman house lately discovered at Keynsham, Somerset, 
near Bristol (vide Archxologia, vol. Ixxv., 118 & 125). 

The floor of the room exposed (A) was paved with thin slabs of a grey 
pennant stone, while the roofing tiles, the fragments of which would have 
filled a good-sized farm cart, were of the blue or pink variety associated 
with the Forest of Dean. Few of these tiles were unbroken, but a complete 
specimen shows them to have been of elongated hexagonal form, pointed at 
top and bottom, and measuring some 17 inches by 12 inches broad (Plate III., 
fig. 1). 

Of cut stone there remained only three or four blocks, one of which was 
the fellow to that mentioned above which led to the discovery of the site, 
the others being of somewhat smaller dimensions. None appeared to be in 
situ. A small piece of stone cornice (12 inches long and 4 inches deep) was 
found. It is nicely carved in the form somewhat resembling the Norman 
*' zig-zag" pattern (fig. 2) and may have belonged to an altar. It shows at 
all events that some parts of the building must have been carefully decorated, 
though this is the only fragment of such work that remains. It is note- 
worthy that a small piece of red plaster still adheres at one spot to this 
stonework, whence it must be inferred that the whole of it was originally 
covered in a similar manner, and that the fragment in question formed part 
of the interior and not of the exterior work in the Villa. 

The small Roman brick was apparently used in the building, though here 
again it is curious that only a single specimen came to light ; it measures 
5Jin. X Sin. X lin. 

Of ordinary round drain pipes, rather heavier than, but in other ways 
similar to, the land drains of to-day, there were numerous fragments ; as also 
of the more interesting box-flue tiles used for heating purposes in connection 
with a hypocaust. These are rudely decorated with '" reed and tie " festoons 

E 2 



52 A Boman Villa at Nuthills, near Bowood. 

on their outside, and many of them display signs of the heat to which they 
had been subjected. None, however, were found in sitUf nor was there any 
trace of a stoke-hole or of the pilae^ on which the floor of a room heated in 
this manner was usually supported. 

Much the most interesting find, however, was the stone basin or " font " 
(Plates I. and III., figs. 3 and 4) discovered, as already explained, in the 
centre of the excavated room. It is cut out of a single block, the over all 
measurements of which are I Tin. X 22in. Only some three inches were 
exposed above the floor level, the remainder being sunk into the ground as 
shown in the photograph. Its outer lines are octagonal, the rim or wall 
being of an even thickness of two inches, and the basin within it some five 
inches deep. In the centre of this basin there is a circular hole or socket 
twelve inches across and three inches deep. 

That the font was intended to hold water is suflSciently clear from its 
shape, as well as from a semi-circular dent in its rim which was evidently 
intended to allow for the overflow. This dent was immediately above the 
stone gutter, which was inserted a few inches into the stonework at this 
point so as to obviate risk of the water leaking on to the floor. There is, 
however, no hole through the basin by which a supply pipe could have been 
introduced. The idea that it was a drinking fountain seemed therefore to 
be ruled out ; for assuming that it was filled up from time to time by hand, 
its contents would have quickly become stagnant, while the construction of 
the basin was not such as to permit of it being readily or thoroughly cleaned 
out. 

If it was unsuitable for drinking purposes it was equally so for those of 
ablution, both on account of the smallness of its size and of its position — 
practically on the floor level of the room in which it stood. In default of 
any better hypothesis I was driven to suggest in my previous article that 
it might have been intended for the rinsing of the muddy feet of the Koman 
cowherds ! 

Subsequently, however, a new line of thought seemed to be indicated. 
The trained eye of Captain Cunnington had detected that whereas the sur- 
face of the font was generally speaking rough, the sides of the circular hole 
in its centre were worn very smooth, as if by the revolution of another stone 
within this hole. Thus it seemed that the basin might have been used as 
the " bed " for a stone quern for the crushing of grain, — and very possibly at 
some period of its existence it may have been so employed. On such an 
hypothesis, however, it seemed impossible to reconcile milling operations 
with the presence in the basin of water in such quantities as to involve a 
constant overflow. 

The problem of the font thus remained unsolved when I consulted Mr. 
Reginald Smith, of the British Museum, with regard to it. Curiously 
enough Mr. Smith had what seems to be the clue in his pocket at that very 
moment. It was contained in an extract from The Times of May 12th, 
1927, in which there was a short account of the doings of the archaeological 
expedition then engaged in excavation work at Stamboul. In the Byzan- 
tine Hippodrome at that place a fountain of an unusual type had just been 



By the Marquess of Zansdowne, 53 

brought to light. It was in the form of a column or obelisk, the centre of 
which had been bored through so as to admit of the passage of a lead pipe. 
The column was planted in a solid stone base and the water, which issued 
from its summit, was collected in a basin below in which it was thus con- 
stantly renewed. It may well be therefore that the Nuthills " font " is the 
base of a fountain of a similar type — though of more humble proportions ; 
the round hole in its centre being the socket of its original centre piece, 
into which the water was introduced by means of a pipe (Plate III., fig. 5). 
The disappearance of the pipe (which would have been above ground, as 
shown in the sketch) and of the column or centre piece would be easily 
accounted for, for these would have fallen ready victims to the despoiler. 
The removal of the base, which as we have seen was firmly imbedded in 
the floor and must weigh nearly half-a-ton, would however have presented 
a more diflScult proposition and thus secured its preservation. 

There is little doubt that the walls of the room (A) were plastered over 
throughout. Most of this plaster, sodden and disintegrated by the percola- 
tion of more than fifteen hundred years, fell away in small pieces at the 
moment of excavation, but its fragments were continually appearing amongst 
the debris. In the N.W. angle of the room a few square feet, for some 
reason less afifected than the rest, survived in position for a few weeks after 
€xposure. I have roughly reproduced the designs thereon from some 
<irawings done by Major Stevenson at the time, which he was good enough 
to lend to me for the purpose (Figs. 6 and 7). The rest of the decoration 
appears to have been similar in type, the designs being generally of a 
*' geometrical " character — in black, red, green, and blue. They seem to 
have run right round the room, above a solid red " dado" of which traces 
were found on the lower portions of the walls. In the process of washing 
off the earth from these fragments the colours also quickly disappeared, it 
is difficult therefore to pronounce definitely upon them. Round the room at 
the junction of floor and wall was a quarter-round convex-plaster moulding. 

Pottery. 

I am indebted to Mrs. Gunnington for an examination of the pottery, 
and the following remarks are all based on information supplied by her. 
The fragments were numbered in hundreds but though many of them, 
severed no doubt for 1500 years, have been connected once more together, 
I have so far been unable to reconstitute any one vessel among the many 
which are represented. They are all of the type known as " Romano- 
British," red, black, and grey. With the exception of some pieces of " bead 
rim bowls," which may be attributable to the first, there is nothing among 
them earlier than the[ third century A.D. There are several of plain 
red Samian ware but one only of the ornamental kind. This shows two 
human figures, one of them apparently a captive with hands tied behind 
his or her back, a conventionalised type which frequently occurs and has 
been illustrated and described by Dechelette (Les Vases Ceramiques ornes 
de la Gaule Romaine 11., 107, fig. 642 bis J. 

The " pseudo-Samian " ware which was made in the New Forest is well 
ffepresented— one piece has a very clear stamp or " maker's mark " on its 



54 A Roman Villa at Nuthills, near Bowood. 

base. There are also a few pieces of stamped " Rosette " ware from the 
same place of origin, some " Castor " ware made near Northampton, an in- 
teresting fragment of a perforated colender, and several pieces of " Mor- 
taria," the inner surfaces of which are lined with particles of some hard and 
shining grit, which gives them a curious speckled appearance. They were 
used as mortars for pounding or grinding various substances. 

The grey and black pottery is of coarser type, and consists of fragments 
of pots and bowls of all shapes and sizes. Several are of the so-called 
" Upchurch " ware, recognisable by the criss-cross pattern with which the 
lower part of their exterior was adorned — many bear on their outside obvious 
traces of fire, while inside they are frequently covered with a thick incrust- 
ation from the chalky water which was heated in them. One single small 
black jar, Sj inches in height, of a rather coarser and heavier type than the 
rest, was found complete. It emerged, some time after the excavation had 
been finished, from the debris of one of the walls which had fallen in after 
some heavy rain. It must have been immured in the building, though with 
what object it is hard to say. 

Bones. 
Animal bones were found at every stage of the work, not in any one 
place or level, but scattered through the ground, a few being quite close to 
the surface. This stratification and the fact that there were so many within 
the walls would seem to indicate that they were no longer where they had 
been originally thrown ; for surely the British squatter in the ruins of a 
Roman house would have thrown his old bones outside the walls of his 
temporary residence rather than inside. I shall have occasion to recur to 
this point below. Similarly distributed also were numbers of oyster shells 
and some snail shells ; the latter have been identified by the Editor as the 
common or garden variety (Helix aspersa) and not the edible kind (Helix 
pomatia). The common snail is, however, often eaten to-day and was, no 
doubt as much appreciated by our British forefathers as it is by their de- 
scendants. 

Mr. J, Wilfred Jackson, of the Manchester Museum, was good enough to 
examine some samples of the bones found. I append the report which he 
has sent me. 

" The animals represented among the bones submitted to me for re- 
port are : — horse, ox (two kinds), sheep, and pig. 

Horse. — This is represented by three limb bones and several loose 
teeth. There is a scapula (or shoulder blade), a metatarsal (or cannon 
bone), and a fragment of a femur (or thigh bone). The metatarsal is 
longer than any I have examined from the pre-Koman stations of All 
Cannings Cross, Fifield Bavant, SwallowcliflFe Down, and Glastonbury, 
but is quite as slender. It measures 280m.m. in length and is 28m. m. 
in diameter at the middle of the shaft. The animal to which it belonged 
was slender-limbed and perhaps 12 or 14 hands high. The scapula 
suggests a similar animal. Little can be said with regard to the teeth 
except that there is one canine indicating the presence of a male animal^ 
and that the upper molars all possess narrow pillars. 



By the Marquess of Lansdowne. ' ^ 55 

The remains of slender-limbed horses, but in most cases rather smaller 
than the above, have been recorded from excavations in and around 
Roman forts, etc., and from many prehistoric stations. 

Ox. — The greater proportion of the bones and teeth are referable to 
oxen, but two types appear to be represented. Most of them are 
comparable with remains from All Cannings Cross, etc., and are of 
the small Celtic ox type (Bos longifrons) : a typical horn -core of this 
animal is present. There is, however, a long horn-core and the 
proximal end of a large humerus (upper foreleg bone), both of which 
suggest a larger and different type of ox. Bos longifrons was a very 
small animal, probably not larger than the Kerry breed. It is generally 
believed that this was the only ox in Britain when the Romans came> 
and that these people introduced larger animals which they crossed 
with the native breed. The above horn-core and humerus may have 
belonged to an animal crossed in this manner. The absence of the 
skull renders it very difficult to judge. 

Sheep. There are a few bones and teeth belonging to this animal. 
Among them are two metatarsals which are long and thin-shanked as 
in those found at All Cannings Cross and other places. The most in- 
teresting specimen is a large horn-core which agrees with similar re- 
mains from the above-mentioned station and from Glastonbury, and 
indicates the presence of a large-horned race of domestic sheep. Re- 
mains of this race, known as Studer's Sheep {Ovis aries studeri), have 
been obtained in the Swiss Lake Dwellings, Neolithic and later de- 
posits, Roman camps, and Romano- British villages in Great Britain. 
The type is best represented at the present day by the almost deer-like 
sheep living on the small island of Soay, near St. Kilda. 

Pig. — Two fragmentary canines and a few lower molar teeth belong 
to the domestic pig. As far as the few remains go they resemble those 
from All Cannings Cross and other pre-Roman stations, and from 
Roma,n camps, etc. 

J. Wilfred Jackson, M.Sc, F.G.S., 
nth Nov., 1926. Senior Asst. Keeper of Manchester Museum. 

Coins. 
The coins are thirteen in number, and as I gather from a list compiled 
by Mr. Arthur BuUeid of a similar, though larger, collection found at 
Keynshim {Archaeologia, 1924 — 1925, pp. 132—4), are all such as fall within 
the generic term of "third brass," their extreme dates being 264 — 353 A.D. 
I give tkeir details as supplied to me by the British Museum. 

Oaudius II., 268—270. (No. I)— Obv., Imp. C. Claudius Aug., head 
radiite— draped ; rev., Liberalitas Aug. L., L. standing 1. holding 
tessera and cornucopia. 

Gdlic Empire, 265—270. (Nos. 2 and 3)— Obv., Head radiate ; rev, 
figuR (?). 

CoQstantine the Great, 307—337. (No. 4)— Obv. Urbs Roma, Bust to 
L. ; lev. — Wolf with Romulus and Remus. 



56 A Roman Villa at Nuthills, near Bowood, 

Constantine II. (No. 5) — Obv., Constantius Jun. Nob. C., Head 
diademed, draped : rev., Gloria Exercitus, Two soldiers (minted at 
Piscia, c. 330—335). 

Constantius 11. (No. 6) — Obv., Bust to r. ; rev., Victoriae. D.D. 
AVGG. Q. NN., figures, struck 337—340. 

Constantius II., or Constans. (Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) — Obv., head ; rev. 
Fel. temp. Keparatio. c. 340—350. 

Magnentius. (Nos. 12, 13)— Obv., D. N. Magnentius P. F. Aug,, head 

bare, bust draped ; rev , Victoriae D.D. N.N. Aug. Et. Caes. Two 

victories holding shield on which is legend V. Mul. X., c. 350 — 353. 

In addition to the above there came to light a rather curious metal disc 

of uncertain date. It is circular in form, and a little over an inch in 

diameter. It has a hole through it, which appears to be for the purpose of 

suspending it to something, and it is stamped with the single letter " F " 

in a capital of the "Lombardic " type. In the circumstances one might 

perhaps hazard the guess that such labels were attached to domestic animals 

belonging to the forest in order to distinguish them from others which 

were allowed to graze within its confines. 

Miscellaneous Finds. 

The most interesting of these was part of a bronze Roman brooch, which 
Mrs. Cunnington tells me is similar to one recently found in the Roman 
fort at Newstead, near Melrose, and belongs probably to the second half of 
the second century A.D. The flat fluted bow with remains of the coiled 
spring to which the pin was attached are present, though the pin itself is 
missing. It is not unlike one of those found in the Stockton Earthworks 
and illustrated in the W.A.M. of December, 1926 (Plate II., Fig. C). I am 
informed by the same authority that this object can be dated from the fact 
that the spring is covered up, for in the earlier Roman brooches the springs 
are always "free." 

Other minor finds included some small fragments of Roman glass, both 
plain and ornamented and wonderfully delicate in texture ; the blads of a 
hunting knife, a small whetstone, a fragment of a quern, some stones with 
rounded ends which appeared to have been used as pestles, a door hinge, 
some iron clamps and hooks, besides a number of nails, some of which still 
remained im the roofing tiles which they had held in position. 

To sum up, the site though interesting enough at the moment of excava- 
tion was perhaps somewhat disappointing in results. Though no t^selated 
pavement was found, the evidence of a hypocaust, the wall paintiigs, the 
few fragments of cut stone and the " font," all show that the house was an 
important one, as indeed from its proximity to the large station of Verlucio 
might well be expected. It is clear, however, that it must while still ex- 
posed have been at some time or other mercilessly raided. 

In reading Mr. Bulleid's account of the excavations at Keynshan already 
referred to, I was struck by the fact that the floor level of that Vila seems 
to have been not more than four feet below the surface of the grcUnd. In 
the present instance the depth of soil was at least eight feet. J'hough I 




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at Nuthills. 



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I 



TE III. — Details of Basin or " Font," Wall Decorations, &c., in Roman Villa at Nuthills. 



By the Marquess of Zansdowne. 57 

suppose no universal rule can be laid down for the rate of accretion in such 
cases, the difference is such as to call for remark. It seems to point to the 
fact that the Nuthills site may have been purposely covered over at some 
period for the purposes of agriculture. The curious stratification of the 
bones and pottery, to which I have already referred, would lead to the same 
conclusion. It would be easily accounted for if some neighbouring " mid- 
dens " had been dumped in among the ruins in order to raise the level of 
the ground, but is difficult to explain on any other hypothesis. 

The position of the site may perhaps provide a theory both for its de- 
struction and for its having been covered up. It lay within the confines of 
the original Forest of Chippenham, which, as the " perambulations " of the 
time of Edward I. and III. show, was bounded at its south-eastern angle 
by the " Bridge of Fynamor " (Whetham), the " breach of Woden's Dyke " 
(Wans), and the road between that place and " Horsleperithe " (the George, 
Sandy Lane ; see King's Bowood Park, W.A.M., No. 134). Thus situated 
the ground should have been immune from pilferers of building material so 
long as the forest existed in its entirety. This corner of it, however, was 
" assarted " or let out for cultivation by the Crown in the early part of the 
xviith century, though " King's Bowood " remained for the time being in 
royal hands. At this period no doubt the road or lane now called Cuff's 
Corner Lane, but then known alternatively as Pontens, Ponteres, or Nus- 
trells Lease Lane, came into existence, between the assarted land and King's 
Bowood Park. This road after passing Guffs Corner crossed part of the 
present park, down into what is now the lake (but was then only the 
Whetham stream), across Manning's Hill Bridge and so through the Alders 
to Calne which it thus linked directly with Devizes. By its side were built 
a, number of cottages, for the use, no doubt, of labourers on the dis- 
afforested lands, as well as for those who were employed inside the remaining 
portion of the forest. There were a dozen or more of them at Cuffs Corner, 
according to a map of the year 1771 at Bowood, and a deed of the same 
date shows that they were purchased by William, Earl of Shelburne, 
from a Mr. George Carey, who appears to have been the owner of much 
of the land immediately adjoining Bowood Park. 

Though these cottages have all since disappeared, and Cuffs Corner Farm 
stands alone on the spot from which it takes its name, the former presence 
of a village on this spot induces certain reflections. Stone would have been 
required for its building, as well as road metal for the lane which provided 
its only communication with the outer world. A quarry was at hand, 
j almost as good and more easily worked than that which the Avebury 
Sarsens provided for the inhabitants of that district. It must surely have 
been used, and the disappearance of the greater part of our Roman Villa 
would thus be easily accounted for. It would have been only natural also 
that, after all had been taken away that was useful or necessary, the prudent 
husbandman should cover over what remained, in order that the land 
should bring fcrth its due increase. 

It is well known that the origins of Calne are shrouded in the mists of 
antiquity, but one Henry Cleverly, who died not long since at Cuffs 



58 A Roman Villa at Nuthills, near Bowoocl. 

Corner Farm, had his own ideas or traditions on this subject. This old 
man told Mr. Ernest Butler that he had been brought up to believe that 
the original site of the " Ancient Borough " lay buried on the slopes of 
Nuthills, It is possible that he was right ! It is clear from the remains 
which have been found that when the Romans left, Nuthills was occupied 
by the Britons, who, deprived of the protection and the custom which 
Verlucio had afforded, may well have decided in time to migrate to a more 
favourable site. None better could have been found than Col-awn (the 
" current of waters "), scarcely a mile away. The name is said to be of Celtic 
origin, but there is no evidence that it was in fact occupied by either Celts 
or Romans ; there are, however, remains of a British settlement at Sands 
close by. But we need not stop to examine the story too closely, for it was 
obviously based on nothing but hearsay. Its interest lies in the fact that 
in Henry Cleverly's youth the tradition that some structural remains lay 
buried at Nuthills must still have existed, though it seems probable that 
all outward signs of the settlement had disappeared a century or more 
before he was born. 

[My father, the late Lord Lansdowne, was a life-long member of the 
Wiltshire Archaeological Society, and had been its Patron for more than 60 
years. It is almost unnecessary for me to say that he took the keenest 
interest in the discovery and exploration of the Nuthills " Villa"— situated 
as it was on one of his own farms and scarcely a mile from the home in 
which he had spent the greater part of a long life. He had often expressed 
a wish that an account of the site should be written for the W.A.M., and, 
though he did not live to see it in print, the foregoing paper was almost 
complete when he died in June last]. 

Another Roman Villa near Bo wood. 

In an article on King's Bowood Park which I contributed to the W.A.M. 
some years ago {W.A M , xlii. 37) I mentioned the fact that nothing was 
then known of a Roman Villa which is referred to by Hoare in his Ancient 
Wiltshire (II., 124) as lying "between the Mansion and the Lake." Not 
very long after that article was written Mr. O. G. S. Crawford chanced to 
come on the information required and sent it to me. It is contained in 
Skinner's diary at the British Museum (Add. MSS. 33654, fol. lib & 12), 
under date October 15th, 1819, and deserves to be put on record in print. 
The passage runs as follows : — 

" Afterwards our guide [Mr. Richardson] accompanied us to a place in 
the park [Bowood] about 200 yards distant from the west front of the house, 
where he and two other labourers, when employed to level the ground about 
40 years ago [i.e., about 1779] came to a tesselated pavement and dug up six 
skeletons, ashes, charcoal and fragments of pottery, evidently indicative of 
a l^oman residence. This villa was situate on a gentle rise above the 
brook, which is now widened so as to form a part of the magnificent piece 
of water, which forms so conspicuous a feature in the pleasure grounds. 



By the Marquess of Lansdowne. 59 

On an eminence facing the spot, called Clarks Hill, similar indicia of 
Roman coins, &c., have been found." 

The above account is accompanied by a sketch " looking east " and show- 
ing the site of the pavement (which it is noted measured 20 feet by 15) and 
the skeletons. The original discovery was evidently made during the 
process of " laying out " the Park, which was done between 1765 and 1780 
under Lancelot (Capability) Brown's directions. Levelling formed an 
important feature in this scheme, and the Bowood accounts show that 
large sums were spent by William, Earl of Shelburne, on such work under 
" Capability's " advice. 

It is unfortunate that Mr. Skinner evidently failed to orient himself 
correctly before writing his account. Two hundred yards from the west 
front of the main part of Bowood House would place the remains in 
question at a spot which is nowhere near the " gentle rise above the brook " 
(or lake) as indicated both in the account and in the sketch, nor is that 
sketch one that could possibly have been made by anyone looking east from 
the house. There is the additional information that the site was " rear " 
(? near) the " grey and white terrace," which again does not help us, since 
the Bowood terraces are all of the same stone, which, though, no doubt, 
once white is now of a uniform grey colour. But by discarding all Mr. 
Skinner's written directions and following his sketch the approximate 
position can be guessed, though, on the supposition that the pavement is 
still there, it could scarcely be located with sufficient accuracy to justify 
any attempt at further investigation. 



60 



NATUEAL HISTORY NOTES. 
The Common Dotterel. On September loth, 1923, while 

shooting on the Manor Farm, Collingbourne Kingston, I walked right into 
a small " trip " of the Common Dotterel, now one of the most uncommon 
species in these islands. As is always the case, these birds were remarkably 
tame, so tame that they allowed me to approach within twenty yards with- 
out paying any attention to me or to the voice of the beater who loudly 
asked what they were. On the ploughed-up ground they looked something 
like Golden Plover, though of a slightly rounder build, and I could easily 
make out the white streak over the eye and down the neck. When they flew 
away they uttered a cry something like that of a Golden Plover, but in a 
lower and more plaintive note. It is needless to say that these wanderers 
were allowed to go on their way in peace. They were evidently a family 
party of five, migrating to Africa or Palestine from their breeding haunts 
in the lakes or in the north of Scotland. There is a tradition that this bird 
used to breed on Salisbury Plain, but the Plain is too far south of their 
breeding range for this to be probable. The Dotterel is the most beautiful 
of the Plovers and its gradual extinction in Great Britain, as Professor 
Newton says, is a fact much to be regretted. The female is larger and more 
brightly coloured than the male and like the Phalaropes and Godwits the 
ben leaves to the cock bird the larger share of incubation and of family 
cares. Years ago it used to be so common and regular a migrant that in 
parts of Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire May the 10th used to be known 
as Dotterel Day, just as for a similar reason on Hreydon Water May the 
12th was known as Godwit Day. It may be noted that the Dotterel is a 
bird of the fallows, the fell, and the mountain, and is not often seen near 
marshes or the sea coast. 

The cause of its great scarcity is not far to seek. It had the misfortune 
to be a good bird for the table so on its arrival in the spring it was merci- 
lessly butchered to make a dainty dish for an Alderman's feast. Like all rare 
birds it has suffered much from the depredations of egg collectors, and still 
more, especially in the Lake district, from the demand for its feathers for 
making artificial flies, though in modern times a Dotterel fly dressed from 
a starling's wing has proved an equally effective lure for a fastidious trout. 

The late Canon Tristram, in his " Fauna of Palestine," comments on the 
multitudes of this species that he saw in the Holy Land, and a friend of 
mine who made careful notes of all the birds he saw on the march from the 
Canal to Jerusalem during the war found it almost as numerous at places 
fifty years afterwards. 

I have also come across Stone Curlews on the Manor Farm, Colling- 
bourne Kingston. M. Vaughan, 

Tlie Bedsliank. In the last few years the Redshank has extended 
its breeding range (as it has in other counties) in this direction, and now 



I 



Natural History Notes, 61 

breeds every year between Ramsbury and Marlborough, which it never did 
till a few years ago. 

One day last autumn (1923) a Golden Plover migrating was picked np 
under the telegraph wires at Marlborough. It is an exceptionally rare bird 
here and I cannot understand why, except perhaps because it is very 
capricious in the choice of its haunts. M. Vaughan. 

Bittern. A Bittern was brought to me for identification at the be- 
ginning of January, 1924. . . . The writer of the letter accompanying 
it had promised not to give the murderer away as he was ashamed of him- 
self, so I have not been able to get any details, but I have a strong suspicion 
that the bird was shot on the Kennett, opposite Mildenhall, He goes on 
to contrast the reception of this fine bird with that accorded to a pair of 
Bitterns some 10 years ago in the Norfolk Broads, where they were carefully 
protected and bred successfully with the result that in 1923 there were no 
less than twelve pairs of Bittern breeding in the Broads, and their " boom- 
ing" can be heard there nightly after having been extinct as a breeding 
species in England for some 50 years. M. Vaughan. 

White Woodcock. A pure white bird was shot on Nov. 29tb, 
192 1 , in Chisbury Woods, Bedwy n, by Mr. Frank Cundell, and was illustrated 
in Country Life, March 18th, 1922. 

Moorhen nesting in tree. Mr. L. J. Noad, of Hinton, Trow- 
bridge, writing to the Daily Mail says " I found to-day a moorhen sitting 
on seven eggs in the top of a big fir tree (about 30ft. from the ground) in a 
small withy bed, near which there is no stream, other than an ordinary 
ditch." 

Adders in N. Wilts. Mr. Maurice Taylor, of Langley, near 
Chippenham, tells me that he has killed four adders in the last five years 
on sandy soil at Langley, one at Coldharbour and others in Dog Kennel 
Wood. In view of the general absence of the adder in N, V^ ilts this seems 
worth recording. At Wootton Bassett too, Miss Hersee daughter of the 
Vicar, was badly bitten recently on the hand by a snake which she picked 
up on the Vicarage lawn, supposing it to be a harmless Grass Snake. In this 
case the hand and arm swelled so much as to require medical treatment. 

G-reat Crested Grrebe. These fine birds seem to be increasing 
on all sheets of water in N. Wilts where they are at all secure from molesta- 
tion. In 1922 it was noted that a pair had taken up their abode at Shear- 
water, and for some years a pair has bred on the lake at Bowood, and in 
1926 there were at least two if not three pairs on the lake. 

Flora of Bradford-on-Avon, 1903—1923. A MS. 

list of the Flowering Plants of of the Bradford neighbourhood has been 
added by Mr. W. G. Colli-ns, of Bradford, to the MS. Note Book on the 
" Flints and Roman Pottery of Westwood," which he gave some time ago 
to the Society's library. He has also added a " List of Land and Fresh- 
water Shells " found in the Bradford neighbourhood. 



62 Natural History Notes. 

Amongst the more notable Botanical items are the following : — 

Helleborus viridis- Near Beckiades Wood. 

Hellehorusfoetidus. Staples Hill, near Westwood, and Shrubdown, near 
Freshford. 

Hesperis matronalis. One plant between Iford and Freshford. 

Erodium cicutarium. 

Genista anglica. Near Lye Green. 

Medicago sativa (Lucerne). Frequent. 

Lathyrus nissolia. Near Lye Green. " In a field near Lower West- 
wood on the N. side of the road coming from Bradford." 

Lathyrus sylvestris. Grew formerly between Iford and Freshford. 

Pyrus aria. Conk well. 

Callitriche vernalis. Scarce. 

Sedum dasyphyllum. Walls of Stowford Mill (escape ?). 

Sedum album. Frequent on walls. 

Colytedon umbilicus. Monkton Farleigh. 

Galium cruciatum. Frequent. 

Dipsacus pilosus. Grips Wood. 

Tanacetum vulgare. 

Tussilago fragrans. Railway crossing, Barton Bridge, Bradford (an 
escape which has established itself here). 

Inula helenium. Near Swing Bridge on Canal. 

Monotropa hypopitys. Beckiades Wood. Rowas Lodge near Sani- 
torium. 

Vinca minor and V. major. 

Chlora perfoliata. Bradford. 

Atropa belladonna. Shrubdown, and near Iford. 

Lathrsea squamaria. Local but abundant in places. 

Salvia verbenaca. Near Barton Orchard. 

Anchusa sem,pervir€ns. Bradford. 

Daphne laureola. Frequent. 

Neottia nidus-avis. Beckiades Wood. 

Orchis muscifera. Beckiades Wood. 

Gagea lutea. Near Limpley Stoke. It was suggested that this might 
probably be only an escape, but Mr. Collins writes that he has con- 
sulted Mrs. C. E. Flemming who tells him that her father, Mr. 
Hay ward, found the plant 50 years ago in the same wood in which 
it has grown ever since. The plant is also found near Frome. 

Ornithogalum jpyrenaicun. Abundant. 

Ornithogalun umbellatum. Beckiades Wood. 

Hydrocaris morsus-ranae. Horse and Jockey Pond. Perhaps intro- 
duced by Mr. Sole, of Bath. 
Butomus umbellatus. Almost extinct. 

Convallaria majalis. Bury Ditch, near Colerne. 

Lemna polyrhiza. Canal. Scarce. 



Symphytum asperrimum (peregrinum). " Forage Comfrey " was 



Natural History Notes, 63 

found quite well established in a hedge near Newton Toney, July 
1924, by Mrs. Herbert Richardson. 
Sambucus ebulus is reported from near Tinhead in 1924 by Mr. R. G. 
Gwatkin. 

Flusia Moueta or Golden Plusia. This moth was 

unknown in England until 1890, when one was taken at Reading, and after- 
wards others. Since that date it has apparently spread widely. I caught 
one at Lydiard Millicent on July 4th, 1919, and two more on July llth, 
1919, hovering over delphiniums in my garden at dusk. In 1920 I caught 
six, July 3rd — 15th, under the same conditions, and since then I have 
found specimens each year, in 1921 many, but in 1923 only one. It is 
a striking instance of a southern insect establishing itself securely in our 
island, and extending its range northwards. Probably anyone searching 
delphiniums in N. Wilts during the first two weeks in July would now find 
it without fail. (June, 1924). D. Percy Harrison. 

White variety of small Copper Butterfly. Mr. J. o. 

A. Arkell, of Redlands Court, Highworth, writes (1924) "In 1915 I caught 
at South Marston a specimen of the White Small Copper called var, 
Schmidtii (cream coloured on both sides)." This rare specimen Mr. Arkell 
subsequently gave to the Devizes Museum. 

Mandrake BiOOts. The Rev. C. V. Goddard, writing from 
Baverstock, 1922, says "I asked our old clerk, David Watts, about a plant 
called Mandrake with a big root. "Yes," said he, "forked like us, male 
and female ; used to dig them out for the horses ; horses very fond of they." 
The name seems to have been not uncomratonly applied to the roots of the 
White Bryony, which when they had been suflSciently carved and improved 
bore some resemblance to male and female figures. More than one 
example of these are to be seen in the Pitt Rivers Museum at Oxford. See 
also Gerard's Rerbal, 1597, p. 230, and Halliwell's Dictionary. 

Sarseus in the Vale, olf the chalk. Further examples 

of Sarsens, in addition to those mentioned in Wilts Arch. Mag.y xlii., 358, 
are three small examples in the Park at Bowood reported by Lord Kerry 
and Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, one of which is known as the " Horestone," of 
which Mr. Crawford writes " It stands on a site that would not have been 
unsuitable for a circle or Long Barrow, but there is no evidence than any 
monument ever stood there. The Horestone (or Hoarstone) will be marked 
j as such on the new O.S. maps. The Rev.C. F. Burgess, Rector of Easton Grey, 
also reports that many sarsens have been found lying on the clay in the vale 
at Earls Court Farm, Wanborough, about a mile from the chalk escarpment. 
Mr. Crawford also writes (Feb. 19th, 1924) that " Redbridge Stone," the 
" Egbrihtes Stone " of the present Ordnance Map, xliv., North Wilts, is a 
sarsen, as he has himself proved. 



64 Wilts Obituary. 

Xizard Orchis. 0. hirdna. The Wiltshire Gazette, July 7th, 
1927, recorded the finding " near Devizes " of a specimen of this rare plant 
(identified by Mr. Marsden Jones). This is the only specimen recorded 
from this county since 1907 (?). The Gazette quotes the Morning Post as 
repprting the discovery on the same date of a specimen on the Goodwood 
estate, Sussex. 



WILTS OBITUAEY. 



Henry Charles Keith Petty- Fitzmanrice, 5th 

Marquess of IiansdOWne, died June 3rd, 1927. Buried at Derry 
Hill. Born January 14th, 1845, eldest son of the 4th Marquis by his second 
wife, a daughter of the Compte de Flahaut. Educated at Eton, 1858 — 62, 
as Lord Clanmaurice, and at Halliol Coll,, Oxford, as Lord Kerry. B.A. 
and M.A. 1884, Hon. DC L. 1888, Hon. Fellow of Balliol 1916. He suc- 
ceeded his father at the age of 21. H is ancestry went back to the Fitzmaurice 
who married Strongbow's daughter, and his family had held lands in Kerry 
where his Irish seat Derreen was situated, since the 13th century. Derreen 
was burnt in the Irish troubles of 1922 but was rebuilt in 1925. In 1868, 
during the first ministry of Mr. Gladstone, he became a Lord of the 
Treasury. In 1869 he married Lady Maud Evelyn Hamilton, youngest 
daughter of James, first Duke of Abercorn, and sister of Lord George and 
Lord Claud Hamilton. In 1872 Lord Lansdowne became Parliamentary 
Under-Secretary in the War Office, and in 1880 he held the same office 
under Lord Hartington at the Indian Office. Later on in the same year 
he voted against the Government on the Compensation for Disturbance 
Bill (Ireland), and resigned office, but he did not leave the Liberal party 
until 1888. He was Governor-General of Canada, IH83 — 88, and " won the 
afifection of all classes in Canada, notably that of the French-Canadians, to 
whom his mastery of the French tongue, added to his own charm of manner, 
gave him an unusually free access." From 1888 to 1893 he was Viceroy of 
India, and on his return to England he became Secretary of State for War 
under Lord Salisbury in 1895. In 1899 the South African War broke out 
and the blame for the unpreparedness of the nation was somewhat unjustly 
laid at his door. In 1900 he was transferred to the Foreign OflSce. " Lord 
Lansdowne's whole bent was in fact towards the diplomatic art. It has been 
said that diplomacy is essentially a French art, and French blood ran in the 
veins of Lord Lansdowne . . . his tenure of the oflace of Foreign Secretary 
was soon to win for him the approval of both the great political parties." His 
two outstanding achievements were the Japanese Alliance and the formation 
of the Entente Cordiale with France consequent on the solution of the 



Wilts Obituary:, 65 

various subjects of dispute which had so long divided the two countries. In 
1915 he was minister without a portfolio in Mr. Asquith's Coalition Govern- 
ment. He was from 1894 a Trustee of the National Gallery, K.G. in 1895, 
Chancellor of the Order of St. Michael and St. George, Chairman of the 
British Red Cross, and Lord Lieutenant of Wilts until his resignation. 
In 1905 he received the rarely bestowed decoration of the Royal Victorian 
Chain. 

Lord Lansdowne had been for more than sixty years Patron of the Wiltshire 
Archaeological Society, and was always ready to help the Society when 
occasion arose. The references to his death in the House of Lords were re- 
markable for personal feeling on all sides. Lord Salisbury spoke of his 
"" wonderful courtesy and consideration " and of the loss to the country at 
large of "so great a gentleman." Lord Haldane called him "the type of 
the perfect English gentleman, singularly modest, very wise, and singularly 
courageous, one of those rare figures who come just at times and make us 
better by their presence." Lord Lambourne in conclusion said *' Lord 
Lansdowne was indeed a great man, a great gentleman, and above all, a 
great Christian ; one whom it is an honour to have known and who leaves 
behind him in this house a feeling of love and respect which it will be 
difficult ever to equal." The same note was struck by the writer of a 
letter to The Times who claiming to speak for the Indian Civil Service, said 
that all those who served under Lord Lansdowne during his viceroyalty, or 
who came in contact with him in any way learned to regard him " with 
affectionate respect." Other great Viceroys of our time had won respect 
and admiration, but to no other had men's " aflfection " been given in the same 
degree. The Times had a long biographical notice with portrait, June 
6th, 1927. The Wiltshire Gazette of June 9th and 16th, had also long 
biographical notices and quotations from many other notices, with a por- 
trait of the Marquess at the age of 62, a reproduction of the caricature by Ape 
in Vanity Fair of June, 1874, and a reprint of an excellent character sketch 
by Frank Dilnot, written before Lord Lansdowne had retired from public 
life. The Wiltshire Gazette of July 7th reprinted " A Personal Remini- 
scence," by Brig. -Gen. J. H. Morgan, K.C., from the English Review. 

He was the author of the following : — 
Preface to *' Rights of Citizenship : a Survey of Safeguards for 

the people," by eight writers. Warne & Co., 1912, Is. net. 
The Irish Land Question : Speech of the Most Honourable the 
Marquess of Lansdowne on the second reading of the Land 
Law (Ireland) Bill delivered in the House of Lords, Monday, 
August 1st, 1881, extracted from Hansard's Parliamentary 
Debates, vol. cclxiv., London, C. Buck, 22, Paternoster Row, E.C., 
1881. Pamphlet, large 8vo., pp. 15. 
A Canadian River. Blackwood's Magazine, Nov. 1920, pp. 610—627. 

G-eorge Pargiter Fuller, died April 2nd, 1927, aged 94 Buried 
at Corsham Church. Born at Baynton, Wilts, Jan, 8th, 1833. Son of John 
Bird Fuller. Educated at Winchester, 1848, and Ch. Ch., Oxford. B.A. 
and M.A., 1859. Played in the Winchester Cricket Eleven and in the 
VOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLVIL F 



66 Wilts Obituary. 

University Eleven at Oxford, 1854 and 1855. Student of the Inner Temple 
1855. Succeeded his father at Neston Park, 1872. J. P. (1861), and C.C. 
for Wilts. High Sheriff, 1878. Liberal M.P. for West Wilts, 1885-95. 
Major, Wilts Yeomanry. Chairman of Chippenham Rural District Coun- 
cil. For many years after he ceased to be a member, Mr. Fuller was looked 
on as the leader of the Liberal party in the county, and was known in later 
years in Liberal circles as the Grand Old Man of Wiltshire. He married 
in 1864 Emily Georgina Jane, second d. of Sir Michael Hicks Beach, Stb 
Baronet, who survives him. Their eldest son, Sir John Michael Fleetwood 
Fuller died 1915, and the youngest, Edward Fleetwood, died some years 
ago. The eldest surviving son is Col. Will. Fuller, Master of the V.W.H. 
(Cricklade) Hunt, formerly commanding the Wilts Yeomanry. Major 
Robert Fuller, of Gt. Chalfield, managing director of the Avon Rubber Co., 
and Harry Fuller, manager of Fuller's Brewery at Chiswick, also survive 
him. His only daughter, wife of Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart., is an Alder- 
man of the County Council. Mr. Fuller hunted regularly until 1902, when 
he suffered from an accident in the field. About the middle of the last 
century he regularly drove his coach from Devizes to Bristol via Bath, and 
a photograph of him on the box seat taken on the occasion of his golden 
wedding in 1914, the last time the coach was used, was given in the Wilt- 
shire Times of April 9th, 1927. Mr. Fuller had filled a large and honoured 
place in the life of West Wilts, and the esteem and regard which all classes 
felt for him was shown by the very large attendance at his funeral at Cor- 
sham, not only of personal friends, but of representatives of public and 
political bodies and associations. 

Long obituary notices with portraits appeared in Wiltshire Times, April 
9th, and Wiltshire Gazette, April 7th, 1927, with portrait at the age of 52. 

William Heward Bell, F.G.S., P.S.A., died June 2ist, 

1927, aged 78. Buried at Seend. Born February 26th, 1849, at Pelton 
House, CO. Durham, son of William Heward Bell. Privately educated, he 
acted as a mining engineer in his younger days. W'hen he settled down in 
Wiltshire it was at Cleeve House, Seend, then the property of Mr. Wadham 
JiOcke. Obliged to leave this, he lived for a few years at Holt, and then 
in a smaller house at Seend, until the opportunity arising, he purchased 
Cleeve House and practically rebuilt it on a larger scale, adding the hall 
and adjoining rooms. Here he lived until his death, identifying himself in 
all the life of the parish, and of the district. He had represented Seend on 
the Melksham Board of Guardians and Rural District Council since the 
first formation of the latter. He was chairman of the Melksham Bench of 
Magistrates and Patron of the Melksham Agricultural Society. The 
Wiltshire Working Men's Conservative Benefit Society, of which he was a 
l^ast Grand Master and for many years the treasurer, owed much of its 
success to him. He was Deputy Lieutenant for Wilts, and High Sheriff 
in 1912. During the war he took a share in the arduous and difficult work 
of the County Appeals Tribunal. Whatever he undertook he carried out 
in a businesslike way, and if he was in the chair, it was certain that no 



Wilts Obituary. 67 

time would be unnecessarily wasted. He spoke his mind with great clear- 
ness when he thought the occasion demanded it, and did not suflfer fools 
gladly, but those who knew him knew also his real and deep kind-hearted- 
ness, especially those of his own parish and neighbourhood. He was a man 
of unusually wide and varied interests and knowledge. He had travelled 
in most parts of the world. He hunted regularly with the Avon Vale Hunt, 
and was chairman of the Hunt Committee. He had shot big game in the 
" Rockies," and during the later part of his life took every year a deer forest 
in the Highlands, and up to last year looked forward for months beforehand to 
the time to be spent "on the hill" in what to him was the finest of all 
sport— deer stalking. In his younger days he had been a notable rifle shot, 
and his skill, with a rifle specially made to fit his left shoulder, remained 
with him to the end. But he had another side which does not commonly 
go with "The Thorough Sportsman." He had a very considerable know- 
ledge of geology and had long been a Fellow of the Geological Society. 
He was also a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and was interested in 
architecture, and in archaeology in most of its branches. But his real 
hobby at home was gardening, rock gardening at first, and later on the 
cultivation of choice shrubs which demanded less actual personal labour. 
There are many things in Cleeve House garden that it would be difficult to 
match in Wiltshire. With all these interests and occupations he combined 
those of an extensive colliery owner in S. Wales, and of a railway director, 
at first of the Taff Vale line, in which he held large interests, and afterwards 
of the Great Western Railway when the smaller line was merged in the 
greater. This was the real business of his life in all his later years. Of 
the Wiltshire Archaeological Society he had been President since 1912, 
taking part until last year in the annual excursions, and regular in his 
attendance at committee meetings. To him the Society indeed owes a debt 
of gratitude on many counts. On at least three occasions he made it 
possible for the Society to carry through works which would have been 
impossible without his help. He advanced the money for the purchase of 
the adjoining house and the enlargement of the Museum, he bought the 
original MS. of the Tropenell Cartulary and made it possible for the Society 
to undertake its publication, and he secured the great Buckler collection of 
drawings, at a time when the Society could not have done so, and later on 
surrendered it at cost price. These were outstanding examples, but there 
was no subscription list launched by the Society on which Mr. Bell's name 
did not figure very substantially. His loss will indeed be felt by the 
Society severely in many ways. He married in 1874 Hannah Taylor, d. 
of William Cory, who survives him with two sons and two daughters ; 
Col. William Cory Heward Bell, D.S.O., formerly M.P. for the Devizes 
division ; Mrs. Acton, wife of Major Acton of the Royal Irish Rifles ; 
Arthur C. Heward Bell, who as " Clive Bell," is well known as a writer on 
art and critic ; and Mrs. Henry Hony, of Ogbourne St. George. 

He was the author of : — 
" The Buried Palseolozoic Rocks of Wiltshire. Wilts. Arch. Mag., 

XXV., pp. 80—85. 

F 2 



68 Wilts Obituary, 

Edward Herbert Stone, F.S.A., died Feb. I7th, 1927, aged 79. 

Cremated at Woking, buried at Devizes. Second son of Robert N. Stone, of 
Bath, born 1848. Educated at King's Coll., London, where he earned great 
distinction in mathematics and science. In 1870 he went to India as a 
Eailway Engineer under Government and remained at Simla and Calcutta 
for eleven years, for five years of which he was private secretary to Sir 
Guildford Molesworth, Chief of the Secretariat. In 1882 he was transferred 
to Burmah to construct the Prome to Rangoon Railway. Here he took 
great interest in the volunteers of which he became Major, and worked up 
the corps to double its former strength. From 1892 to 1905 he held the 
appointment of Chief Engineer of the East India Railway, and designed the 
Sone bridge, the second longest in the world. In 1892 he retired, and after 
living some time at Freshford came to Devizes about 14 years ago and built 
himself the house known as " The Retreat," on the Potterne Road, in which 
he died. He was elected a Fellow of King's Coll., London, 1909, and a 
Fellow of the Soc. of Antiquaries, 1925. He married 1885 the daughter of 
Capt. R. Morgan Hall, Somerset Light Infantry, who with two sons and a 
daughter survives him. He was a prominent Freemason. He devoted the 
later years of his life largely to the study of Stonehenge, more especially 
from a mathematical and astronomical point of view, as a thorough going 
supporter of Sir Norman Lockyer's theories. His plans and diagrams were 
most admirably and accurately drawn, and his handwriting was singularly 
clear and good. He had for many years been a regular attendant at the 
Society's committee meetings. 

Long obit, notice Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 24th, 1927. 

He was the author of : — 

Safe Working Stress for Railway Bridges. (Paper read before the 
American Society of Engineers for which he was awarded the Norman 
Gold Medal). 

Bridge and Culverts Tables. (The copyright of which'was purchased 

by the Government of India). 
And other works on Engineering. 
Devizes Castle : its History and Homance. Devizes, Geo. 

Simpson & Co., 1920. Cloth 8vo., pp. viii + 201, 12 plates. [The 

substance of this work appeared in a series of articles under the same 

title in the Wiltshire Gazette, from May 29th to Aug. 28th, 1919. A more 

extended work on the same subject was typewritten in several volumes 

and placed in the Wilts Arch. Society's Library]. 
The Early Norman Castle at Devizes. W.A.M., xl., 417—429. 
The Age of Stonehenge. [Letters in the Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 8th, 

and subsequent issues to Oct. 13th, 1921. A controversy with the Rev. 

G. H. Engleheart, see W.A.M., xli., 445]. 
The Age of Stonehenge deduced from the orientation of its 

Axis. Nineteenth Century, Jan., 1922, pp. 105— 115. [Noticed H^.^. J/,, 

xlii., 88, 89.] 



Wilts Obituary. 69 

The Age of Stouehenge, deduced from Archaeological consider- 
ation. [A series of articles in the Wiltshire Gazette^ March 2nd to 30th, 
April 6th and 20th, 1922. Noticed W.A.M., xlii., 90]. 

Stonehenge : concerning the four Stations. Nature^ April 1st, 
1922. [Noticed W.A.M., xlii., 90]. 

Stonehenge: Notes on the Midsummer Sunrise. Man, August, 
1922, pp. 114—118. [Noticed W.A.M., xlii., 91.] 

The Method of Erecting the Stones at Stonehenge. W.A.M., 
xlii , 446—456, illusts. [This paper read at the Marlborough Meeting of 
the Wilts Arch. Soc, July 31st, 1923, was printed in the Wiltshire 
Gazette, Aug. 2nd, 1928, and also appeared translated into Danish in the 
Nationaltidende, Dec. 16th, 1923]. 

The Age of Stonehenge. Nineteenth Century, Jan., 1924, pp. 97—105. 

The Stones of Stonehenge. A full description of the Structure 
and of its outworks, illustrated "by numerous photographs, 
diagrams, and plans to scale. London, Kobert Scott, Rox- 
burghe House, Paternoster Bow, E.G., 1924. 4to., pp. xv. -f 
150, 36 plates. Price 21s. [Noticed W.A.M., xlii., 608—611. Ant, 
Journal, April, 1925, Vol. V., 198-200]. 

The Purpose of Stonehenge. [A series of letters in controversy with 
the Rev. G. H. Engleheart in Wiltshire Gazette, July 24th and Sept. 25th; 
Wiltshire Times, Aug. 30th and Sept. 27th ; Salisbury Times, Sept. 26thj 
1924]. 

The Story of Stonehenge, based mostly on the results obtained 
by Colonel Hawley, F.S.A., as published in the Antiquaries 
Journal, 1921—1925. [Articles in Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 17th, to 
Oct. 15th, 1925, with general plan, etc. Noticed W.A.M., xliii., 361.] 

The Story of Stonehenge, Keply by E. H. Stone, P.S.A., to the 
criticisms of the Rev. G-. H. Engleheart, P.S.A. Wiltshire 
Gazette,'Dec. I7th, 1925, to Jan. 28tb, 1926. [Noticed W.A.M., xliii., 364.] 

The Supposed Blue Stone Trilithon. Mav, March 1926, pp. 42—45, 
illustrations and diagrams. [Noticed W.A.M., xliii, 366.] 

The Orientation of Stonehenge. Nineteenth Century, Sept. 1925. 
[He also wrote " Some Notes on the Old Norman Castle at Old Sarum," 

typewritten and placed in the Society's Library, but not printed]. 

Canon Greorge Frederick Tanner, died Feb. 5th, 1927, 

aged 67. Buried at Collingbourne Ducis. S. of John Tanner, of Foulton, 
Marlborough. Educated at Marlborough Coll. and Clare Coll., Camb. 
B.A. 1884, M.A. 1887, Deacon 1884, Priest (Carlisle) 1885. Curate of 
St. Luke's, Barrow-in-Furness 1884—87 ; St. Luke's, Cheltenham 1888—96 ; 
Rector of Collingbourne Ducis 1896—1926, when he resigned, retiring to 
Bournemouth. Canon and Preb. of Salisbury 1924. He was for many 
years a member of the Pewsey Guardians and District Council. Greatly 
respected at Collingbourne Ducis. Obit, notice, Wilts Times, Feb. 11th, 
1927. 



70 Wilts Obituary. 

Canon John William Thomas, died Nov. nth, i926. 

Buried at Bridgewater. Jesus Coll., Oxford. B.A. and M.A. 1882, Deacon 
1883, Priest 1884 (Glos. and Bris.). Curate of Coleford (Glos.) 1883—90 ; 
Corsham 1890 — 93 ; Vicar of Seagry 1893 — 1925, when he resigned and 
went to live at Bridgewater. Hon. Canon of Bristol cir. 1923. He was 
best known in the Chippenham neighbourhood' as Chairman of the 
Chippenham Board of Guardians for 10 years and member for over 30 
years. He was also a member of the District Council, and made these 
duties largely the business of his life. He was greatly respected. Obit, 
notice, Wilts Gazette^ Nov. Uth, 1926. 

Captain Robert Sterne, R.N., died May sist, 1927, aged 93. 

Buried at Potterne. He joined the Navy as Midshipman 1846. After 
serving in the West Indies and the Mediterranean he was employed in 
several ships engaged in suppressing the slave trade off the mouth of the 
Congo. In 1854 he was on the Samson at the bombardment of Odessa and 
Sebastopol and was the first officer in the English service to be wounded in 
the Crimean War. Promoted Lieutenant he took part in the Euryalus in 
the operations in the Baltic. He afterwards served in the Renown and 
the Argus in the Mediterranean. After commanding a gunboat and a 
despatch vessel he was promoted Commander, at first in the Coast Guard, 
and then on special duty in the Seamew off the Irish coast during the 
Fenian troubles. In 1870, having retired from the Navy, he was elected 
Chief Constable of Wilts, a post which he held with great credit until he 
resigned in 1908. During this period he lived at Tristernagh, on the Pot- 
terne Boad, going to Redland, Bristol, on his retirement. 
Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, June 2nd; Times, June 6th, 1927. 

Mervyn Nevil Arnold Forster, died May, 1927. Buried 

at Wroughton, Second son of late lit. Hon. H. O. Arnold Forster and Mrs. 
Arnold Forster, of Basset Down. On the outbreak of the war, 1914, he 
enlisted as a private in the London Regt., gained commission in 1915 in the 
Wiltshire Regt., was transferred to the Grenadier Guards, and served for 
the remainder of the war in the Guards Machine Gun Regt. in France- 
After the armistice he helped to compile the War History of that Regi- 
ment. He was mentioned in despatches, received the M.C., and retired 
with the rank of Major. 

Obit, notice, N. Wilts Herald, May 13th, 1927. 

Captain Walter William Shaw, MP. for Westbury, died 

May 11th, 1927. Aged 59. Since 1925 he had rented Rood Asbton, where 
he died. Born Feb. 20th, 1868, son of Mr. Dethick Shaw, of Wolverhamp- 
ton, Educated Jesus Coll., Camb. Married, 1893, Mary Louise, d. of W. 
W. Wakeman, of New York, who with a son and daughter survives him. 
County Councillor for Dorset. High Sheriff of Poole, 1911. Served with 
N, Staffs Regt. and as Captain in the Royal West Surrey Regt. During 
the war he acted as recruiting officer at Trowbridge and in 1917 was sent 



Wilts Obituary. 71 

on a special mission to the United States. Stood as Conservative candi- 
date in 1922 unsuccessfully at Houghton le Spring. In 1923 he stood for 
the Westbury Division and was defeated, but was elected in 1924. 
Obit, notice with portrait, Wiltshire Times, May 14th, 1927. 

Capt. Alfred Lawrence, died Feb. 25th, 1927, aged 75. Bom 

at Churchdown, Glos., 1852. Educated Bluecoat School, Gloucester, a 
chorister at Gloucester Cathedral. Enlisted in 17th Lancers 1872. Took 
part in the Zulu War in 1879, and served in India until invalided home. 
As Regimental-Sergt,- Major he became instructor to the Wilts Yeomanry, 
1889 to 1909, when he was promoted Lieutenant and Quartermaster. He 
became Captain in 1915, and until 1917 head of the administrative centre 
at Chippenham. He then became assistant Adjutant at the Remount 
Depot at Romsey, and received the thanks of the Army Council for valuable 
services. He possessed eight medals. He took a leading part in many 
Chippenham activities and sang in the choir at St. Paul's Church for 30 
years. He leaves a widow, two sons, and two daughters. 

Col. Hugh le Despencer Spencely, died Feb., 1927, aged 56. 

Buried at Knowsley, Lanes. Served in 6th King's Liverpool Regt., retiring 
as Lt.-Col., 1915. Lived at Ashley House, Box. Well known as a breeder 
and exhibitor of hunters. During the war he presented an ambulance to 
the V.A.D. Hospital at Corsham. Much respected at Box. He leaves a 
widow and two sons. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 17th, 1927. 

Frank Heynolds, died Feb. 27th, 1927, aged 71. Buried at 
Clovelly, Devon. Born at Devizes. Landlord of the Bear Hotel for 11 or 
12 years. He was managing director of the Central Wiltshire Bacon 
Company for many years. He was afterwards landlord of the Belle Vue 
Hotel, Cheltenham. He was known as a judge in the poultry and dairy 
classes at shows. He served for three years on the Wilts County Council. 
He was the father of the well-known writer, Stephen Reynolds. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, March 3rd, 1927. 

lit.- Col. Thomas Henry Burton Forster, died June 24th, 

1927. Buried by his own desire in " Long Wiltshire " field at Holt. Born 
October 23rd, 1850, only son of Thomas Burton Watkin Forster, of Holt 
Manor. Educated at Winchester Coll. and Sandhurst, 1871 ; Sub-Lieut. 
93rd Highlanders, 1872 ; Lieut., 1874 : Capt., 1880 ; Major, 1891 ; Lt.-Col. 
1902. Served in S. African War, 1899 — 1900, and in the Great War as 
A.A.Q.M.G. of Royal Naval Division, and afterwards of 52nd Division. 
He subsequently held a staff appointment in the Gallipoli force. J. P. for 
Wilts, 1902. Married, 1885, Nina, d. of Capt. Richard Hugh Smith Barry. 
He leaves a son, Capt. T. G. B. Forster, who succeeds to the property, and 
a daughter, the wife of Major Dennis Darley. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, July 2nd, 1927. 



72 Wilis Ohituari/. 

CoL Alfred Tenuaut Miller, died June lOth, 1927, aged 60. 
Son of James Miller, of Edinburgh. Partner in shipping firm of Miller & 
Rickards. In the Great War he joined the Highland Light Infantry as a 
Private and rose to rank of Major. About eight years ago he bought the 
Manor House, Gt. Somerford, and was for a time master of the Avon Vale 
Hounds. He was Grand Master of the Wiltshire Working Men's Conserva- 
tive Benefit Society. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, June 16th, 1927. 

Major John Coney Moulton, died June 6th, 1926, aged 39. 
Buried at Bradford-on-Avon. Eldest and only surviving son of John 
Moulton, of the Hall, Bradford-on-Avon. Educated at Eton and Magdalen 
Coll., Oxford, B.A. and D. Sc. Served as officer in 4th Batt. (Volunteers) 
Wilts Regt. As a well-known naturalist he became curator of the Brooke 
Museum at Sarawak. He was afterwards curator of the Raffles Museum 
at Singapore. During the war he was attached to the staff of General Sir 
Dudley Rideout, retiring with the rank of Major and the O.B.E. In 1922 
he became chief secretary to the Pxajah of Sarawak, and made many ex- 
peditions in unknown parts of Borneo. He was a fellow of the Royal 
Geographical Society. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, June 12th, 1926. 

Br, John I^ewis Maltland Govan, died July 7th, 1927, aged 
61. Buried at Inveresk, N.B. Youngest son of Major-Gen. Charles Mait- 
land Govan. Practised in London for many years. On the outbreak of 
war joined the R. A.M. C. Served in Malta, in Palestine during the Gaza 
campaign, and in France during the fighting of the early part of 1918. He 
was demobilised in 1919, when he settled in Malmesbury, where he lived 
and practised until his death. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, July 14th, 1927. 

Trederick Greader, died Feb. 8th, 1927, aged 6O. Buried at 
Bishops Cannings. Son of Fred. Greader, of W. Kington Farm. Educated 
at Silversides School, Bath. Took on the management of the farm on his 
father's death when only about 15 years old. Thirty years ago he moved to 
Horton House, Bishops Cannings, carrying on the farm jointly with his 
brother William for the first 12 years, when William moved to Little 
Avebury. He was one of the best known and most successful farmers in 
the Devizes neighbourhood. He was chairman of the Devizes Branch 
of the Nat. Farmers' Union for six years, and was on the Council of the 
Wilts Agricultural Association. He was a J. P. for Wilts and a member of 
the County Council. He never married. 

Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 10th, 1927. 

Jabez Rodway, died at George Town, British Guiana, Dec. (?), 
1926, aged 78. Born at Trowbridge, 1848. Began as assistant in Chemists' 
shops at Trowbridge and afterwards at Hitchen. In 1870 he went out to 
Demerara to a similar post. Here he soon became known as the acknow- 
ledged local historian of the colony, and his History of Guiana in three vols* 



Wilts Ohituary. 73 

ranks as a standard work. Of late years he had been curator of the British 
Guiana Museum and assistant secretary of the Royal Agricultural and Com- 
mercial Society. His writings on Natural History were well known. He 
leaves a widow and several children. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, December 25th, 1926. 

Hubert Johu Deacon, died Jan., 1926, aged 81. Buried at 
Swindon Cemetery. As jeweller and watchmaker in Wood Street, Mr. 
Deacon took a prominent part in the public life of Swindon for many years. 
He was a great supporter of the Baptist Church. He was a member of the 
Local Board and District Councils of Old and New Swindon and one of the 
first members of the Corporation. The Swindon Horticultural Society and 
the Victoria Hospital owed much to him. He was the first President of 
the Swindon Chamber of Commerce. 

Obit, notice, N. Wilts Herald, Jan. 28th, 1926. 

Rev. Benjamin James Shaul, died Dec. 30th, i926, aged 56. 

Buried at Quarrington (Lines). Son of Benjamin Shaul, of Melksham. 
Educated at St. Paul's Coll , Burgh, and St. Augustine's Coll., Cant., 1890. 
Deacon 1893, Priest 1894 (Nassau). Curate of St. Thomas, Grand Turk, 
Bahamas, 1893—95 ; Rector of Arthur's Seat, Jamaica, 1895 — 98; Rector 
of St. Luke, Cross Roads, Jamaica, 1898—1902 ; Curate of Old Sleaford 
with Quarrington (Lines), 1902—10 ; Rector there 1910 until his death. 
Obit notice, Wiltshire Times^Jsin. 8th, 1927. 

Major Fitzroy Pleydell Goddard, died Aug. i2th, 1927, 

aged 74. Buried in Swindon churchyard. Born Aug. 28th, 1852. Second 
son of Ambrose Lethbridge Goddard. Educated Christchurch, Oxford. 
Entered diplomatic service and acted as Queen's Messenger, carrying 
despatches abroad from 1885 to 1895. He was for many years an officer in 
the Wilts Yeomanry, and as such went out as a representative to the in- 
auguration of the Australian Commonwealth in 1901. He succeeded to The 
Lawn and the Swindon estate on his father's death in 1898. He was High 
Sheriff in 1907, Deputy Lieutenant and J. P., and for some years a County 
Councillor. He was President of the Swindon Unionist Association, and 
was made a Freeman of the Borough in 1924. He presented the Mayoral 
Chain of OflBce on the incorporation of the Borough in 1901. He was for a 
long while President and Chairman of the Victoria Hospital, to the funds 
of which he gave £1500. He had served as churchwarden at the Parish 
Church and was an active and earnest churchman. He was also a prominent 
Freemason. He married, 1895, Eugenia, widow of Mr. A. G. Sutton, who 
survives him. He leaves no children. He had always the good of Swindon 
at heart and was greatly respected by all classes, as the very large and 
representative gathering at his funeral showed. 

Long obit, notice, with Canon Mayall's appreciation at the Parish Church, 
N. Wilts Herald, Aug. 19th, 1927. 



74 



WILTSHIRE BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, AND ARTICLES. 

[N- B. — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The Editor 
appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views, in any 
way connected with the county, to send him copies of their work, and to 
editors of papers, and members of the Society generally, to send him copies 
of articles, views, or portraits appearing in the newspapers.] 

Stouehenge as an Astronomical Instrument. By 

A. P. Trotter. Antiquity. March, 1927. pp. 42—53. Air view of 
Stonehenge, plan, and sketch of entrance and Hele Stone. 

The writer begins thus " The astronomical controversy about Stonehenge 
may perhaps be approached from an impartial view of one who is neither 
an archaeologist nor an astronomer, who offers no new or original observa- 
tions, and proposes to examine facts rather than to discuss theories." A 
very sensible article. The writer can find " no evidenceof any institutional 
sun-worship in Britain, or sufficient proof that Stonehenge or any other 
stone circle was used as a place for public worship." The tradition of the 
sun rising over the Hele Stone on the longest day "cannot be traced back 
for more than about 150 years." Lockyer's measurements and observations 
and the deductions from them are discussed at some length. " I agree with 
Mr. Stone that the middle point of the entrance, between stones Nos. 30 
and 1, is the only one that can be taken for one point on the true axis of 
Stonehenge. But if you stand alongside the great stone No. 56 on Lock- 
yer's axis, or anyone else's axis, and move your head 5in. to the right, and 
then 5in. to the left, you cause the middle point of the entrance to be dis- 
placed lOins. or one sun's breadth relatively to a point on the skyline, and 
this makes a difference of 2000 years in the calculated date. You must 
settle which eye you are going to use, for the difference of position between 
your right eye and your left makes a difference of 500 years in the date. I 
do not think that Stonehenge is a very satisfactory astronomical instru- 
ment for the purpose of settling dates." On the other hand " it was perhaps 
the most simple way of fixing a date in the agricultural calendar." Taking, 
however, the centre as the point of observation of sunrise, the writer con- 
cludes that the week of midsummer could be fixed, but that no other useful 
date in the year could be, and "so the purpose for which it was built and 
used still remains a matter of conjecture." 

[Stonehenge] Orientation, By Vice- Admiral Boyle 

Somerville, C M.G., F.S. A. Antiquity, March, 1927. Vol. I., No. 
1, pp. 31 — 41. A valuable article on the idea of orientation in general, and 
more particularly in its application to Stonehenge and other stone circles. 
Summing up at the end the writer says " even if we accept (as many do not) 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 75 

that there is in any prehistoric structure an intentional orientation to a 
rising or setting body, it may confidently be said that it is not possible to 
ascertain the date of erection of any such monument through a solar 
orientation. The chief general reason for this is that we do not know, and 
probably never shall know, what particular moment of the phenomenon of 
sunrise was chosen by the builders for the laying out of the desired line on 
the ground that was to be the orientation of the building." In the case of 
Stonehenge " the date arrived at by acceptance of * first flash ' (of the sun's 
upper limb above the horizon) as the proper moment for observation, differs 
by nearly 4,000 years from that arrived at by considering 'whole orb visi- 
ble ' as the moment. * First flash' is just as likely a moment as 'whole 
orb.' We do not know which to employ, and this it is which makes dating 
by azimuth of sunrise, whether at Stonehenge or anywhere else, impossible." 
He sums up the results of Col. Hawley's excavations as follows : — " The 
partial excavation made at the site during recent years has made it clear 
that there are at least three different structures included in " Stonehenge" 
built at widely different dates. There is : — 

(a) The earth vallum and ditch, to the date of which possibly belong 
the untrimmed Sarsen blocks still remaining, namely the Heel Stone» 
the Slaughter Stone, and the two stones numbered 91 and 93 erected 
just inside the vallum, on opposite sides of its circumference. 

(b) The Blue-stone Stone Circle and " Cove," when in their original 
positions with the stones untrimmed as imported. 

(c) The Blue-stone Stone Circle and " Cove," in their present position 
(partly trimmed). To this period possibly belongs the ring fence of 
great Sarsens that surrounds the Blue-stone Stone Circle and " Cove," 
and the trilithic Sarsen cove itself, trimmed, morticed, and tenoned. 

The first-named of these structures, the earthwork ring, belongs, almost 
certainly, to a very early date in the Neolithic period, while the great 
trimmed Sarsens, with almost equal certainty, belong to quite a late date, 
possibly just before the opening of the Bronze Age. Two or three thousand 
years may separate these two parts of Stonehenge. To which of them does 
the date arrived at from the azimuth of "Axis" belong? ! ! Again the 
writer says the axis of a circle must pass through its centre, but " the cen- 
tre of the circle of the great trimmed sarsens differs from that of the centre 
of the Blue-stone Stone Circle by about 2ft. ... so that on this point 
also the mathematical calculation of ' dating ' stands condemned." Admiral 
Boyle Somerville has made large scale plans of 27 stone circles in the British 
Isles. Not one of them is a true circle, and this is true too of the Blue- 
■stone Circle at Stonehenge. Out of the 27 circles seven still retain the 
means of orientation in the shape of stones larger than the rest of the 
circle, with in two cases additional stones outside the actual circle. The 
remaining 20 circles either never had, or have lost, any means of orientation. 
As regards Stonehenge, if the Slaughter Stone ever stood upright, the line 
that it makes with the Heel Stone is that of solsticial sunrise, and there 
may have been a stone on the opposite side of the vallum that would com- 
plete the alignment, but even so it would be impossible to calculate any 



76 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

date, from the impossibility of knowing whether the " first flash " or the 
" whole orb" is to be taken as the moment of sunrise. 

Stoneheuge. Was it roofed ? In the Wiltshire Gazette, 
Oct. 7th, 1926, commenting on the excavation of " Woodhenge," and the 
conclusion that it was composed of circles of timber posts, presumably- 
roofed over, Mr. A. D. Passmore writes suggesting that the three lines of 
holes at Stonehenge, the "Aubrey holes" and the two lines between them 
and the outer Sarsen circle, were really intended to contain wooden posts 
to support a roof. In the issue of Oct. 14th the Rev. G. H. Engleheart 
replied, contending that " the physical objections alone (to the existence 
of a roof) are insuperable." The length of span between the Aubrey holes 
and the next circle of the Y holes is 60ft., and there is no trace of any inter- 
mediate holes. Is it possible that beams of this length could have been 
used, or that if used they should have had no intermediate support 1 More- 
over the Aubrey holes are too small and shallow to contain such posts as 
would have been necessary to support the weight and thrust of such vast 
beams. On October 28th Mr. Passmore wrote again declaring that his 
suggestion of the wooden roof had been evolved after a consultation with 
an experienced builder, an engineer, and a well-known timber merchant 
who had all agreed on its possibility. He gives a rough diagram showing 
that a 60ft. beam resting on posts in the Y and Z holes and on the lintel of 
the outer Sarsen circle and sloping upwards towards the interior would 
project about 20ft. over the central space in the manner of a corbel. He 
contends that the whole central space with a total span of about 60ft. could 
be easily covered, beehive fashion, by further timbers corbelled out, one 
above another, from the projecting ends of the first great beams. The 
Aubrey holes he suggests were to contain short posts, 4ft. high or less^ 
against which abutted 50ft. beams resting against the outer ends of the 
great beams resting on the upright posts in the Y and Z holes and the 
outer circle of Sarsens. The whole might then be covered and thatched 
and the great roof rising gradually from near the ground would not pre- 
sent an unreasonable surface to the wind. On Nov. 11th Mr. Engleheart 
replies quoting an experienced builder as saying that no oak ever grew in 
England that could yield a beam 60ft. long— 30ft. is a very rare length for 
an oak beam. A 60ft. beam could only be got from a very big pine tree, 
and no pine except the Scotch Fir is indigenous in England, and that tree 
does not run to anything like that height. Also even if the 60ft. beam 
could be found it would require a very much larger post to abut against 
it' than could ever have stood in the Aubrey holes. Also no evidence of 
wooden posts has been found at Stonehenge, such as was found at " Wood- 
henge." 

Stonehenge and its surroundings. Past, Present, 

and Future. An anonymous article [by Capt. B. H. Cunnington] in 
Wiltshire Gazette, August 25th, 1927, describing a journey from Devizes up 
Red Hone Hill and past the Bustard to Stonehenge 50 years ago, and the 
very different look of things nowadays, ending with an appeal for the 
Stonehenge Preservation Fund. 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 77 

Prehistoric Timber Circles. By Mrs. M. E. 

OunniUgton. Antiquity, March, 1927, vol. I., pp. 92—95. Repro- 
ductions of two air photographs, oblique and vertical views of the site of 
** Woodhenge" (a name given to the circle since its excavation), and of a 
model showing the excavations of 1926, are given. Mrs. Cunnington de- 
scribes the discovery of the six concentric rows of holes, which appear as 
dark spots upon the photograph. This earthwork, which lies on ploughed 
ground near Durrington, in the angle made by the junction of the new 
Fargo-Larkhill road with the Netheravon-Amesbury main road, on the 
Amesbury side, had previously to the photographic discovery been regarded 
a,s a large disc barrow, its diameter from bank to bank being about 250ft. 
The bank is on the outside of the ditch. In 1926 one half of the circular 
area was carefully trenched over, and the spots were proved, as had been 
expected, to represent the site of holes, of which there were six concentric 
rows, and there was clear evidence that these holes were intended to 
hold wooden posts or tree trunks of sizes varying from 1ft. to 3ft. in 
diameter in the different circles. Two burials were found, one the crouched 
skeleton of a child near the centre, the other a crouched skeleton of an 
adult below the floor of the ditch. No other monument of the kind is 
known in Britain. Mrs. Cunnington declines to commit herself to any 
opinion as to its age or purpose until the excavation has been completed. 
A further note on " Woodhenge " appearing in the same number of 
Antiquity, pp. 99—100, contains a letter from Squadron-Leader Insall, V.C, 
describing the appearance of the field from the air in July when a well- 
grown wheat crop showed distinct circles of spots, caused by the greater 
luxuriance of the wheat on the deeper earth of the pits, and the subsequent 
photographing of the site. The editor notes that a somewhat similar monu- 
ment has been recorded at Harendermolen, S.E. of Groningen, Holland, 
where a central interment of the Beaker period was surrounded by a 
broken ditch and two concentric circles of holes which had held wooden 
uprights. 

Some Prehistoric Ways. ByR. C Clay, F.S.A., in 

Antiquity, March, 1927, Vol. I., No. 1, pp. 54—65. Dr. Clay maintains 
" that some of the old trackways in S. Wilts fell into decay during the 
Early Iron Age. For example the ridgeway that stretches from Coombe 
Bissett to beyond Wingreen is crossed inmany places by the Celtic lynchets 
and Cattle Ways of that period. The parallel track to the north along the 
range of downs that reach from Salisbury to White Sheet Hill is likewise 
traversed by Cattle Ways that have been proved by excavations to be con- 
temporary with the village sites of Fifield Bavant and SwallowcliffeDown. 
Within late historic times this latter road has been metalled and used as a 
coach road until supplanted in 1758 by the modern highway along the 
northern foot of the hills. This ridgeway then became the thoroughfare 
along which drovers took huge flocks and herds to the distant markets and 
many a ridgeway still bears the name of the Ox Drove." Dr. Clay main- 
tains that in S. W.Wilts '* flint sites " or camping grounds of flint-using peoples 



78 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

appear to be situated close to natural passes in the hills or opposite river 
crossings, and that they lie alongside trackways which link up chains of 
camps. " If we start at Knighton Wood and travel northwards down the 
road that runs along Church Bottom we pass on the east the square earth- 
work called Wuduburh in the Saxon charters and proved by excavation 
to be of Early Iron Age date. Crossing the River Ebble at the position of 
the modern bridge the road went slightly north-westwards and up the 
western edge of the Coombe that leads to Chiselbury Camp (Early Iron 
Age undoubtedly). The road can then be traced to the east of Chiselbury 
into Sigwine's Dyke (sunken road), then along the foot of the hill for a short 
distance to reach the Green Drove, and so through the pass called Sandy 
Hollow over the edge of the high greensand terrace and down to 
Catherine's Ford over the River Nadder. The road then goes due north 
over the opposite greensand ridge by another Sandy Hollow with Wick 
Ball Camp on the west and past Dinton Beeches with Hanging Langford 
Camp (Early Iron Age) and Bilbury Rings on the east, over the River 
Wylye by the ford at Deptford and so past Yarnbury Castle (certainly Early 
Iron Age) past Stonehenge and Vespasian's Camp to Beacon Hill. It then 
divides, one branch being continued on as the" Harroway " through VVeyhill 
and Hurstbourne to Farnham, the other turning south-eastwards past 
Quarley, Danebury, and Woolbury Camps to Winchester, and so along the 
South Downs of Sussex." Dr. Clay then describes the formation of lynchets 
by the "one way ploughing method," so that in time the lower edge of the 
field becomes raised and the upper edge cut down. " Double ly nchet ways " 
are roads that lead either straight or with right-angled turns through the 
middle of systems of lynchets of the Celtic or chess-board type. They are 
in fact farm roads through Prehistoric ploughed land, and like all farm 
roads often lead to village settlements. Dr. Clay thinks that none of the 
lynchets are so early as the late Neolithic period when corn growing was 
first introduced. Dr. Clay distinguishes between " Hollow Ways or Sunken 
Roads " and " Cattle Ways." The former run up the chalk escarpments in 
a slanting direction by the easiest gradient, and some may be of Saxon or 
even much later date. The " Cattle ways " on the other hand consist of a 
ditch between two banks and usually run a perfectly straight course and 
connect the heads of two combes by passing over the dividing ri^ge of 
down. Hoare calls these "covered ways." Dr. Clay believes that in S.W. 
Wilts " these ways are grouped within certain areas which are closely con- 
nected with early Iron Age habitations and are not related with Romano- 
British villages." He thinks that he can detect differences in the con- 
struction of the cattle ways in different areas, the extent of an area being 
about four miles. All these areas bear signs of having been covered with 
Celtic or chessboard lynchets, and these lynchets are contemporary with or 
later than the ways. He gives sections of four such ways round the Early 
Iron Age villages of Fifield Bavant and Swallowc]ifi"e Down, which all cross 
the Ridgeway. These ways all showed in similar sections a narrow flat- 
bottomed trench about a foot wide at the bottom, with very steeply sloping 
sides, topped on each side by a bank. The floor was covered with a layer 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 79 

of hard chalk rubble with a layer of flints above it trodden down very hard. 
He concludes that these ways were not " covered ways," they were not 
defences, nor were they boundaries^ — but were simply cattle paths along 
which the cattle were driven in single file from grazing ground to grazing 
ground, and that they were made intentionally narrow and steep-sided 
so that the animals could not get out of them on to the arable lands 
through which they passed but were obliged to walk forward in single file, 
as cattle do naturally if left to themselves. An interesting theory, and 
on the face of it probable. 

Report of the Marlborough College Natural His- 
tory Society for the year ending Christmas, 1926. 

K"0. 75. 1927. 8vo., pp. 91. Mr. Peirson in his preface explains 
that the " slimness " of the present report is due to the impossibility of 
printing any longer on the scale of the reports of previous years. In the 
ornithological section the breeding of the Ictirine Warbler Hippolais icteri^ia 
is recorded for the only time in England. Of the bird itself about 35 
specimens have been recorded. In this case the nest was found at Milden- 
hall as far back as May, 8th, 1907, and the hen bird was seen. As the nest 
was subsequently deserted it was taken and given to the College Museum 
and the eggs were exhibited at the meeting of the British Ornithologists' 
Club. Of other notable birds the Waxwing occurred in the Forest ; the 
nesting of the Tufted Duck for the first time in Wiltshire was recorded, as 
well as the nesting of Snipe and Yellow Wagtail. Pochard and Great 
Crested Grebe, Water Rail, Buzzard, and Merlin were seen. A Steppe 
Buzzard (Buteo huteo VulpinusJ was shot at Everley in 1864 (now in Brit. 
Museum), and of Red Grouse one was shot at Compton Bassett (no date), and 
two at Wedhampton 1794 and 1866. The Woodcock nested in the Forest 
in 1920. In the Botanical Section 558 species and varieties were re- 
corded including Anagallis teriella, Gentiana germanica^ Ornithogalum 
pyrenaicum^ and Salvia verbenaca. In the Lepidoptera two species new 
to the list though taken several years ago, have only now been identified. 
The lists of the other orders of insects contain many observations new to 
the Marlborough neighbourhood and good work is obviously being done in 
this largely unworked field. Mr. H. C. Brentnall gives a long review of 
l^he Mystery of Wansdyhe by Major and Burrows in which he demurs to 
several statements in the book as to the portion of the dyke in and beyond 
Savernake, in the examination of which he was himself associated with Mr. 
Major. In one or two instances he shows that the maps and descriptions 
of the course of the dyke in this neighbourhood are incorrect. Mr. Brentnall 
considers it impossible that the dyke can be of either Roman or Saxon work- 
manship, and he assigns it to the period of the British resistance to the Saxon 
advance after the departure of the Romans. Mr. Brentnall also has a paper 
on the Ancient Monuments Act, and Mr. C. P. Hurst has one on Fungi. 
Among Entomostraca Mr. A. G. Lowndes reports the discovery of four 
species of Cyclops new to the British Isles, two of them being new to 
science. Mr. J. G. D. Clark has a note with two illustrations of Sarsen 



80 Wiltshire Books, Pam^phlets, and Articles. 

implements in the Marlborough neighbourhood. The great majority of 
these are Mullers or Hammerstones, and in this neighbourhood these 
are more abundant than the similar implements of flint. The most 
interesting specimen, however, is the waisted axe, 42in, long, of which an 
illustration is given. Three flint axes of the same type, which resembles 
that of the Danish shell mounds, have been found at Marlborough, and it 
occurs elsewhere in Wiltshire. 

Eoliths from Braydoii and elsewhere. By K,ev. 

H. Gr. O. Kendall, F.S.A. Proc. Cotteswold Nat. Field Club, 1925. 
Vol. xxii., pp. 123 — 135, with four plates of flints. The author discusses 
shortly the origin of the gravels on Mackpen and round Queen Street and 
Braydon Pond, and claims that both on Hackpen and at Braydon the 
Eoliths (edge-trimmed only) are later than the earliest flaked Faloeoiiths. 
He states that a large number of the Braydon flints show unmistakeable 
signs of ancient burning, and perhaps prove a knowledge of fire by the 
makers of the tools. He discusses the origin of lustre on the flints, and 
whilst allowing that lustrous surfaces are undoubtedly brought about by 
more than one cause {e.g., wind and water-borne sand, and friction with 
the soil) he maintains (contrary to other observers) that both at Knowle 
and Braydon the gloss is due '* to the presence of iron manganese followed 
by friction and pressure." He mentions, on Mr. Passmore's authority, that 
a Rhinoceros' tooth was found in the Braydon gravel. A useful paper on 
a locality untouched pefore. 

Flint Daggers. In a paper on " The Chronology of Flint Daggers," 
by Reginald Smith, F.S.A., in the Proceedings of the Soc. of Ant., 2nd 
series, xxxii., pp. 6 — 22, the date of the daggers which are found in barrows 
accompanied by Drinking Cups (or Beakers), Shale Buttons with V-shaped 
perforation and tanged and barbed flint arrowheads, is established as post- 
Neolithic, and so later than that of the polished celts, and coeval with the 
earliest stage of the Bronze Age. 

Iiackham and its owners. The Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 3rd, 
1927, published a history, by Ed. Kite, of the owners of Lackham from 
Domesday until it passed by marriage to the Montagu family. The issue 
of Feb. 17th, 1927, contained an article on "Old Lackham House and its 
contents," also by Mr. Kite, continuing an inventory taken Dec. 13th, 1637, 
of the contents of the house (begun on Feb. 3rd). The inventory is given 
in full, and very full lists of the furniture, &c., of every room. The issue 
of April 2 1st, 1927, contains the history of the descent of Lackham through 
the Wiltshire branch of the Montagu family. The Hon. James Montagu 
(I.), 3rd son of Henry, Earl of Manchester, married Mary, heiress of Sir 
Robert Baynard, and died 1665, aged 57. His wife, Mary, died 1684, aged 
63. Their second son, James Montagu (11. ), born 1638, married 1671, 
Diana, d. Anthony Hungerford, of Black Bourton, Oxon, and died 1676. 
His son, James Montagu (III.), born 1673, succeeded. He married Eliz., 
daughter of Sir John Eyles, Lord Mayor, owner of Southbroom and 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 81 

M.P. for Devizes 1679—80. He died 1747. His eldest son, James Montagu 
(IV.), born 1713, married 1744, Eleanor, daughter of William Hedges, of 
Alderton, and died 1790. His eldest son, James Montagu (V.), inherited 
Lackham and died unmarried in 1798, aged 47. His only brother, George 
Montagu, the naturalist, born 1755, married 1773, Ann, eldest daughter of 
William Courtenay. He was Lieut, in 15th Regt. of Foot, which he left 
and was commissioned in the Wilts Militia of which he became Lieut.-Col. 
He was celebrated as a naturalist and his collection of birds was sold after 
his death to the British Museum. He lived at Easton Grey and afterwards 
at Alderton House, but never at Lackham. He died at Knowle near 
Kingsbridge, Devon, 1815, aged 61. His eldest son, George Conway 
Courtenay Montagu, born 1776, inherited Lackham. He married Margaret 
Green, daughter of Richard Green Wilson, of Lancaster, and died 1819, 
aged 45. He quarrelled with his father, and his extravagance ultimately 
broke up the estate and everything was sold. Particulars are given of the 
other sons and daughters of the naturalist. Admiral John Montagu, fifth 
son of James (III.) and Elizabeth Montagu, born 1719, served in the Navy 
all his life and died 1795, aged 76. One of his five sons was Admiral Sir 
George Montagu, G.C.B., born 1750. He married Charlotte, daughter and 
co-heir of George Wroughton, of Wilcot, near Pewsey, and died 1829, aged 
79. His brother, Capt. John Montagu, born 1752, commanded H.M. Ship 
Montagu in the victory of the 1st June, 1794, under Earl Howe, over the 
French fleet off Brest. He was killed in the battle, and a monument to him 
by Flaxman, which cost £3,675, was erected in Westminster Abbey by order 
of Parliament. An illustration of this monument is given. Another 
brother. Col. Edward Montagu, born 1755, was killed at the siege of 
Seringapatam in 1799 whilst commanding the Bengal Artillery. Col. Geo. 
Montagu, eldest son of Admiral Sir George Montagu, G.C.B., and his wife 
Charlotte (Wroughton), born 1788, succeeded his aunt in the Wilcot estate, 
and took the name of Wroughton. He died 1871, and was succeeded by 
his brother, Admiral John William Montagu, born 1790. He lived for 
many years at Seend Manor House after his retirement from the Navy, and 
died there aged 91 in 1882. His only son, Capt. George Edward Montagu, 
died 1878, leaving three sons and a daughter, of whom Capt. George Edward 
Montagu now resides at Wilcot. 

Old Iiackham House and its contents, A.D. 1637. 

By Ed. Kite, in Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 3rd and 10th, 1927. In this 
article Mr. Kite gives the principal items of "an Inventory of the goodes 
&c., of Sir Robert Baynard, Knight, deceased," made Dec. 13th, 1637. The 
original is a parchment roll 16ft. in length. Mr. Kite begins with a sketch 
of the descent of the property. At Domesday William de Owe or Ewe held 
it. He was attainted and it was held in 1316 by Ralph Bluet who also held 
Littlecot, in Hilmarton, and perhaps land in New Park, Devizes. Sir John 
Bluet, dying before 1348, and his wife Eleanor were buried in the Lady 
Chapel of Lacock Abbey Church. His eldest daughter Margaret, wife of 
Will de Cusance, died without children and the property came to the 
younger daughter Elinor, wife of Edmund Baynard of an Essex family. 
VOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLVII. G 



82 Wiltshire BooJcs, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

He had a grant of hunting in the Forest of Pewsham from Edward III. 
His son Philip died 1414—15 ; Robert died 1437—8 ; his son Philip suc- 
ceeded ; Robert the next owner and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Ludlow, of Hill Deverill, had thirteen sons and five daughters. Philip was 
M.P. for Chippenham 1 491—2, and Robert, was Sheriflf of Wilts 1534, and died 
1536. Edward was Sheriff in 1553, M.P. for Chippenham in 1559, and died 
1575. His eldest son. Sir Robert Baynard, M.P. for Chippenham 1584 — 5, 
for Westbury 1586 — 7, and Sheriff 1629, left an only daughter, Mary, who 
married 1635, Capt. the Hon. James Montague, third son of Henry, third 
Earl of Manchester. Six generations of Montagues held Lackham, and re- 
built the house. Recent owners have been Brig.-Gen. G. LI. Palmer, who 
sold it to Lord Glanely, who lately sold it to Capt. H. P. Holt. 

Interesting items in the Inventory of the Hall are the arms. " Twelve 
bills and twee halberts £2 — 3 — 4 ; twoe pole axes, seaven picks, one chayne 
boulte staffe ^'2—5 — ; twoe muskett rests and pair of andirons and iron 
bar 6s. 6d." " One paire of cheese tonges 3d," 

There is a copy by Mr. Kite of an old print of the medieval house. 

The Statues on the West Front of Salisbury Cath- 
edral with a note on the Gargoyles. By Canon 
rietcher, F.R. Hist. S. Issued by authority of the 

Dean and Chapter. Price 3d. [1927], 7^in. X 4|in., pp. 10. Photos 
of W. Front and of three statues, and four pencil drawings by Miss C. 
Malcombe of original gargoyles. At the time of the restoration in 1863 
only eight of the original statues were left, and most of these were mutilated 
beyond recognition. The majority of the new statues are by the sculptor 
Redfern. Canon Fletcher's little booklet is intended as a guide to the 
identity of the statues with a line or two in each case as to the particular 
saint represented. It fulfils this purpose admirably. 

St. John Needlework. The Connoisseur of March, 1927, Vol 
Ixxvii, No. 307, pp. 144 — 151, contains an article by A, F. Kendrick, en- 
titled "Two Petit Point panels from Melchbourne," describing two remark- 
able panels of Elizabethan needlework in the possession of Lord St John of 
Bletsoe. They have been called carpets or table covers, and possibly were 
wall hangings. One of these panels, both of which are notable examples of 
needlework, has in the centre a roundel containing a shield, arms, and 
initials, which prove that it was worked to commemorate the marriage of 
Oliver St. John with Eliz., d. of William Paulet, in 1602, and has round the 
border 20 shields, arms of families connected with St. John. Of this panel 
three illustrations are given, the whole panel, the central roundel, and 
details of the border. The other panel, also illustrated, contains arms not 
yet identified with the St. John family, but it is suggested that it may be 
connected with Sir John St. John, Bart., who placed the painted wooden 
triptych with portraits of himself and his family in Lydiard Tregoze Church, 
and also put in the east window of St. Mary's Church, Battersea, containing 
shields of arms of more than 40 families connected with St. John. He 
inherited the manor of Battersea in 1630. 



I 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 83 

Devizes Castle in 1730. A hitherto unpublished 

Sketch. By Ed. Kite. A note in Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 18th, 1926, 
contains the following description of Devizes Castle in 1730 from un- 
published letters (British Museum, Additional MS. No. 6214) written by 
John Strachey, F.R.S., of Sutton Court, near Bristol, headed " Some 
remarks on various encampments in Somerset, Wilts, and Gloucestershire." 

" Ye Castle at ye Devises, in Wilts, is thought by Campden, and others 
to be Roman. Its Spirall Mount, of almost perpendicular ascent if you 
should attempt it in a direct line ; mostly Natural, but Art and Labour 
have added much to its Strength. In ye raigne of King Stephen 'twas 
thought ye Strongest fortress in England, where Maud ye Empress, 
being straitly besieged, was carried out in a Coffin under pretence of 
a funerall, and made her Escape. It had then a Stone building, 
which continued to ye Civil Warrs, when Oliver Cromwell reduced 
it after a Little Battering from an adjoining hill, and soon after de- 
molished it, so that there is not now left one Stone on another. But 
on ye very top there is ye Pitt of the late powder house w'ch 
remained within Memory. Two Wind Mills on ye Top are a late 
project for grinding Rape. There is an easy Ascent by a Spirall 
Walk, like that at Marlborow Mount, but neglected and quite out of 
repair. There is an indifferent good house Just within ye works at 
ye Bottom towards the Town, built out of ye materialls of ye Old 
Castle, but now also going to decay. The entrance to ye Town was on 
ye North, over a draw bridg, now gone, and ye ditch fill'd up at 
that place. The whole is now an Orchard Within ye Works." 

The sketch reproduced (but "in a slightly amended form") in the Gazette 
shows the two windmills on the mound, which were probably erected soon 
after the Civil War. In a map of the park dated 1654 one only is shown 
as " The Windmill " at the foot of the mound and not on the top. The 
" powder house " was used during Waller's siege of the Castle in 1645. The 
*' indifferent good house " shown in the sketch as having two gabled wings 
is marked in the map of 1654 as "The Castle House," and was apparently 
then occupied by Edward Essington. 

Take heed in time, or, A briefe relation of many 
Harmes which have of late been done by fire in 
Marlborough and in many other places. This Copy 
was drawne up and Printed, on purpose for the World 
to take notice of, and to be carefull to prevent the 
danger of Fire. Written by Ii. P. Iiondon. Printed 
for F. Grove, and are to be sold at his shop on 

Snow-hill, 1653. Reprinted at the Cayme Press, Kensington, 1927. 
Pamphlet, 6in. X 4jin., pp. 16. This facsimile of a rare tract was reprinted at 
the expense of Dr. Walter Byron Maurice, of Marlborough, who prints a 
short preface before the second title which runs : " A Briefe description of 

G 2 



84 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

the Towne of Marlborough and of the Harmes that were there done upon 
Thursday, the 28th of April], this present year 1653." 

Marlborough as it was before the fire is shortly described with its shops, 
etc., as to which it is said " no braver wares can be bought in London, then 
was to be had in the famous Towne of Marlborough." The origin of the 
Fire in the house of one Mr. Freeman, a tanner, '*as some of his servants 
were imployed with drying of Bark," on the south side of the street near 
St. Peter's Church, and its spread on both sides of the High Street until the 
Town Hall, St. Mary's Church, and some 300 houses were destroyed, is 
described. " And thus were the poor made poorer, and some of the richest 
became as poor as the poorest." " It is an old saying that one cannot help 
a great many, but a great many may help one : So I would have it to be, that 
all Cities and Shires in England, may forthwith lend their assistance to 
Relieve the distressed people of Marlborough, and to doe by them as they 
themselves would be done by if the case were their own." At the end 
other sad examples of destruction by fire are given, as at Lay ton, in Shrop- 
shire, where 150 houses were burnt in the same year. " I am verily 
perswaded, that if people would be more carefull, there would not be halfe 
so much harme done by fire as is, therefore I desire all people, whether 
they be Masters or Servants, Parents or Children, to have speciall care how 
you afterwards repent when it is too late." 

The Lansdowue Collections. By A, C. R. Carter. Daily 

Telegraph, reprinted in Wiltshire Gazette, June 9th, 1927. " One of the 
glories of the Bowood collection was Rembrandt's famous " Mill," which in 
1911, was sold to Mr. Joseph Widener after a vain effort to raise the pur- 
chase money of £100,000. Many famous picture^ had left this country for 
America before 1911, and many have for ever departed since, but if a poll 
had to be taken it would be found that Rembrandt and his " Mill" are 
more remembered than any other painter or any other picture. It was the 
misfortune of the late Lord Lansdowne not only to be unable to add to the 
collections which he had inherited, but to be forced to deplete them from 
time to time." Rembrandt's " Portrait of a Man," now in the Metropolitan 
Museum, New York, was sold in 1883 to Hay Marquand, of New York. 
Two fine landscapes by Hobbema went to the Rodolfe Kann collection in 
Paris, and in 1900 Vandyke's " Portrait of Queen Henrietta Maria," from 
Lansdowne House, was bought by Mr. Edmund Davis, passing afterwards 
to Lord Cowdray. A collection of drawings by the old masters formed early 
in the 19th century by the third Marquess, but entirely unknown to the 
artistic world, was sold at Sothebys, one of which, a study by Rembrandt 
from his " Staalmeesters," brought ^3,300. 

Swindon Hill. By A. D. Passmore. iV^. Wilts Herald, Feb. 5th, 
1926. The writer deals especially with Prehistoric remains found at Swin- 
don. He notes that the hole in which the " Longstone," a monolith 10ft. 
high, described by several writers, stood, is still visible in Longstone field, 
between Coate Road and Broome Lane. He mentions the various '* beaker " 
burials found on the hill, and notes that the skeleton of a woman from one 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 85 

of these interments is now in the British Museum of Natural History at S. 
Kensington. 

Demolition of Devizes Prison. The Wiltshire Gazette, 

May 26th, 1927, has a small process reproduction of a photo taken in Sept., 
1926, showing the portion of the prison then standing after the removal of 
the governor's house. Messrs. W. E. Uhivers & Sons are building houses 
on the site, and the method of pulling down the solid walls of the prison 
by means of a steel wire rope and a heavy traction engine is described. 

Ashton Keynes. Short notes on the Church, the village, and 
the crosses, by "Gilbert Prince" (A. F. Smith, of Swindon), were printed in 
the N. Wilts Herald, May 13th, 1927. 

Iiittle Hinton and its Church, by the same writer, iV^. Wilts 
Herald, April 8th, 1927. The chief features of the Church and the Norman 
font are described. 

Cricklade in the dim past. Again by the same writer. N. 
Wilts Herald, June 17th, 1927, contains a number of notes on events in 
Cricklade from Saxon times downwards, and descriptions of the architecture 
of both the Churches in some detail, together with the bells. 

Final years of the Bath Coaches. Coming of the 
Crreat Western Railway. By W. A. Webb. Wiltshire 

Gazette, January 21st, 1926. This useful article contains a great amount of 
condensed information as to the years between 1832, when a committee was 
formed in Bristol to promote a railway to London, and 1841 when the line 
was actually opened all the way from Paddington to Bristol. The first 
section, Paddington to Maidenhead, was opened June 4th, 1838, when the 
first coaches were conveyed by rail. On July 1st, 1839, it was opened to 
Twyford ; on March 30th, 1840, to Reading ; on June 1st, 1840, to Steven- 
ton ; on July 20th, 1840, to Uffington ; on December 17th. 1840, to Wootton 
Bassett ; on May 31st, 1841, to Chippenham ; and on June 30th, 1841, the 
whole way to Bristol ; the section from Bath to Bristol having been already 
opened August 31st, 1 840. The ruin of the coaching inns on the Marlborough 
— Bath road and the impoverishment and inconvenience caused by the dis- 
continuance of the coaches and the business that they brought with them is 
shortly described. 

The Wiltshire Wassail. By Alfred Williams. ? Wiltshire 
jGrazette. Mr. Williams considers that there was no specially Wiltshire cus- 
tom connected with the Wassail but that the same observances took place 
in N. Wilts, S. Gloucestershire, and along'the valley of the Thames. Much 
of his information he derived from " Wassail Harvey," an old inhabitant of 
Cricklade, a great folk song singer and an actor in the play " The Shepherd 
^nd the Maiden," which was produced every year at the Bark Harvest at 
Cricklade Tanneries. " There was a recognised company of Wassailers at 



86 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Cricklade trained to conduct the ceremony. They had an effigy of an oxt 
made of a withy frame, with a cured skin stretched over it. The head, 
horns, and tail were intact. The breast and foreparts were stufifed with 
straw and they fitted two small red lamps into the eye sockets. At Christ- 
mas time while the mummers and carol singers were going their rounds, the 
wassailers paraded in procession. Two of the sturdiest crept inside the frame- 
work of the effigy and carried it along on their backs, imitating the swaying 
motion of the beast. The chief wassailer walked before, carrying the 
wooden bowl that was decorated with ribbons and mistletoe. The remainder 
of the company followed behind dressed in fancy costumes ornamented with 
coloured ribbons. At every farm house or dwelling house of the better 
class people, they sang their merry song ; and the mistress of the house, or 
the maid, brought out warm spiced ale or hot punch with toast and roasted 
apples and replenished the bowl. They also pinned new ribbons to ithe 
dresses of the wassailers, which were treasured as trophies." The Cricklade 
version of the wassail song is given in full, together with notes on the 
special customs prevailing in Yorkshire and Devon. Mr. Williams suggests 
that the ox was the symbol of agriculture and instances. the homage paid to 
the ox in India at the present day. The Devonshire custom of wassailing 
the apple trees he compares also with present day tree worship in Indian 
villages, the root idea in both being fertility. 

The WeXCOmbe Dairy Bianch. An article in The Field 
partly reprinted in the Wiltshire Gazette, July 14th, 1927, describes Mr. 
Arthur Hosier's new system of dairy farming at Wexcombe and its wonder- 
ful results in converting into rich pasture land naturally poor and thin 
downland. An abstract of a paper by Mr. A. J. Hosier on the same subject 
is given in The Times, November 1st, 1927, 

Neolithic Camps in Wiltshire. The Wiltshire Gazette, 

October 8th, 1925, quotes an article in The Observer, by O. G. S. Crawford, 
on Hill Top Camps in Wessex, in which he quotes Knapp Hill Camp as the 
first to be diagnosed as possibly Neolithic by Mrs. Cunnington in 1908 
"That diagnosis has been confirmed by recent discoveries at Windmill Hill 
near Avebury." In both, the ditches are broken by frequent causeways for 
which no purpose can be assigned. Mr. Crawford suggests that the inner 
circle at Yarnbury recorded on maps in 1608, but forgotten again until it was 
rediscovered on an air photo taken in 1923, as well as the inner circle at 
Scratchbury may be of Neolithic date also. He suggests too that some of 
the existing great camps of Early Iron Age date may have been thrown up 
upon earlier Neolithic sites. 

A Wiltshire Mummers' Play. By Alfred Williams. Wilt- 
shire Gazette, December 30th, 1926. Mr. Williams discourses on the 
origin of the Mummers' play and compares it with similar present day 
observances in India. He then gives the words of the play as used at 
Lydiard at full length. 

Richard StrattOn, of Newport. The Wiltshire Times, July 23rd^ 
1927, gives his " Life Story." Born at Wroughton 1843, one of a family of 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 87 

twelve, his father renting Salthrop Farm. In 1851 his father rented also 
Broad Hinton and moved to that place. Richard Stratton, senr., was a 
pioneer in the use of agricultural machinery, &c., owning the first steam 
plough seen in Wiltshire, which superseded 20 oxen. Richard jun^ was 
educated at a private school at Calne, and at the North London Collegiate 
School. When he was 18 years old the whole management of Broad Hinton 
Farm was entrusted to him. In 1865, aged 22, he started farming on his 
own account at the Duffryn, Newport, on the Tredegar Estate. In 1866 he 
married Miss Bryan, of Down Ampney. They had nine children. Later 
he took other farms in addition to the Duflfryn. He was a breeder of 
Shorthorns, and founder of the Dairy Shorthorn Association, and President 
of the Shorthorn Society. He has been hon. sec. of the Monmouthshire 
Chamber of Commerce since its formation in 1868, and has served on many 
other committees. 

Memoir 7th Battalion the Wiltshire H.egimeut. 
France, 1915. Salonica, 1915—18. France, 1918. 
By C. K. Hulbert, Bodenham, Salisbury. [1927?] 4to. 

pp. 7. This memoir takes the form of a diary of very short entries of the 
principal events in the life of the Battalion from October 1st, 1914, when it 
was first formed at Codford, to its final dispersal in June, 1919. 

St. Melor and Amesbury. The Salisbury Journal, July 22nd, 
1927, contains an interesting account by the Rev. E. Rhys Jones (Vicar of 
Amesbury, 1919 — 26) of a recent visit to Lanmeur, near Morlaix, in Brittany, 
where St. Melor is believed to have been buried on the site of an early 
crypt still existing under the modern Church. The legend of the saint as 
told in Brittany is given. This article was reprinted as " A Pilgrimage to 
the shrine of St. Melor. Associations with Amesbury." Pamphlet, 6^in. 
X 4in., pp. 10. 

Swindon. The Bell Hotel. '' History of Swindon and Bell 
Hotel, 1515—1926," 4to., pp. 4. By E. A. E. Three process views of in- 
terior and 4 pp. of thin letterpress description. 

Melksham and Bradford-on-Avon. The Avon 
Tyre Rubber Works, 1886—1927. Reprinted from The 

Euhher Age, May, 1927. 4to., pp. 11. The story of the origin of the works 
of Browne & Margetson at Limpley Stoke in 1886, and their subsequent 
transference to Melksham, and the connection of the Fuller family with the 
business is told at some length. The work of the war years and of the 
present day, both at Melksham and at the branch works at Bradford-on- 
Avon are fully described and illustrated by good photo process blocks of the 
shops and two groups of managers and workers. 

The Charm of Salisbury. By A. L. Salmon in The Bristol 
Times and Mirror, Dec. J 8th, 1926. A pleasant article with a good process 
view of the Cathedral from the N.W., dwelling on the indefinable charm of 
the place, Cathedral, Close, rivers, and town. 



88 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, mid Articles, 

Stukeley's account of the Solar Eclipse of May, 

1 724- Stukeley, in his " Itinerarium Curiosum," gives in the form of a 
letter to Dr. Edmund Halley, the astronomer, dated from Amesbury, May 
10th, 1724, a full account of the Solar Eclipse as seen from that place. 
This is reprinted in full in the Wiltshire Gazette of June 30th, 1927. 

'' Dowuland Man," by H. J. Masslngham, 1926. 

Dr. R. C. C. Clay deals faithfully with this book and its unfounded assertions 
and theories in Antiquity, March, 1927, pp. 120 — 122. 

William Beckford. "A Man of mystery, Beckford and his 
Eccentricities." Melville S. Penley has under this title in the Wiltshire 
Times, August 13th, 1927, a useful article on the popular belief in fabulous 
orgies at Fonthill behind the high park wall, and afterwards in the 
secrecy of Lansdowne Tower, as well as his supposed rudeness to strangers, 
and hatred of women. All these stories the writer declares to have been 
entirely groundless. 

NewSarum. 1227—1927. Programme of 700th 

Anniversary Celebrations. Printed and published at the " Jour- 
nal " Office, Salisbury. Pamphlet, 7^in. X 5in„ pp. 32. Portrait of the 
Mayor of Salisbury (J. 0. Hudson), views of the old and new Council 
Houses, and Cathedral. Excellent accounts are given of the various groups 
in the great procession illustrative of the 700 years of Salisbury's history, 
and of the historical events which they represented, as arranged by Mrs. 
Herbert Richardson from the scheme originally laid down by Mr. F. 
Stevens, F.S.A. It is really, as the procession and its accompanying 
festivities were themselves, a resum6 of the city's history. 

The Geology of the District around Devizes. By 

Canon E. P. Knubley, South-Westem Naturalists' Union Pro- 
ceedings, December 31st, 1926, 8vo., 2 pp. These short but useful notes 
were written for the conference of the S.W. Naturalists' Union which was 
to have been held (but was not) at Devizes in 1926. 

The Story of Phyllis Joye, of Box, and the mad 

cat is told by W. G. Addison in Wiltshire Times, January 1st, 1927. The 
indenture of her apprenticeship to John Coombs, Broadweaver, of Trow- 
bridge, 1759, is given, together with the story of her attempt to get money 
out of the overseer, Mr. William Brewer, in 1765, when she said she had 
been bitten by a mad cat, and showed scratches made with a pin on her 
leg to prove her case. 

Alderman C. HaskinS. The Salisbury Times, July 8th, 1927, 
gives an account of the conferring of the Freedom of the City of Salisbury 
on Alderman Charles Haskins (he is only the fourth person so honoured) 
on account of his great services to the city for the last forty years. A 
portrait and an illustration of the silver casket presented to him are given. 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 89 

William Pitt and Stratford-SUb-Castle. Some corres- 
pondence appeared in the Wiltshire Gazette as to whether William Pitt was 
born at Stratford or not, and in the issue of April 21st, 1927, Mr. J. J. 
Hammond states that there was never any tradition that William Pitt was 
born there. His father held the manor of Stratford as a leaseholder under 
the Bishop and lived there, but William Pitt was in all probability born in 
London. 

Stephen Duck, the Thresher Poet. An article by 

" Gossiper " in the Wiltshire Gazette, June 23rd, 1927, quotes a description 
from his poems of Duck's feast at Charlton. 

Devizes during the Civil Wars, By B. H. Cun- 

nington, F.S.A. (Scot.). Wiltshire Gazette, March 31st, April 
7th, 14th, 1927. The condition of Devizes is described as mainly royalist in 
feeling, though under the rule of Sir Edward Baynton, of Bromham, who 
commanded the parliamentary forces in Wiltshire, until 1643, when he was 
succeeded by Sir Edward Hungerford, of Corsham, for a time, until he re- 
tired to Bath, leaving Devizes to the royalists. Capt. Cunnington begins 
his notes by giving a topographical sketch of the town as it then existed, 
its streets and principal buildings, and their modern representatives. At 
the beginning of the trouble in 1642 the Town Council ordered that watch 
and ward should be kept within the borough, and that ten corslets and ten 
pikes should be bought. This was followed later in the year by the purchase 
of two great guns called " Draks." On October 25th, fifteen corslets and 
SIX muskets were distributed, gunpowder and match were brought from 
Chippenham and Bradford and the entrances to the town were being con- 
tinually blocked with chains, &c. The powder was stored in the tower of 
St. John's Church, and other ; preparations for defence were made. All 
these particulars are gleaned from entries in the municipal records. Twenty 
swords were bought, the wheelsof the great ordnance were bonded, sentinels 
were posted at the town's ends, and wooden barricades strengthened with 
chains were erected. Collins and Bancroft were continually out scouting, 
and the night watchmen had to be supplied with candles and beer. The 
entrances to the town were blocked with large baulks of timber and more 
muskets were purchased. The march of the royalists after the battle of 
Lansdowne on July 5th, 1643, through Chippenham, Derry Hill, Sandy 
Lane, by Bromham Hall, to Devizes, is described. All the way the rear 
guard was engaged with Waller's troops following them up. It is noted 
that Bromham Hall, Sir Edward Baynton's house, near Netherstreet, was 
burnt in 1645 by order of Sir James Long lest it should fall into the hands of 
the parliamentary forces. The events immediately preceding the battle of 
Roundway, the capture of the royalist convoy of ammunition from Oxford, 
near Beckhampton, the advance and investment and subsequent bombard- 
ment of Devizes by Waller, with a battery of seven guns on Jump Hill, 
and the escape of the royalist cavalry to Oxford, whilst the Cornish infantry 
held the town, are detailed. The fact that they were able to hold out 
against Waller's forces, and ultimately to defeat him decisively on Roundway 



90 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

Down, with the help of the reinforcements from Oxford is ascribed by 
Captain Cunnington largely to the foresight of Alderman Richard Pearce 
in laying in a store of gunpowder in St. John's Church. Waller was pre- 
paring to storm Devizes on July 13th when the Oxford troops appeared on 
the Marlborough road and he was forced to draw up on Roundway Down 
to meet them and was there decisively defeated. After this Sir Charles 
Lloyd, governor of Devizes, repaired the defences of the Castle, which was 
then in ruins, and garrisoned it for the King. In September, 1645, Crom- 
well with 5000 men entered the town with little opposition, formed a battery 
of ten guns in the Market Place opposite the Castle and bombarded it for 
a day and a night, when Sir Charles Lloyd surrendered. In 1646 the 
Parliament Committee resolved that " The Castle Hill and Works at the 
Devizes shall be forthwith slighted or demolished." A useful and in- 
teresting article, which gathers together all the known facts concerning the 
fighting in the neighbourhood and sets them forth in order. 

Lady Suffolk and her circle. By Lewis Melville. 

London ; Hutchinson & Co., 1924. 8vo., pp. xviii. + 292, 17 illustrations. 
Henrietta Hobart, d. of Sir Henry Hobart, 4th Baronet, married the Hon. 
Charles Howard, afterwards 9th Earl of Suffolk, 1706. Their son, Henry, 
10th Earl of Suffolk, was born January 1st, 1707. The date of her birth is 
not known, 1681 and 1688 have been conjectured. She died July 26th, 1767. 
In 1710 Charles Howard and his wife went to the court of the Elector of 
Hanover, and on his accession to the throne of England as George L re- 
turned with him. Mrs. Howard was appointed a woman of the bed cham- 
ber to the Princess of Wales in 1714, and about 1720 became, according to 
general belief, the mistress of the Prince of Wales, afterwards George II., re- 
maining at Court and on apparently good terms with the Princess, after- 
wards Queen, until she retired from Court in 1734. Her husband, who 
appears to have received a yearly pension in consideration of her relations 
with the King, died September 28th, 1733, and on June 26th, 1735, she 
married secondly the Hon. George Berkeley, who died October 29th, 1746 
This book contains a great amount of gossip and scandal, letters of Lady 
Howard and letters to her, with contemporary reports, and details as to the 
life of the courts of George I. and George II., gathered from original 
sources, which are carefully given in footnotes. There are two portraits of 
Lady Suffolk from engravings. 



91 



ADDITIONS TO MUSEUM AND LIBRAKY. 



Museum. 

Presented by Mk. J. E. Pritchard, F.S.A. : Silver Medal with view of 
Stonehenge, 1796. 

„ „ Me. Richard Lake : Flint Chipped Celt from Easterton. 

„ „ Dr, R. C. C. Clay : Bronze Palstave from Dinton ; Remark- 

able small Flint Implement, in shape of a modern broad 
garden hoe blade, beautifully chipped. 

„ „ Prof. T. Zammit, C.M.G.: A series of specimens of the 

Neolithic and Bronze Age pottery found at Hal Tarxien 
and other sites in Malta. For comparison. 

„ ,, Me. T. V. Briggs : Flint Knife from Biddestone. 

„ „ Mr. W. J. Dale : A Duelling Rapier found in a ditch at 

Roundway, 1927. 

,. „ HiGHWoRTH Rural District Council : Saxon Iron Spear 

Head, Knife, and part of Gouge, from Wanborough. 

„ „ Mr. Anthony Burdon : Flint Knife made from fragment of 

polished Celt. 



Library. 

Presented by Messrs. G. Simpson & Co. : " The Monumental Inscriptions 
in Salisbury Cathedral," and " The Wiltshire Broomes." 
Reprints from the Wiltshire Gazette. 

„ „ Col. J. Benett Stanford : Thirteen vols, of " WiltsParish 

Registers. Marriages." Phillimore's series. 

„ „ Miss R. A. Goddard : " The Swindonian," eight numbers. 

" The Swindon Euclid Street Secondary School Maga- 
zine," four numbers, 1926—27. 

„ „ The Author, Mr. J. A. Neale, D.C.L. : "Supplement to 

Charters and Records of JSI eales of Berkeley, Yate, and 
Corsham," 4to., 1927. 

„ „ Mrs. Stone : A large selection from the MS. notes, plans, kc.f 

concerning Stonehenge, left by the late Mr. E. H. Stone, 
F.S.A. 

„ „ The Publishers, Geeat Western Railway : *' Brunell and 

after, the Romance of the Great Western Railway," and 
*' From Cave Man to Roman in Britain." 



92 Additions to Library. 

Presented by Mrs. Lovibond and Miss Baker " The Weekly Entertainer 
and West of England Miscellany, 1822." " Lecture at 
W^arminster, 1885, by J. Croston." " Free land or the 
three F.s? by the Earl of Pembroke," 1881. "Report 
of Annual Conference of Head Masters held at Marl- 
borough College, 1877." 

„ „ Mr. C. Haskins : Illustrations of St. Edmund's College, 

Salisbury. 

„ „ The Author, Canon Fletcher : "The Statues on the West 

Front of Salisbury Cathedral, with a note on the Gar- 
goyles, 1927." 

„ „ Mr. a. D. Passmore : Wilts Pamphlet. 

„ „ Mr. R. V. Goddard : Sixteen Wiltshire Air Photographs of 

Camps, &c. 

„ „ Mr. C. Penruddocke : Wilts Pamphlet. 

„ „ Dr. Walter Maurice : " Take heed in time, or a briefe 
Relation of many Harmes which have of late been done 
by fire in Marlborough, 1653," &c. Pamphlet, 6in. X 4^in. 
Reprinted 1927. 

„ „ The Author, Canon E. P. Knubley : •' The Geology of the 

District round Devizes " (notes from S.W. Naturalists' 
Union Proc), 8vo. 

„ „ The Author, Rev. E. Rhys Jones : " A Pilgrimage to the 
Shrine of St. Melor. Associations with Amesbury.'^ 
Pamphlet, 1927. 

„ „ The Author, Mr. John Soul : " Stonehenge and the 
Ancient Mysteries," 1927. 
„ The Author (in part), Dr. R. C. C. Clay, F.S.A. : " Ex- 
cavations at Chelmes Combe, Cheddar," 1927. 

„ „ Messrs. A. Shaw Mellor, B. Hankey, Rev. H. E. 
Ketchley, and the Rev. E. H. Goddard : The cost 
(£4) of the rare old print of The Wootton Bassett 
Election Procession of 1808. 

„ „ Rev. E. H. Goddard : Trust Deed of Bradford Saxon 

Church (printed 1911). 

„ „ Capt. B, H. Cunnington : Three Old Deeds, Devizes. 

„ „ Mr. J. J. Slade : Seventeen Wilts Estate Sale Catalogues. 

Memoirs of the 7th Battalion the Wiltshire Regiment. 

„ „ Rev. C. V. Goddard : Coloured Print of Wilts Yeomanry. 

„ „ Mr. Joshua Smith, of Potterne : An old Book of Postage 

Rates used at Potterne. 



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No. CXLVIII. JUNE, 1928. Vol. XLIV. 



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WILTSHIRE 
Archaeological & Natural History 

AGAZINE. 



No CXLVIII. JUNE 1928. Vol. XLIV. 



Contents. PAGE. 

Polished Flint Knives, with particular reference to one 

RECENTLY FOUND AT DURRINGTON : By R. C C. Clay, 

M.R.C.S., F.S.A 97—100 

Pre- Roman Coffin Burials with particular reference to 

ONE FROM A Barrow AT FovANT : By R. C. C. Clay. F.S.A. 101—105 
Thomas Duckett and Daniel Bull, iM embers for Calne : 

By L. B. Namier 106—110 

Two Shale Cups of the Early Bronze Age and other 

similar Cups : By R. S. Newall, b\S A. .: 111—117 

Beaker and Food Vessel from Barrow No. 25, Figheldean : 

By R. S. Newal], F.S.A , 118 

The Seventy-Fourth General Meeting of the Wiltshire 

Arch^ological and Natural History Society, held at 

Frome, July 25th, 26th, and 27th, 1927 119—127 

Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn. II. : By 

Cecil P. Hurst 128-137 

Objects found during Excavations on the Romano-British 

Site at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverell. 1926. 

By R. de C. Nan Kivell 138—142 

Notes on Clyffe Pypard and Broad Town : By the late 

Canon Francis Goddard 143 — 170 

Wilts Obituary 171—180 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 181—198 

Additions to Museum and Library 199-200 

Accounts OF THE Society for the Year 1927 201—204 

List of Officers and Members of the Society, June, 1928... 205 — 214 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Polished Flint Knife from Durrington 98 

Shale Cups, I. & II., in Salisbury Museum 111—114 

Cups. Shale ? Stowborougb, Dorset. Shale, Broad Down, 

Honiton, Devon. Amber, Martinstown, Dorset. Amber, 

Hove, Sussex. Gold, Rillaton, Cornwall 115 

Food Vessel and Beaker from Barrow No. 25, Figheldean 118 

Objects found during excavations on the Romano- British Site 

at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixtan Deverell, Plates I. & II 139—140 

Fragment of Bronze Bracelet (?) of Hallstatt age from Cold 

Kitchen Hill, 1927 141 

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THE 

WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE. 



"MULTORUM MA.NIBUS GRANDE LEVATUR ONUS."— Oi^lC?. 



No. CXLVIII. June, 1928. Vol. XLIV. 



POLISHED FLINT KNIVES. WITH PAETICULAR 

REFERENCE TO ONE RECENTLY FOUND 

AT DURRINGTON, 

By R. C. C. Clay, M.R.C.S., F.S.A. 

In September, 1926, Mr. W. E. Young found a polished flint knife near 
the eastern end of the Cursus, almost due north of the King Barrows, 
Lat. 51. 11. 21., Long. 1. 48. 10. He has kindly presented it to our Society's 
Museum at Devizes. Its length is 3ins., width 2:|ins., and greatest thickness 
^in. It has been weathered, and displays a dirty white patination on both 
surfaces. These surfaces had been delicately chipped until they were nearly 
flat, and then the ridges smoothed down by grinding. Three of its sides 
have been sharpened by grinding, while the fourth has been blunted for 
handgrasp by alternate chipping and a small amount of grinding across 
the edge. 

Polished flint knives are rare. Under this heading all knives that were 
made from broken polished flint celts in which the original cutting edge of 
the celt was utilised as a knife edge, are excluded, and only those are 
included which were first of all chipped into shape, and the finishing touches 
to the edge and upper and lower surfaces afterwards given by polishing or 
grinding. These knives fall naturally into three main classes or divisions, 
namely, (1) Rectangular with rounded corners, (2) Triangular, (3) Circular. 
The horseshoe type is included in Class three. There are also a few 
specimens of indeterminate shape which cannot be classified, but they are 
always poor specimens, show little care in the roughing out process, and 
the amount of grinding on them is usually small. The commonest type 
in Britain is the horseshoe, with one straight and three curved sides, the 
straight side having been blunted for handgrasp. Our specimen from 
Durrington is an admirable example of this type. The so-called Picts' 
knives from Scotland are never made of flint, but of some other stone. 
They are very thin and are paralleled only by two thin rectangular flint knives 
VOL. XLIV.— NO. CXLVIII. H 



98 



Polished Flint Knives. 





Polished Flint Knife from Durrington. }- 



By B. a a Clay, MM.CS., F.S.A. 99 

from Yorkshire. One from Barrow No. C 75, Aldro Group* was found with 
a crouched skeleton. It measures 4gins. by l^ins. and is only-p^in. in 
thickness. It is polished all over. The other was also found with a 
<;rouched skeleton in Duggleby Howe^ and measures 2|ins. X l^ins. It 

is -in. thick. These two knives are unique and do not fall into any of the 
-categories dealt w ith in this paper. 

Unfortunately most of these knives have been picked up from the surface 
of ploughed fields and were not definitely associated with any objects that 
-can give irrefutable evidence of their date. Mortimer cites a polished flint 
knife that was found with a whetstone and a crushed cinerary urn at 
Rookdale Farm, Sledmere, Yorkshire.^ This suggests a middle Bronze Age 
date, although the type of cinerary urn is not stated. A circular knife 
came from " the stone circle at Arbor Low."^ A flint knife-dagger is said 
to have been found with it. This implies an early Bronze Age date if the 
association is correct. From analogies with other megalithic structures of 
similar form Arbor Low itself is almost certainly of the same period. The 
rectangular knife found at Overton, Wilts, beneath the roots of an ash tree 
on Pick Elidge Farm, and now in the Blackmore Museum, Salisbury, was 
■definitely associated with a large barbed and tanged flint arrowhead.* This 
arrowhead might quite possibly be of early Bronze Age date. A triangular 
knife from " near Ely," and now in the Museum of Archaeology and 
Ethnology, Cambridge, was definitely associated with beaker fragments. 
It can safely be stated that these knives belong to a period which is later than 
the Neolithic Age proper, a period when the art of flint flaking and flint 
polishing was at its prime. This period lies well within the early and 
middle portions of the Bronze Age. With the late Bronze Age came the 
knowledge of iron, the freer use of metals of all kinds, and consequently 
the abandonment of flint as a material for tool making. 

The following list of polished knives, in addition to the Durrington 
example, is probably far from complete since these implements are essen- 
tially cabinet specimens and no doubt many have found a resting place in 
the homes of collectors. 

Rectangular Knives. Pentrefoelas, Denbighshire.^ Lean Low, nr. New- 
haven, Derbyshire.7 Burwell Fen, Cambs.^ Quy Fen, Cambs.^ Lacken- 
heath.^" Torrs, Glenluce, Wigtonshire.^i Pitforthie, Fordoun, Kincardin- 
shire.^^ Overton, Wilts. *^ Brandon, 1 mile west of Grimes' Graves' Plant- 
ation." Burwell Fenn.^^ Bottisham Fen.*^ From Cambridgeshire.*'' 

' Forty Years' Researches, p. 74, PI. XIX., fig. 160. 
2 Ihid., p. 28, PI. VII., fig. 58. 3 ffQ^iy Years' Researches, p. 42. 
* B.M. Guide to Stone Age, p. 124, fig. 124. 
« Arch. Jour., XIL, p. 124, fig. 124. 
* Arch. Journ., XL, p. 414 ; XVII., p. 171. 7 Bateman Gat., p. 66, No. 18. 

8 9 10 Evans' Stone, p. 304. " Edin. Mus. Cat., AA6. ^^ /^^-^^ ^^g 
« Evans' Stone, fig. 255 ; W.AM., Ill, p. 17 ; Arch. Jour., XIL, p. 285. 
" P.P.S.E.A., IL, p. 432, fig. 88. 15 IS '7 Mus. Archaeology and Ethnology, 
Cambridge. 

H 2 



100 Polished Flint Knives. 

Triangular Knives. Kempston, Beds.* Fimber, Yorks.^ Thames at 

Windsor.^ Mildenhall.'* Derbyshire.* Suffolk.^ Thames at Richmond.^ 

Gussage Down, Dorset.® Laverstock, Wilts.' Alfriston, Sussex.'" Wesfe 

Dean, near Brighton." Yiewsley, Middlesex.^^ Burwell.^^ From near Ely.'* 

Numbers 21, 22, and 23 are not true type specimens. 

Circular Knives. Arbor Low.'^ Dunwester.'^ From the Londesborough 
Collection.'^ Aldbourne, Wilts.'^ Ramsbury, Wilts.'^ Durrington, Wilts.^** 
Cookroost Hill.^' Near Dyke Station.^' Newhaven, Derbyshire." Shurburn 
Carr, Yorks.^* Mining Low.^* Kintore, Aberdeenshire.^^ Lanarkshire.^^ 
Rushford, Norfolk; Winton, Hants.'-'s Ellisfield, Hants.^a Trefeglwys, 
Montgomeryshire.'" Thames near Benson.^' High Salvington, Sussex.'* 
Storrington, Sussex.'^ Fourdoun, Kincardinshire.'* Pitdoulzie, Turrifif, 
Aberdeenshire.'* Hackpen, Wilts."' Avebury Down, Wilts.'^. Thwing, 
Yorks.'^ Old Ports wood, Hants.^^ Two from Icklingham.*" Burwell."** 
Bottisham.'*^ 

Specimens have been found at Henfield Common, Sussex : Sway, Hants j 
and Sledmere, Yorkshire ; but their forms are not known. 

Specimens which cannot be placed in any category, chiefly on account of 
their irregular forms, have been found in the Basingstoke neighbourhood 
(Willis Coll.), at Winterbourne Monkton, Wilts (Kendall Coll.), Jefifrey's 
Point, near Devil's Dyke (Brighton Mus.), and Chelsfield, Kent (Garra way- 
Rice Coll.). 

Certain unpolished and perhaps unfinished specimens of similar form 
have been found, and reference may be made to one from Bridlington 
(Evans' Stones fig. 254). 



1 Flint Chips, p. 75 ; Evans' Stone, fig, 256. 2 3 4 5 6 Evans' Stone, p. 305. 

5" B.M. ^ Salisbury Museum. ^ Blackmore Museum, 

10 11 12 Garraway-Rice Coll. " ''^ Mus. and Arch. Ethnology, Cambridge. 

'* '6 17 B.M. '8 '" Passmore Coll. 20 Devizes Museum, ^i 22 Brighton Mus. 

23 Evans' Stone, fig. 258. ^4 25 jj^-^^ ^^ 305. 26 75^^^ gg, 257, Edin. Mus. 

'^'^ Edin. Mus. ^ Russell-Coates' Art Gallery, Bournemouth. 

29 Willis Coll. '<> R.G.AM. Mont., No. 887, fig. 48, Welshpool Mus. 

'' Ashmolean Mus. '^ Private hands in New Zealand, 

33 Garraway-Rice Coll. ^4 35 e^j^ j^^^g^ se Swindon Mus. 

37 Kendall Coll. ^s Mortimer, PI. E., fig. 181 B. ^s Winchester Mus. 

40 41 42 Mus. of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge. 



101 



PKE-EOMAN COFFIN BUEIALS WITH PARTICULAR 
REFERENCE TO ONE FROM A BARROW AT FOYANT. 

By R. C. C. Clay, F.S.A. 

In the Anglo-Saxon charter of the lands of Fovant and Sutton Mandeville, 
<iated A.D. 994, the boundaries of the two parishes which King Aethelred 
granted to the monastery at Wilton are surveyed.' The southern portion 
of the eastern boundary, and its junction with the Ridgeway, which runs 
almost due east and west along the ridge of chalk downs, is thus described : 
^* . . . then from Sigewine's Dyke up on the Down thirty rods east of 
Chester Camp where the flowers grow' to the burial place (byrigenne). 
From the burial place to the Highway." The modern eastern and southern 
boundaries form a right-angled corner south of Chiselbury (Chester Camp). 
Since the Saxon boundaries elsewhere in the charter correspond exactly 
with the modern boundaries, it was natural to suppose that the burial place 
was situated somewhere in that small area of ground which lies between 
Chiselbury and the junction of the eastern and southern boundaries. I 
therefore cut several trial trenches through this area from the spot " thirty 
rods east " of the camp to " the Highway," but no burials were found, and 
I therefore concluded that the " byrigenne " were the two small tumuli 
marked on Colt-Hoare's map west of Chiselbury and just north of the 
ridgeway, that the Saxon boundary made a sweep round Chiselbury, and 
that it did not correspond with the modern boundary. Although the land 
on which these two barrows were supposed to be situated is on top of the 
downs, yet it has for a hundred years at least been carefully cultivated, and 
I am informed that at one time a herd of donkeys was employed to bring 
manure in panniers up the steep escarpment from West Farm, Fovant. No 
barrows are marked here on the ordnance maps, an aeroplane photograph 
of the land (grass-covered) to the west of the camp showed no barrows, and 
in spite of diligent search no mound was discovered in this large field, until 
in 1926 Mr. Kerley found a slight rise in the turf in the extreme south-west 
corner. This was examined and proved to be an abraded barrow. 

This barrow lies in Lat. 51. 2. 47. N., Long. 1. 58. 58. W., 57 feet north 
of the ridgeway and 165 feet from the fence on the western side of the field, 
and 3 furlongs south-west of Chiselbury. Its diameter is 28 feet, and its 
highest part only 10 inches above the normal ground level. Beneath the 
estimated centre a rectangular cist was found with its long axis south-west 



» Kemble 687. 
' It is of interest to note that immediately south of Chiselbury there is 
still a patch of the very handsome and conspicuous greater willow-herb, 
Epilohium Augustifolium^ met with in patches, usually far apart, on the 
Southern Downs. 



102 Pre-Boman Cofln Burials. 

and north-east. Its length was 5 feet 6 inches, its width 2 feet 10 inches^ 
and the bottom of the cist was 3 feet below the surface of the barrow. In 
it, and filling its lower portion, were the remains of a wooden coffin con- 
sisting of a soft, powdery, black material very similar to charcoal. The 
upper part of the coffin extended in a horizontal layer, f inch in thickness^ 
across the cist at a depth of 2^ feet below the crest of the barrow. 
Immediately under this layer some human bones consisting of frontal and 
temporal bones, a 12th rib, a pisiform and a molar were found. These 
bones lay in their proper position, but the rest of the skeleton had decayed, 
and may have been represented by a whitish material like finely divided 
chalk. In front of the skull bones there was a large antler of red deer, and 
a pick-like implement of antler was discovered where the hips should have 
been. The floor of the cist was covered by the same thick black layer of 
decayed wood. When the coffin decayed it collapsed and at the same time 
spread and filled up the corners of the cist, so that a vertical section of the 
coffin when found gave it the form of a pointed oval. In the centre the 
depth between the upper and lower sides of the coffin was 6 inches. The 
skeletal remains suggest that the body was lying on its left side with the 
head to the south-west and the legs to the north-east. It was probably 
crouched. One calcined flint was in the coffin, but might have been 
accidentally thro\vn there when the cist was filled in. The wood of the 
coffin was oak, but it was difficult to determine its original form. No 
clamps or nails were found and the burial can be ascribed to the Early 
Bronze Age. There was a top to the coffin, possibly made from a hollowed 
and split tree trunk with boarded ends attached. If the remains found had 
been of planks placed above and below the body, there would have appeared 
spaces between the adjoining planks, but none were found. Indeed the 
upper and lower portions of the coffin formed even and unbroken layers, as 
if each had consisted of one large entire slab of wood. It is worthy of 
notice that the skeletal remains discovered in other early wooden coffins 
have usually been badly decayed ; more so in fact than if the body had 
been interred without a coffin. This suggests that the air round the body 
in the coffin allows aerogenous bacteria to hasten decomposition. Another 
suggestion is that the acid from the decaying wood may act on the bones. 
In the present instance all conjectures of interference after burial, whether 
by treasure seekers or by burrowing animals, can be ruled out, since the 
upper layer of the coffin formed an unbroken line. The bones preserved 
were lying up against the southern end of the straight walled cist, and con- 
sequently the percolation of water with humic acid in suspension from rain, 
usually from the south-west quarter, may have been prevented at this 
spot. 

Sir Arthur Keith has kindly examined the bones and has reported on 
them as follows : — " I do not think that any theory of gradual decay will 
account for a well preserved frontal and temporal bone, a piece of 12th rib, 
a pisiform, and a molar, all in good condition. Something disturbed that 
skeleton, either before it was put in a coffin, or more likely afterwards. 
The frontal bone is that of a young man, for his coronal suture was perfectly 
open. What the exact shape of his head was we cannot tell, but he had 



By B. G. G. Glay, F.S.A. 103 

strong supraorbital ridges. He might well have been a " beaker man " so 
far as his supraorbital ridges are concerned. The forehead was of average 
English width, 97.5mm., and the supraorbital width was great, 11 1mm. 
The greatest width of the frontal is 122mm., so he may have been a " beaker 
man," or rather " round headed." 

Coffins of split tree trunks are commonly found in Denmark with burials 
of the first part of the Bronze Age. In Britain coflSn burials are uncommon 
until Romano-British times, but most of the recorded examples also belong 
to the Early Bronze Age, although, when cremation was as yet a new 
custom, burnt bones were occasionally placed in wooden boxes. These 
early coffin burials can be classified under various headings according to 
the method employed. Perhaps the commonest form was a coffin made by 
hollowing and splitting a tree trunk. Wooden ends were sometimes added. 
Other coffins were of boat-like form; and occasionally a flat lid was affixed 
with wooden pegs. Another method was to line the floor of the cist with 
planks, and then to place planks over the body without any end-pieces or 
any attempt to join the planks together to form a coffin in the true sense of 
the word. Instances where the body rested on planks without any wooden 
covering should come under this heading of coffin burials. With the 
exception of one recorded instance from Dorset, coffin burials appear to 
have been restricted to Wiltshire and Yorkshire. 

Wiltshire.* 

Aldbourne. Barrow 14. Burnt bones and a bronze knife-dagger enclosed 
in a wooden box.^ 

Amesbury. Barrow 15. (164 Hoare). Bell barrow. Skeleton lying 
on a plank of elm wood, with 3 pieces of oak wood radiating upwards from 
the cist to the surface of the barrrow. Associated objects : Bronze dagger 
with remains of wooden sheath, small bronze knife-dagger, antlers and a 
beaker.^ 

CoUingbourne Ducis. Barrow 4. (24 Hoare). Burnt bones contained 
in wooden coffin or tree trunk, 6ft. long and 3ft. wide. Associated objects : 
Incense cup, bronze dagger, and long bronze pin with double rings in head.* 

CoUingbourne Ducis. Barrow 10. (5 Hoare). Burnt bones in hollow 
tree trunk, associated with antler hammer.* 

CoUingbourne Ducis. Barrow 12. (7 Hoare). Remains of skeleton on 
wooden plank, 5ft. below the surface of barrow. 

Ogbourne St. Andrew. Barrow 1 1 . Saxon burials in wooden coffins at 
depth of 2ft.; burnt bones, wrapped in cloth, on a wooden plank, associated 
with a flint knife at a depth of 7ft.; and a cist 7ft. long lined with wood 
at the bottom of the barrow.^ 

* The numbers of barrows are those in Goddard's List, W.A.M.t 
XXXVIII., p. 153, ff unless otherwise stated. 

M.r.,IL Stations XL, XII. Wbid., L, 205, 206. 

^ Ibid., L, 185, pi. XXIIL, Cat. Stourhead Coll., 116, Evans* Bronsei 366, 
fig. 449. ' W.A.M,, X. 94—97., Dev. Mus. Cat,, IL, X32, X33. 

« W A.M.,XXIL,3A6 ', Smith, Antiq. JV. Wilts, 189, XIV., M.IIU.; A, W., 
IL Stations XL, XII. 



104 Pre- Roman Coffin Burials. 

Overton, West. Barrow 1. Skeleton in wooden cofiBn with bronze 
knife-dagger, crutched pin, nnd flanged celt.^ 

Roundway. Barrow 5. Oval barrow. In east end cist with burnt 
bones, flint arrowhead, whetstone, flint knife, bronze knife-dagger, and 
antler needle. In west end burnt bones deposited with knife-dagger in 
wooden box or coffin.^ 

Upton Scudamore, Barrow 1. Secondary burial of skeleton in a wooden 
coflSn. Associated object : small bronze knife dagger.' 

Wilsford. Barrow 43. (8 Hoare). Burnt bones with bronze dagger and 
whetstone in wooden box."* 

Wilsford. Barrow 56. (182 Hoare). Burnt bones in wooden box, 
associated with bronze knife-dagger, bone tweezers and pin.* 

Winterbourne Stoke. Barrow 4. (15 Hoare). Bell Barrow. Burnt 
bones in wooden box with bone pin, bow tips of bronze and bone tweezers.^ 

Winterbourne Stoke. Barrow 5. (16 Hoare). Skeleton in hollowed 
elm trunk with " urn of ginger jar shape," 2 bronze daggers, and bronze 
awl with bone handle.^ 

Winterbourne Stoke. Barrow 9. (26 Hoare). Shallow boat-shaped 
€offin of wood, containing a skeleton, necklace of amber beads, bronze 
knife-dagger, bronze awl and small pottery vessel.^ 

Yatesbury. Barrow 3. Burnt bones in hollowed tree trunk. Associated 
with bronze knife-dagger.^ 

Dorset. 
King barrow, near Stowborough. Hollowed tree trunk containing a 
skeleton. Many of the bones had disappeared, and those which remained 
were very friable, i" 

Yorkshire. 
Gristhorpe. Small coflSn of split and hollowed oak trunk. Contained a 
semi-crouched skeleton and a bronze knife-dagger.^^ 



* Cran. Brit., A.I. 7 ; A.W. II. 90 ; Arch. XLIII., 121 ; Evans' ^^ronze, 51, 
134 ; Antiq. N. Wilts, 167, XI., H. VI. k. 

^Dev. Mus. Gat., II., X57— X68 ; W.A.M., VI., 162; Antiq. N,W.,QS, 
IV. A. VIII. g. 

M.TF. L, 52. 
* A.W., I. 211, pi. XXVIII. ; Stourhead Cat., 134, 179. 
« A.W., L„ 207 ; Ihid, III., Ilia., 174. 
« A,W., I., 122, pi. XIV. ; Arch,, XLL, 125, fig. 75 ; Evans' Bronze, 241, 
302 ; Stourhead Gat., 21, 22, 78a ; W.A.M., XXXVIL, 99. 

"^ A.W., I. 123, pi. XV.; Arch,, LXL, 122; Bronze, 190, 241, fig. 227; 
Stourhead Cat., 23 — 25. 

« A. W., I., 124. 
' Proc. Arch. Inst, Salisbury, 96, 97, fig. T. ; W.A.M., XVIII., 332 ; Antiq, 
A^.r., 86, 87, VI. E. IV. b, c. 

'" Gentleman's Mag., XXXVII., 53 ; Jewitt Grave Mounds, 47. 
" Grave Mounds, 47 ; Cran. Brit., pi. 52 ; Brit. Barrows, 207 note. 



By E. C. G. Clay, F.S.A. 105 

Wath, West Riding. Urn inside an oak coffin.* 

Scale House, near Rylston. Split oak trunk coffin. The skeleton had 
entirely decayed and was represented by an " unctuous white substance," 
which chemical analysis proved to be of animal origin.^ 

Wiseber, south of Kirkby Stephen. Remains of a skeleton in a coffin 
made of a slightly hollowed slab of wood with planks over one end of it. 
Associated objects : remains of small bronze bowl and a bluish glass bead 
splashed with red and yellow. This burial had disturbed a former 
cremation and was evidently late in date.^ 

Towthorpe. Barrow C 73. Tree trunk coffin with squared ends. There 
was probably a lid. It contained a cremation.* 

Farnham. Barrow 14. Skeleton in a cist which was lined with wood. 
Much of the skeleton had decayed.' 

Beverley. Boat-shaped coffin of wood with pegged on lid. Contained 
some fragments of human bones. ^ 

Sunderlandwick, near Great Driffield. Badly decayed skeleton in a 
coffin of hollowed and split tree trunk with no end pieces^ 

Selby. Hollowed tree trunk with lid and ends. Contained a skeleton.^ 

Ganton. Barrow 25. Skeleton and food vessel lying on a wooden plat- 
form in a cist the sides of which were lined with wood.^ 

Rudstone. Barrow 67. Skeleton of a very young child in a cist lined 
with planks. This burial was evidently the primary one and was slightly 
earlier than a secondary burial associated with a beaker.^" 

Northumberland. 
Wyden Eels, near Featherstone Castle. Greenwell mentions several 
coffins of split tree trunks having been found here, and notes that all the 
skeletons with one exception had entirely disappeared. The date of these 
burials is unknown." 



^ Grave Mounds, 37. ^ Brit. Barrows, 375. 

^ Brit. Barrows, 384. * Mortimer Forty Years' Researches, 6. 

5 Ibid, 157. « Wright, Tke Celt, Roman and Saxon, 371. 

7 j})id^ 371. 8 ji^i^^ 2.11. 

^ Brit. Barrows, 170. '" Ihid, 258. ^^ Brit. Barrows, 376 note. 



106 



THOMAS DUCKETT AND DANIEL BULL, 

MEMBERS FOR CALNE. 

By L. B. Namier. 

The Ducketts were an old Wiltshire family, and between 1585 and 1763, 
whilst they owned the Manor of Calne and Calstone which gave them the 
nomination of at least one member for Calne, eight of them represented it 
in Parliament. George Duckett, an author and poetaster, who rightly 
signed his poem Homerides, as " ISir Iliad Doggerell," and who, as most 
of that tribe, appears in the Dictionary of National Biographyt sat for 
Calne 1705—10, and again in 1722 ; the same year he exchanged, however, 
his seat in Parliament for the lucrative post of a Commissioner of the 
Excise, in which he continued till his death in 1732, whilst his brother, 
Colonel William Duckett, represented Calne 1727—1741. 

Thomas, the second son of George Duckett, was born in 1713 ; he was a 
merchant, and in the London commercial directories appears in 1752 as 
"Duckett, Thomas, at Mr. Price's, Great St. Helen's" ; in 1754 and 1755 
"at Mrs. Farmer's in Walbrook " ; in 1757—60 as of " Bush Lane, Cannon 
Street"; and in 1763 he is last mentioned under " Duckett & Jebb, Mer- 
chants, Bush Lane, Cannon Street." The identity of Thomas Duckett, 
the merchant, with the member for Calne is proved by a letter addressed 
to him by his steward, John Bull, on August 5th, 1754, and directed to 
" Walbrook," and by a letter from Thomas Duckett, M.P., dated June 7th, 
1761, " Bush Lane, Cannon Street." ^ Moreover, in the list of members of 
Parliament prepared for Bute about the middle of December, 1761, the 
mark " Mer."[ chant] stands against Duckett's name.^ 

In 1754, at the comparatively advanced age of 41, Thomas Duckett first 
entered Parliament, and politically connected himself with Lord Sandwich. 
" I have seen Mr. Jones," ^ wrote Lord Sandwich to the Duke of 
Newcastle on December 24th, 1755, " and learn from him that the infor- 
mation I gave your Grace was true, and that he and Mr. Duckett and 
Bolton have attended and voted in every question this sessions in support 
of the measures of the government." ^ No correspondence between Duckett 
and Lord Sandwich is preserved among the Hinchingbrooke MSS. (which 
the present Earl of Sandwich has very kindly allowed me to examine) nor 
is any published in Duchetiana ; in the absence of evidence, surmises 



* Both these letters are published in Sir George Duckett's Duchetiana 
(1874), pp. 67—8. 

2 Add. MSS. 38333, f. 101. 
^ Robert Jones, M.P. for Huntingdon, a London merchant and financial 
and political agent of Lord Sandwich. 

^AddMSS. 32861, f. 427. 



Thomas Duckeit and Daniel Bull, 107 

only are possible concerning the origin of the connection between them. 
As Robert Jones and Henry Crabb Boulton were both directors of the East 
India Company, possibly Thomas Duckett, who is mentioned in one breath 
with them, was of the same group ; or possibly his connection with 
Jones, who had started as a wine merchant, may have originated in the 
Portugal trade in which Duckett was engaged. Anyhow, Duckett's political 
connection with Lord Sandwich seems to have been through Robert Jones ; 
in 1761, the Duke of Newcastle, at the opening of the session, first intended 
to send him the " whip " through Jones,^ though ultimately he sent it 
through Lord Sandwich as the chief of the group. 

" In the year 1755 the earthquake happened at Lisbon, and Thomas hav- 
ing connections there, was a great sufferer." ' Possibly in consequence of 
financial troubles he, shortly after that, decided to sell his seat in Parliament 
" We have found a person to vacate," wrote Pitt, in search of a seat for a 
valued follower, to Newcastle on June 26th, 1757, " who is Mr. Ducket, and 
ready to accept a pension of ^£500 pr.an. till an oflSce of that value can be 
found for him. This proposal seems so reasonable that I will not suppose 
your Grace can find any difficulty in accomplishing it, especially in a matter 
so indispensably necessary," ^ The bargain was struck, and Dr. George Hay 
was returned for Calne on July 12th, 1757, in place of Duckett, who received 
his pension. The first payment is entered in the secret service accounts under 
November 7th, 1758, "To Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer [H. B. Legge] 
for Mr.Ducket, one year to Michaelmas last £500 " ; ^the next on November 
13th, 1759,^ and the last, for the year ending Michaelmas, 1760, not till May 
25th, 1762. On May 27th, 1762, the day after Newcastle had resigned office, 
H. B. Legge, who had been removed from office a year earlier, wrote to New- 
castle : "I have received the arrear for Ducket and will contrive some way 
or another to have it convey'd to him, tho' I don't very well know thro' what 
channel."^ 

Duckett had decided to re-enter Parliament at the general election of 
1761 ; or perhaps his steward, John Bull, had decided it for him, in order to 
have his son Daniel returned together with him. In the list of new men to 
be chosen, submitted to Newcastle on December, 14th, 1760, Duckett and 
Bull appeared as the prospective candidates for Calne ; ^ and on January 
29th, 1761, Lord Sandwich wrote to the Duke of Newcastle : — 



» Add. MSS. 33929, f. 310. 
2 In " Mr. Bowman's Abstract and Observations," Duchetiana, p. QQ. 

3 Add. MSS. 32871, f. 406 ^ Add. MSS., 33044. 

^ The receipt for this payment is preserved among the Newcastle papers 
(Add. MSS., 32900, f. 28) On December 13th, 1759, Duckett wrote to H. 
V. Jones, private secretary to the Duke of Newcastle. 

Sir, I have received from Samuel Martin, Esq., the money put into the 
Rt. Honble. Henry Bilson Legge's hands for my use. I am, &c. Thomas 
Duckett. 

« Add. MSS. 32939, f. 39. ^ Add. MSS. 32916, f. 66. 



108 Thomas Duchett and Daniel Bull. 

"In obedience to your Grace's commands I have sounded Mr. 
D[uckett] as to his present political creed and find him disposed just 
as you would wish, my friend Stephenson ' has secured himself a seat 
in Parliament, and I will be likewise answerable for his conduct ; but 
they shall both satisfy your Grace from their own mouths of their in- 
tention to concurr in everything that can support or strengthen your 
administration." ^ 
On March 28th, 1761, Thomas Duckett and Daniel Bull were duly re- 
turned for Calne, and in October, 1761, Duckett received his summons from 
the Duke of Newcastle through Lord Sandwich,^ whilst Bull was written to 
by James West, Joint Secretary to the Treasury.* 

In 1757, Pitt, when discussing the " circular letter " with West, " said 
jocularly " that if West marked it Secret Service, " it might be under- 
stood " ; and then seriously suggested that the letters should be sent anony- 
mous "dated from the Treasury Chambers."^ Daniel Bull took the hint 
of a letter from West, perhaps for more than it was worth ; and Newcastle 
now received the following series of letters from William Levinz,' a Com- 
missioner of the Customs :— 

Custom House, December 16th, 1761. 
As I find by my friend Mr. Bull, Member for Cain, that he is to be 
introduced to your Grace to-morrow, I believe, by Mr. Ducket who he 
has brought into Parliament with him. I hope you will pardon my 
saying that / know he is perfectly well inclined to your Grace, and that 
he is a most worthy man. . . J^ 

Custom House, January 7th, 1762. 
I have a commission to communicate to your Grace from my friend 
Mr. Bull, Member for Cain. I never presumed to engage in an affair 
of this nature before, and am now influenced more by my gratitude to 

* John Stephenson, elected for St. Michael in 1761, " a very considerable 
Spanish and Portugal merchant." 

^AddMSS. 32918, f. 110. 
3 Add. MSS. 39329, ff. 338 and 452. See also Add. MSS. 32930, f. 156, 
for Duckett's long and elaboratereplyof October 27th, 1761. Having repeated 
the contents of Lord Sandwich's letter, he went on to say : " . . . as I 
shall always have a sensible pleasure in obeying your Lordship's commands, 
although I was under another engagement to pass that evening in the 
country, I will acquit myself thereof and be sure to be at the Cockpit next 
Monday evening [at the preliminary meeting of the friends of the Govern- 
ment] and will endeavour to prevail on my colleague [Daniel Bull] to 
accompany me thither . . ." 

^ Add. MSS.23929, f. 310. 
' Add MSS. 32875, ff. 376—7. 
^ William Levinz was M.P. for Notts, 1734—1747 ; Commissioner of the 
Customs, 1747 — 1763 : Receiver-General of the Customs from 1763 till his 
death in 1 765. He promptly deserted Newcastle on the change of govern- 
ment in 1762. 

7 Add. MSS. 32932, f. 210. 



By L. B. Namier. 109 

your Grace, than his openess and friendship to me. I believe he is a 
very worthy man, certainly chuses the two Members for the Borough 
he represents, and has withstood (to my knowledge) strong sollicitations 
from others, resolving from the first to make your Grace the only 
object of his attachment. I therefore hope I cannot have done very 
wrong in engaging to break the ice for one I am perswaded, 
possesses great truth and modesty. . . .^ 

Custom House, February 6th, 1762. 

I some time since took the liberty of acquainting your Grace that I 

had a commission to communicate to you from Mr. Bull, one of the 

Members for Cain ; and for fear I should ofi'end, where I most desire 

to serve and oblige, I hope your Grace will forgive my informing you, 

that he is become very impatient : from a notion that he is not an object 

worthy of your consideration. From what I could ever learn, Mr. 

Bull, and his father are very happy in their fortunes, and the Borough 

incontestibly in them, and their friends, for both Members. The late 

Ld. Shelbourn bought a house very near that town,' and it was then 

thought with an eye to that Borough. What views the present Ld. 

may have I can not pretend to say, but from the very great civility and 

attention he pays this gentleman, I have suspected he would be glad to 

serve him to the extent of his power. Mr. Bull's choice and opinion 

is certainly to make your Grace his only friend, and therefore I have 

nothing more to do than submit it to your pleasure. . . .^ 

Indeed, young Lord Shelburne, actively engaged in English politics, 

was even keener than his father had been on enlarging his political interest, 

so far limited to one seat at Chipping Wycomb, in Bucks. In the list of 

Members of Parliament prepared for Lord Bute in December, 1761, the 

following remark appears against the name of Daniel Bull : " inclinable to 

Ld. Shelburne, but elected against his Lordship's will by his father, — . 

Bull, who is steward to his Lordship and Mr. Northey. Duckett and Bull 

have the borough." ^ Still, presumably it was not Parliamentary ambition 

which had prompted the Bulls, and a bargain was soon concluded. Daniel 

Bull, at that time a man of thirty-five, was made Commissioner of Taxes,* 

^Add. MSS. 32933, f. 94. 
^ The purchase of Bowood by John Fitzmaurice, 1st Earl of Shelburne, 
was completed on January let, 1754 ; see the Earl of Kerry's essay on 
"King's Bowood Park," W.A.M., xli., 509. 

3 Add. MSS. 32934, f. 215. ''Add. MSS. 31333, f. 101. 

^ Lord Shelburne wrote to Henry Fox on August 19th, 1762 : — " He [Lord 
Bute] was also very obliging in assisting me essentially in regard to Calne " 
(see Letters to Henry Fox^ Lord Holland^ edited by the Earl of Ilchester 
p. 157). This refers undoubtedly to the appointing of Daniel Bull to a 
Commissionership of Taxes. In a MS. notebook containing the names of 
oflacials holding various posts or sinecures in the colonies, and compiled in 
1781, Daniel Bull appears as " Vendue Master " of the Leeward Islands ; the 
remark is added : " When the fees are regulated, it may be worth 500^ per 
ann." (Add. MSS. 22129 flf. 26—27). The date of his appointment is not given. 



110 Thomas Ducket and Daniel Bull. 

which post he retained till his death in 1791,* and Thomas Fitzmaurice, the 
brother of Lord Shelburne, was elected in his place on December 29th, 
1762. 

By 1763 Thomas Duckett's '* financial affairs had become so much in- 
volved " that he was forced to sell the Manor of Oalne, which had been in 
his family for near two centuries ; the price paid for it by Lord Shelburne 
was £28,600.2 About the same time Duckett sold to John Bull " some 
closes and lands in the parish of Calne."^ *" The vendor," writes Lord 
Kerry, " not long before had had some kind of paralytic stroke, and it was 
alleged that he was non-compos and had been unduly influenced in the 
matter of the sale." On March 13th, 1765, Thomas Duckett got married, at 
the age of 53, and only a year before his death. He himself, it is alleged, 
was understood to deny — " he was in a state so infirm that he could not ex- 
press himself in correct words," — having sold Calne or having got married."* 
He died in March, 1766. 

In 1765 Lord Shelburne completed the purchase of Calne by buying 
from William Northey " the Prebend Manor of Calne." '* Its possession 
was no doubt useful, if not indispensible, to those who wished to retain the 
political interest of Calne borough. . . . iC 11,950 was the price paid, 
and it is curious to note that the Prebend had changed hands forty-five 
years before for almost exactly the same sum."* 

From now onwards the borough was entirely under the influence of 
Lord Shelburne, a statesman who surrounded himself with men of 
character and signal ability ; his nominees were among among the most 
prominent members of the House of Commons. John Dunning, the 
famous lawyer, sat for Calne from 1768 till 1782, when he became Lord 
Chancellor and was raised to the peerage by the title of Lord Ashburton : 
whilst Colonel Isaac Barr6 represented the borough 1774 — 1790,— undoubt- 
edly a marked improvement on Thomas Duckett and Daniel Bull. 



* See the Gent. Mag., 1791, L, p. 382. 
2 See the Earl of Kerry's essay on " King's Bo wood Park," W.A.M., xlii., 
28. 

^ Duchetiana, pp. 66 and 80. 
* See memorandum by Sir George (Jackson) Duckett in Duchetiana, pp. 
65—66. 

^ See the Earl of Kerry, loco cit. 



Ill 



TWO SHALE CUPS OF THE EAKLY BEONZE AGE 

AND OTHER SIMILAR CUPS. 

By R. S. Newall, F.S.A. 

The two cups of shale mentioned first in this list came with the rest of 
the collection of the late Job Edwards, of Amesbury, to the Salisbury and 
South Wilts Museum some years ago. Mr. Edwards was an omnivorous 
collector. He took some pains to collect Prehistoric objects, and those in 
the Museum which still have their labels, are all local. He seems to have 
made no catalogue, or if he did, it has not survived. Unfortunately there- 
fore these two cups have no history beyond what is stated above. They 
are probably from the Amesbury neighbourhood, or perhaps "probably 
Wiltshire " would be a safer description. 




Shale Cups, I. & H., in Salisbury Museum. 

Fig. 1. — Rather more than half this cup remains, it is the more orna- 
mented of the two. On each side of the handle, which is much broader at 
the top than the bottom, are three perpendicular grooves, which as they get 
nearer to the top, expand with the handle and join three horizontal ones. 
The rest of the space on the handle is filled at the top with two grooves 
forming a V, and at the greatest protuberance are four horizontal grooves. 
The cup is zoned by five bands of four, three, or two grooves ; the surface 
of the cup is smooth and shows no striae. The thickness of the walls of the 
cup vary from 3^ to Jin. at the bottom. Height 3 Jin., diameter at top 
3^in. base rounded. 

Fig. 2. — Most of this cup remains but it is very contorted by earth 
pressure, its present diameter at the top being 4rfein, and 2|in. The handle 
is surrounded on all sides by four grooves, the top being slightly broader 



112 Two Shale Cwps of the Early Bronze Age and other Cups. 

than the bottom, whilst the cup is zoned about the middle by a band of 
four grooves, the rest of its surface being plain and smooth. It has a small 
flat base. Height 3|in., estimated diameter 2|in. 

On looking at the drawings of these two cups, which have not to my 
knowledge been published before, and those that have, of which I give out- 
line drawings, all to the same scale as far as possible, one notices a very 
close family likeness whether they are of shale, amber, gold, or wood, so close 
indeed that the shale specimens might all have come from one workshop. In 
the amber specimens from Hove and Clandown, it would appear that in the 
first instance the piece of amber was broad and thick, and in the other long 
and narrow, which influenced the shape of the two cups. Both have the out- 
turned rim and the expanding handle, and only differ in the raised band of five 
grooves almost encircling the Hove cup. This cup above all others seems to 
point to the use of the lathe, its average thickness being only 2in. It will be 
noticed that in all these cups where a band of grooves comes at the same 
height as the handle, they are not carried under the handle, When they en- 
circle the cup completely they lie evenly and equally distant, and the very 
smooth and circular surface both in and outside is without any trace of small 
flat facets, which are usually found on curved surfaces cut by hand. These 
indications all point to the cups having been turned on a lathe. The late 
Sir John Evans was of this opinion {Stone Implements^ 447), whereas the 
late Dr. Thurnam is of opinion that they were not {Archxologia, XLIIL, 
495). But granting for the moment that they are lathe-turned we 
should expect to find other objects made on the lathe. Wood would 
naturally be the most used material, and this of course has all perished, 
but the following objects all appear to have been made by the same means : — 
The Farway Segmented Bone Bead. Archxologiay XLIIL, fig. 141. 
The Lignite Cores of the Gold Cones. Upton Lovell Gold Barrow. 

^.Tr.,99. PI. X. 
The Cores of the Gold Cones. Normanton Barrow, 155. A. W., 201» 

PI. XXV. 
The Cores of the Gold covered Beads. Normanton and Bircham. 

Archeeologia, XLIIL, figs. 215, 216, 217. 
The Gold and Amber Disk. Normanton Barrow 155. A. W. 20L PI. 

XXV. 
The Lignite and Gold Bead of the Gold and Amber Disk from Manton 
Barrow. W.A.M., XXXV., 8. 
There are probably other similar specimens showing turning. 
As to the place of manufacture the material points to England in the 
case of the shale specimens. The amber ones may be from the Baltic, 
where similar cups were made of wood. 

Of bronze tools there seem many that would be eflScient for this 
work, particularly narrow palstaves. Socketted gouges would undoubtedly 
have been used a little later. 

As regards the contemporary objects and ways of burial, cremation 
and inhumation are equal, one urn burial, two stone cists, one cist said to 
contain bark of a tree, two oak dug-out coflBns. A dug-out coffin was 
found with the cup from Denmark. Four bronze daggers, gold in one if 



By B, S. Newall, F.S.A. 113 

not two instances, and a perforated double axe hammer were also found 
with shale cups. This axe hammer with the Hove amber cup, links these 
cups up with the first stage of the true Bronze Age(Montelius Archd&ologia, 
xli., 97). 

It may be interesting to give a list of all known cups of a similar type and 
the objects found in connection with them. 

East Riding, Yorkshire. 

The discussion as to the first (of these cups) discovered, reminds us of a 
vessel found in a tumulus in East Riding, Yorkshire, consecutively pre- 
served in the treasuries of the English and Scottish monarchs, Henry I., 
David II., and Henry II,, and described as" Vasculum Materiaeincognitae, 
coloris insoliti et formae inusitatae." Thurnam, Archxologia, XLIII., 523. 

This is so doubtful an example that it is only mentioned to check any 
reference to one of these cups having been found in Yorkshire, although 
there is no reason why one should not have been found there. 

King Barrow, Stowborough, near Wareham, (Dorset). Fig. 3. 

This barrow was opened 21st January, 1767, and is situated at the end of 
Stowborough, near Wareham, and on the road to Grange. The barrow was 
100ft in diameter and 12ft. high. In the centre at the bottom, even with 
the surface of the ground, in sandy soil, was found a very large hollow 
trunk of an oak, 10ft. long, 4ft. wide, lying S.E. and N.W. The barrow 
was composed of layers of turf. The skeleton was covered with skins. 
Near the S.E. end was a small vessel of oak blackened and much broken on 
the outside, and etched with many lines, some horizontal, others oblique. 
Its long diameter at the mouth was 3in., the shorter one 2in. Its depth 

2 

2in., its thickness —in. It was probably placed at the head of the corpse. 
There was a piece of gold lace(?), as imagined, 4in."long, 2iin. wide, stuck 
on the covering on the inside, black and much decayed, bits of wire appeared 
in it." Warner's Celtic Tumuli III. 3. 

Fig. 3 is a tracing from Gough's edition of Camden's Britannia^ vol. I., 
70. It is difficult to understand this sketch. The cup was more probably 
of shale, and was in Gough's possession. Now lost. Hutchins' Dorset^ I., 
38. Pro. Soc. Antiq.t IV., 161. 

Bempston, near Corfe Castle (Dorset). 

In draining a withy bed at Rempstone in the year 1845, the workmen 
came upon a deposit of " Kimmeridge Coal Money " that occurred beneath 
a bed of peat, and with it was a vessel described as " like the bowl of a 
large glass or rummer with the bottom stand broken ofi"." He says here we 
have an unrecorded instance of a cup similar to that found at Broad Down, 
indubitably of Kimmeridge Shale. Kirwan Trans. Devon Assoc, II., 630. 

This cup is included to clear up the reference to it in Evans' Stone, 448, 
and it is of extreme doubt if this is a real cup of the type with which we 
are dealing. A certain number of shale cups and bowls have undoubtedly 
been found with "Kimmeridge Coal Money," but this ** Coal Money " is 
VOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLVIII, I 



114 Two Shale Cups of the Early Bronze Age and other Cups. 











By E\ S. JSTewall, F.S.A. 



115 




I 2 



116 2'wo Shale Cups of the Early Bronze Age and other Cups. 

only the waste material from turning shale bracelets which occur in Tium- 
bers with Roman remains. This cup is more than probably one of these 
Roman cups. 



Parway Broad Down, Houiton (Devon). Pig. 4. 

Exeter Museum. Found July, 1868, by the Rev. R. Kirwan in one of 
the three or four small barrows at Farway on the range of hills 800ft. high 
rising between Sidmouth and Honiton, and about four or five miles from 
each place. This barrow was rather more than 8ft. high, and 94ft. diameter* 
with a ditch. It was very carelessly opened, the labourers beginning without 
supervision threw out many objects without noticing them. The cup, 
3|in. high, Sin. diameter had the appearance of smooth clean dark 
porcelain, but was pressed into an irregular oval by the weight of the earth. 
On drying it cracked. The barrow was made almost entirely of peat. 
Traces of charcoal and burnt bones were present near the centre of the 
floor, which was of large stones, 9ft. X I2ft., daubed with clay. The body 
seems to have been burnt on this, the ashes swept into the centre, and 
covered with earth without any urn. The cup was resting on the floor. 
Trans. Devon. Assoc, II., 624, xii., 133. Arch. Journal, XXV., 297. Trans. 
Prehist. Congress, 1878, 363. Pro. Soc. Antiq., IV., 159. 

Farway Broad Down, Honiton (Devon). Pig. 5. 

Exeter Museum. Opened in 1870 by the Rev. R. Kirwan. The barrow 
was surrounded by a ditch and a ring of stones. It was 7ft. high, 120ft. 
in diameter. At 3ft. below the top was a cairn covering a deposit of burnt 
bones packed in layers in the bark of a tree. Resting on this was a much 
corroded bronze dagger, 4§in. long, with mid rib and two engraved lines. 
At about 3ft from the burnt bones was this cup 3iin. high, 3in. in diameter, 
in a compact mass of stones. It has no ornament on the handle. 
Trans. Devon Assoc.^ XII., 136. Arch. Journ., XXIV., 42. Abercrombie, 
Bronze Age Pottery, II., 29, fig. 260. 

Clandown Barrow, Martiustown (Dorset). Pig. 6. 

Dorchester Museum. This barrow was 18ft. 6in. high, and 68ft. in 
diameter ; 2ft. from the top were two stone-lined graves, probably Roman^. 
with no accompanying objects. At 6ft. was a cairn of flints, and on the 
edge of this a bronze dagger, unfortunately broken. On the cairn was a 
very fine diamond-shaped ornament of thin beaten gold, 6in. X 4Jin > 
decorated with incised lines. Near this was a jet ornament with three gold 
knobs on it. Scattered among the flints and spread over a surface of 2ft.« 
were the fragments of an amber cup, and below the cairn were the broken 
pieces of an incense cup. At 1ft. from the flints lay a badly broken Cinerary 
Urn. This amber cup is quite plain, the handle is missing. It is 
4in. high X 2|in. in diameter. 

Curwen. Brighton and Hove Arch., No. 2, Plate III. Abercrombie^ 
Bronze Age Pottery, II., 10, fig. 3a and 3, also 02a, 02b, 02c. 



By B. S. Newall, F,S.A. 117 

Hove, near Brighton. Tig. 7. 

Brighton Museum. An oval barrow, 15ft. to 20ft. high. Finally destroyed 
in 1857, situated in what is now the garden of No. 13, Palmeira Avenue. 
Nine feet below the surface the workmen found a dug-out tree trunk coffin 
between 6ft. and 7ft. long, lying E. and W., which crumbled to pieces. In 
this were decayed bones, and in the earth of the barrow much charred 
wood. It could not be determined with certainty if the body had been 
burnt or not. In the centre of the coffin were this cup, a perfor- 
ated axe hammer, whetstone, and bronze dagger. The cup is 2jin. high and 
3^in. in diameter. It has a raised band of five grooves below the lip and 
three on each side of the handle. 

Arch. Journ,, XIII., 183. Curwen, Brighton and Hove Archaeologist^ No. 
2, Plate 11. Smith, Archxologia, LXXV., 81, Fig. 2. 

Rillaton (Cornwall). Fig. 8. 

Found on 10th April, 1857, in a barrow composed of rough stones cover- 
ing a chamber formed of granite slabs containing a skeleton. An earthen 
vessel (lost), fragments of pottery and a bronze dagger were in juxta- 
position to the cup inside the chamber. The cup is of pure gold. The 
surface is corrugated in concentric horizontal rings. It is 3^'m. high, and 
3|in. in diameter. The handle is engraved with three lines at the sides and 
attached by rivets passing through diamond-shaped plates. The corrugation 
of this cup reminds one of bronze objects of a much later date, but the 
description of the barrow is so scanty, and not only is the pottery as well as 
the gold cup lost, that it is difficult to attach a definite period to this 
example except for the handle, which closely agrees with the others. 
Proc. Soc. Ant., III., 517. Arch. Journ., XXIV., 189. 

Dragshoi, Scheleswig. 

From a barrow in centre of which was a wooden dug-out coffin, with the 
skeleton wrapt in a woollen cloth. There was a bronze dagger 7in. long, a 
small chip-wood box, 4in. in diameter, and this cup 12in. in diameter 
•6|in. high, made of wood studded with two bands of two rows each of tin 
nails or tin tacks, both starting from the upper and lower junctions of the 
handle. The handle was also studded with rows of tin tacks parallel to its 
sides, the bottom of the cup having an eight-rayed star with two concentric 
■circles made in the same manner. On the edge of the barrow was a stone 
•cist containing a bronze sword and a flint arrow head. Arch. Journ,, 
XXIII., 35. 

I have looked at this cup in the Aarhus Museum, and similar ones in the 
Copenhagen Museum, but have not handled them, so cannot say definitely 
that they are turned, but I should regard them as a later variation of the 
same type as those mentioned above, 

Switzerland. 

. Mr. Eliot Curwen in his very excellent paper on the Hove cup, which 
gives photographs of the cups mentioned in the above notes, says that the 
museum at Lausanne has similar cups from Swiss Lake Dwellings- 



118 



BEAKER AND FOOD VESSEL FROM BARROW No. 25, 
FIGHELDEAK 

By R. S. Newall, F.SA. 

This unique beaker and food vessel have been kindly lent to me by Mrs^ 
Hawley for description. They are both mentioned by Col. Hawley in his 
description of Barrow No. 11, W.A.M., xxxvi.,623. This barrow (Goddard's 
Figheldean 25) is roughly Long. 1° 45' 45", Lat. 51° 13' 13", calculated 
on the lin. ordnance map, or |-mile E. of Ablington Farm, and f-mile N.E. of 
Syrencot House, standing in Barrow Clump. There is some doubt if it had 
not already been opened in 1849. If this is the barrow referred to in Arch. 
xliii., 537 ; Arch, Jour., x., 248 ; W.A.M.,iv., 249 ; xxxvii., 119 ; and Evan's 
Bronze, 242, it produced a strong bronze dagger with rather a fiat blade, 
a small knife dagger, three boar's tusks, and two Roe Deer horns, with cists 
and burnt bones. These objects are in the Blackmore Museum. 

Colonel Hawley in his account of this excavation says after considerable 
digging three flexed skeletons were found, and the skeleton of an infant 
immediately above them. Over and about these skeletons were the ap- 
pearances of burning and " the remains of a pot perhaps about Sin. high, 
very coarse and poor in material and make." This I take to be the food 
vessel or small urn illustrated here. It is Sin. high, 5in. in diameter at the 
mouth. The rim, which is slightly turned outwards, is ornamented with a 
row of circular impressions about gin. in diameter, ^in. centre to centre. 
The walls are plain and thick, turned out at the base, which is flat. The 
colour is buff, but very dark grey in section where shown at a fracture. 
Below this he found a rectangular cist, 7ft. 3in. X 4ft. 3in. x 5ft. deep, 
cut in the solid chalk. Lying on the bottom was the flexed skeleton of an 
old man with brachycephalic skull. At the foot of the cist was this beaker, 
and under the skull a flint dagger (now lost) 2|in. long, the rounded cutting 
end finely chipped. 

This beaker is 5|in. high, 4|in. in diameter at the mouth. It is of type 
A. It is ornamented with first two and then three bands of oblong irregular 
indentations on the neck, each one being made by the same tool, which from 
plasticene casts seems to have been the edge of a worked flint, since they 
show a wavey edge down the middle and facets on each side. The bulbous 
lower half is covered with double finger nail impressions in seven bands, 
these appear to have been made by pushing the two first finger nails into 
the clay towards each other at the same time. The nail must have been 
long and horny. This leaves a raised piece of clay between two half 
moons, in some instances half this piece of clay has come away on the nail 
afterwards, and in others the whole has come away leaving a hollow de- 
pression not unlike a cow's footprint in the mud. The colour is buff, vary- 
ing to grey in places. 

I regret that I did not procure the loan of the beaker before so that Mrs* 
Cunnington could have included it in her very excellent List of Wiltshire 
Beakers, W,A.M. xliii., p. 267. 



119 



THE SEYENTY-FOUKTH GENERAL MEETING 

OF 

THE WILTSHIRE ARC H^O LOGICAL AND NATURAL 

HISTORY SOCIETY, HELD AT FROME^i 

July 25th, 26th, and 27th, 1927. 

MONDAY, JULY 25th. 
Arrangements had been made to hold the Annual Meeting of 1927 at 
Shaftesbury, but the burning of the principal hotel there made this im- 
possible, and the Society fell back on Frome. The Annual General Meeting 
was held at the Public OflBces, which had been most kindly placed at the 
Society's service by the Urban District Council and Board of Guardians, at 
2.30. Owing to the recent death of the President, Mr. W. Heward Bell, 
the first business was to elect a Chairman and President of the meeting. 
Canon Knubley dwelt on the very real loss the Society had sustained by 
the death of Mr. Bell, and proposed that Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A. 
Scot., be elected chairman of the meeting, a proposition which was carried 
unanimously. Capt. Cunnington then took the chair, and called on the 
Hon. Sec. to read the minutes of the last General Meeting. These were 
read, and Capt. Cunnington announced that in consequence of the resolu- 
tions passed by the Society last year in favour of the marking of all 
scheduled monuments, the War Office were taking steps to clearly mark all 
the more important earthworks on their land. He was glad to be able to 
report this and hoped that all other owners of ancient scheduled monuments 
would follow so excellent an example. The Hon. Secretary then read the 

ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1926—27. 
Since last year the Society has lost by death both its Patron and President, 
The Marquess of Lansdowne had held the former office for a very long 
period, and had always shown his interest in the Society and his willing- 
ness to help it in any special work. The office of President had been held 
continuously for many years by Mr. W. Heward Bell, whose death deprives 
the Society of one of the best friends it has ever had. Regular, whenever 
possible, in his attendance at committee meetings, and until the last two 
years presiding also in a particularly efficient way at the annual meetings 
and excursions, Mr. Bell showed his real interest in the Society's work 
more especially by coming forward on at least three occasions to advance 
the money, without which those particular undertakings could never have 
been carried through. The enlargement of the Museum, the printing of 
the Tropenell Cartulary, and the purchase of the Buckler collection were in 
this way chiefly due to his prompt and generous assistance. 

^ The best and fullest account of the meeting is given in the Wiltshire 
Gazette, July 28th, August 11th and 18th, 1927. 



120 The Seventy -fourth General Meeting. 

Members. — The numbers at the present time are 18 life members and 428 
annual members, making a total of 446, with, in addition, one honorary 
member, an increase of 13 in the year. During the year one member of 
long standing wished to commute his annual subscription for life member- 
ship, and was allowed by the committee to do so for less than the 
ordinary life membership payment. The committee decided that if similar 
cases arose, each case should be considered on its merits, and that no 
definite sum should be fixed for the conversion of long standing annual 
membership into life membership. 

Finance. — The general fund showed a balance on January 1st, 1926, of 
i£l26 18s. lOd. The entrance fees and annual subscriptions came to 
£ZbO 2s. 6d., whilst the balance of the annual meeting at Chippenham pro- 
vided £53 12s., with the highly satisfactory result that after paying 
£229 lis. 9d. for the printing of two numbers of the Magazine, there re- 
mained on December 31st, 1926, a balance of £250 17s. 5d., a gain of 
£123 18s. 7d. on the year's working. This will assist in the publication of 
Mr. H. B. Walters' '* History of the Church Bells of Wilts," of which the first 
part is due to be issued to members with the December Magazine. 

The Life Membership Fund also showed an increase of ^22 6s. 5d., from 
£'81 17s. 2d. on January 1st to £104 8s. 7d. on December 31st, due to the 
fact that three new life members joined during the year. 

The Museum Enlargement Fund, from which nothing has been spent 
during the year, has automatically increased by the addition of the care- 
taker's rent, from £7 5s. 9d. on January 1st to £20 9s. on December 3 1st. 
This is intended gradually to provide a sum to assist in future enlarge- 
ment of the buildings. 

The Museum Maintenance Fund beginning with a balance of £39 13s. 9d., 
ended with a balance of £34 18s. Id., a considerable sum having been spent 
on new cases and repairs. Subscriptions during the year came to £39 5s., 
with a further special gift of £10 for binding, and £14 8s. lOd. came from 
admission fees and donations in the box. 

The Museum Purchases Fund had a balance on January 1st of £93 Is. 5d. 
and one of £88 2s. 2d. on December 31st, £7 having been spent on the pur- 
chase of two volumes of MS. Notes by Dr. Thurnam, W. Long, and others. 

The Bishop Simon Ghent Fund. This is a special fund contributed 
by subscribers to the printing of the Register of that Bishop. As nothing 
has been published during the year, the balance has increased from 
£10 Is. 2d. to £10 4s. 8d. 

The Bradford Barn balance increased from £56 7s. 2d. to £61 17s. lid. 
The balance on the whole of the Society's funds, exclusive of the Bradford 
Barn fund, increased from £358 18s. Id. on January 1st to £508 14s. lid. 
on December 31st, 1926. 

The Museum. The most important addition to the collections during the 
year has been the gift by General G. LI. Palmer of his large collection of 
English trade tokens of the l7th and 18th centuries, a gift the value of 
which is enhanced by its being unconditional, so that the Society is at 
liberty to exchange or sell such duplicates as are not required for the 
Museum collections. A certain number of the 17th century tokens were 



The Seventy -fourth General Meeting, 121 

new to the Museum, and many others were better specimens of scarce 
tokens than those already in the collection. Of the 18th century Wilts 
tokens the majority are new to our collection, which was before very weak 
in this section. The accession of these additions has put our collection of 
18th century tokens on quite a new footing. In addition to this the Hon. 
Curator has already sold a considerable number of duplicate tokens and has 
many more on hand which he would be glad to dispose of to collectors. 
More room has been found for the display of the prehistoric collections, 
more especially the large urns found by Dr. Clay in the Woodminton Bar- 
rows, etc., by the alteration of some of the table cases in the Stourhead 
Room so that the space below them is available for exhibits. It is proposed 
gradually to deal with more of these cases in the same way. Among other 
gifts we have to thank Dr. Clay for more objects from the KSwallowcliffe 
Early Iron Age Pits, and Mr. E. V. Young for a remarkable oblong polished 
flint knife. The electric light has been installed in the principal rooms 
with great advantage. 

Library. The work of binding up the MS. copies of Wiltshire Monu- 
mental Inscriptions in the churches and churchyards of Wilts, chiefly the 
fruits of the industry of the late Mr. T. H. Baker, has been completed at 
the expense of his daughters, Mrs. J. L. Lovibond and Miss Baker, and 22 
folio volumes in which the parishes are arranged alphabetically, are now 
easily accessible on the library shelves. " The Bibliographical Catalogue 
of Printed Materials for the History of Wiltshire," compiled by the librarian, 
bound in five quarto volumes — one of two typed copies — has also been 
placed in the Library. Vol. VI. of *' Wiltshire Portraits," and Vol. I. I. (the 
35th vol.) of " Wilts Prints, Drawings, etc.," have been completed during 
the year, and catalogued. The curious engraving of the Wootton Bassett 
Election Procession was purchased by subscriptions from several members. 

Magazine. — Two numbers of the Magazine, 145 and 146, have been issued 
during the year, extending to 250 pages, completing Vol. XLIIL, and con- 
taining a full index to the volume in over 8,000 references. The Society 
has to thank Mrs. Cunnington for the cost of the illustrations to two 
papers. It is hoped that the first instalment of the " History of the Church 
Bells of Wiltshire," by Mr. H. B. Walters, F.S.A., may be issued to mem- 
bers with the December, 1927, Magazine. In the work of examining bells 
hitherto unrecorded, Mr. Walters has received very valuable help from Mr. 
A. D. Passmore and Mr. A. F. Smith, Swindon. 

Excavations. — The excavations at Stonehenge which have been carried 
on for so many years under the indefatigable direction of Colonel Hawley, 
were brought to a close last autumn and are not being continued this year. 
On the site now generally known as " Woodhenge," at Durrington, Captain 
and Mrs. Cunnington have been busy this year completing the excavations 
which they began in 1926, on the remarkable circle of pits first revealed by 
an air photo. A full description of the work will be published later. All 
that can be said at present is that this was a great circular structure, 
formed of large wooden posts and surrounded by a wide and deep ditch. 
Mr. Alex Keiller has continued the excavations begun last year on the in- 
interesting Neolithic site of Windmill Hill, Avebury. ^- Dr. Clay also 



122 The Seventy -fourth General Meeting. 

excavated certain barrows, etc., in Wilts, though his principal energies have 
been spent during the past year at Bournemouth. 

Church and Churchyard Inscriptions and Field Names, There are still 
many churches, and many more churchyards, especially in North Wilts, in 
which the monumental inscriptions have not been copied. The Society is 
indebted to Mr. A. F. Smith, of Swindon, for copies of three churchyards 
recently made. A complete list of those already copied will be published 
in the December Magazine, and the hon. secretary will be grateful to any 
member who will copy the inscriptions in any church or churchyard not 
already copied and send them in to him. 

Another work which it is desirable should be carried out is the compil- 
ing of complete lists of Field Names for separate parishes. Such lists 
might without much difficulty be made by anyone who has access to old 
estate maps, or tithe maps, and tithe apportionment schedules. 

Bradford Bridge Chapel. Members will hear with satisfaction that this 
interesting building has been offered by the Lord of the Manor, Sir Charles 
Hobhouse, to the Wiltshire County Council, and that the Council has 
agreed to take charge of it on condition that the necessary structural re- 
pairs are first carried out. Subscriptions are being raised for this purpose 
in Bradford and the neighbourhood. 

Airhseological Excursion. A new departure on behalf of the Society was 
made on May 18th, 1927, when a one day's excursion devoted especially to 
prehistoric archaeology was arranged. The main points to be visited were 
the two great camps of Battlesbury and Scratchbury, near Warminster. 
The organisation of the day's proceedings was in the hands of Mr. C. W. 
Pugh, and the camps were described on the spot by Mrs. Cunnington, Dr. 
R. C. C. Clay, F.S.A., and Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, F.S.A. Sixty-three 
members joined in the excursion, which proved a great success, leaving a 
balance in hand of .£3 19s. 6d , which was carried to the General Fund. 

The report was adopted, Mr. J. J. Slade expressing the appreciation of 
the Society at the work done on the Bibliography of the County by the 
Eev. E. H. Goddard, who in reply explained what had been done up to the 
present in the matter. 

The next business was the filling of the post of Patron of the Society, 
vacant by the death of the late Lord Lansdowne. The Hon. Secretary ex- 
plained that from the formation of the Society the Marquess of Lansdowne 
for the time being had been its Patron, and that the present Marquess had 
expressed his willingness to succeed his father in the office. Lord Lans- 
downe was then unanimously elected Patron. 

The office of President being also vacant, through the death of Mr. 
Bell, the committee had enquired of Lord Lansdowne whether he would be 
willing to act as President for next year, 1927 — 28, and he had replied that 
if elected he would like to act. He was accordingly elected President for 
next year. Four new trustees were then appointed, Lord Lansdowne, Col. 
Lord Heytesbury, Major R. Fuller, and Capt. B. H. Cunnington, so as to 
bring the number up to five, the minimum number under the rules. The 
committee had already appointed Mr. Basil Hankey as Hon. Treasurer, 



The Seventy 'fourth General Meeting. 123 

and this appointment was confirmed by the meeting. Four new Vice- 
Presidents were then elected, Mrs. Cunnington, Canon E. P. Knubley, and 
Messrs. 0. Penruddocke and G. S. A. Waylen. The Hon. Secretary, Librarian, 
and Hon. Curator and Meeting Secretary were then re-elected, as were also 
the whole of the Local Secretaries and members of Committee, with the 
addition of two members, Messrs. J. J. Slade and H. M. Gimson, who had 
been appointed provisionally by the Committee. As the time of the 
Society's representative on the Town Trust of VVootton Bassett had run 
out, the Rev. E. H, Goddard was re-elected as the representative. One 
new member of the Society was also elected. 

An alteration of Rule IV., which was suggested by the Committee was 
passed, providing that the President in future shall be elected annually 
instead of for three years. 

At 3.30 two char-a-bancs and several private cars left the Market Place 
for Beckington, where the fine 15th century Church was inspected, the 
Rev. E. H. Goddard pointing out the chief points of interest in the building. 

From the Church the company went on to the Old Rectory where they 
were most kindly entertained at tea by Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Mason, and 
some time was spent in admiring the picturesque garden and the interest- 
ing contents of the house. From this point members walked to the Abbey 
House, and inspected the garden, but owing to the indisposition of Mrs. 
Blackwood the house itself could not be visited. Leaving Beckington about 
6 o'clock members reached Frome before scheduled time at 6.30. After 
dinner at the George Hotel, which was the headquarters of the meeting, a 
public reception of the Society by the chairman of the Frome Urban Dis- 
trict Council, Mr. T, H. Woodland, accompanied by eight members of the 
council, took place at the Public Oflaces at 8.30 p m. The chairman in 
welcoming the Society, read an excellent paper comparing the two counties 
of Wilts and Somerset, geologically, archaeologically, and historically,^ noting 
the outstanding points in which they resembled or differed from each 
other. He was followed by Mr. H. H. Bearl, who gave an account of the 
chief industries of Frome. Capt. Cunnington then took the chair, thanked 
Mr. Woodland and his colleagues, and called on Mr. A. 3^. G. Daniel to 
read his paper on "Some Ancient Relics from Nunney.'"^ The paper 
dwelt chiefly on the history of the Castle, and in illustration a 17th century 
helmet found in the moat was exhibited. An interesting discussion arose 
on this head piece, the Rev. R. Jeffcoate pointing out that it seemed origin- 
ally to have been an oflficer's helmet, which had lost its lobster tailpiece and 
had been turned into an iron hat in a very rough and ready way by the 
village blacksmith. About 42 persons were present at this meeting, and 
coffee was provided both on Monday and 'J'uesday evenings by the kindness 
of the chairman and members of the council. 



^ This paper is printed at length in the Wiltshire Gazette of July 28th, 
1927. 

2 Printed at length, Wiltshire Gazette, August 18th, 1927. 



124 The Beventy -fourth General Meeting, 

TUESDAY, JULY 26th, 1927. 

Motors and charabancs left the Market Place at 9.30 for Longbridge 
Deverill, arriving at the Church at 10.15. Here the Rev. E. H. Goddard 
shortly pointed out the features of the Church, and the Vicar read notes 
more especially on the additions to the Church made by his predecessor, 
the Rev. J. W. R. Brocklebank. These additions are of a very remarkable 
character. The Church itself suffered a very drastic " restoration " in 1852, 
the whole eastern end is modern, and the principal ancient portions are the 
early 12th century solid square piers and arcade on the N. side, after the 
manner of Enford and Baydon, and the 14th century arcade on the S. side, 
in which the mouldings run down to the floor without caps, together with 
the tower arch. All this work, much scraped as it is, would present by 
itself a somewhat cold and uninteresting interior. The whole aspect of the 
building, however, is changed by the solid wooden screens shutting off the 
E. walls of both N. and S. aisles, in which the prevailing colours are red 
and cream colour respectively, and the brilliant green and gold screen of 
the tower, together with lesser items of decoration in the same style. The 
three small windows of the N. aisle by Eden are surely amongst the most 
beautiful examples of modern glass in the county. Altogether the effect of 
this bold and unorthodox decoration in the hands of Mr. Eden and 
the late Mr. Brocklebank is admirable. The helmets from the Bath 
Chapel now hung on the wall of the tower (and faced by a trophy of Ger- 
man arms taken in the Great War) were described, and their particular 
points shown in an interesting talk by the Rev. R. Jeffcoate. From the 
Church the party walked to the Old Rectory, and by the kindness of Mrs. 
D. Brocklebank visited the garden formed by the late Mr. Brocklebank. 
This was an addition to the programme and proved a most welcome one to 
all gardening members, for not only is the garden in itself a beautiful one, 
but it contains a great number of fine things, both in rock and border plants 
by no means to be found in the ordinary garden. Longbridge Deverell 
indeed, both in Church and garden, provided a good deal more to see than 
the programme promised. 

The private cars, now increased to 24, with the two charabancs, drove on 
to Brixton Deverill, halting at the foot of the track which leads to the top 
of Cold Kitchen Hill. Here Mr. Richard Stratton had most kindly pro- 
vided a cart to take drinkables and members' luncheons to the top of the 
hill, and members began the easy ascent of about a mile leading to the 
tumulus or mound at the top. Up to this point the weather had been 
overcast but no rain had fallen. At the very moment, however, that the 
party reached the top, one of the highest and most exposed spots in S. 
Wilts, the rain began, and very soon a pelting storm seemed to make it 
hopeless to think of staying on the top, and almost all the members hastened 
down hill again and took refuge in their motors, consoling themselves 
with lunch under cover, flappily most people were provided with mackin- 
toshes and umbrellas and so escaped getting really wet— but it was a great 
disappointment. A fine day would have made an hour and a half spent on 
the top a joy in itself, with the magnificent views over the whole country 
on all sides, and the possibility of picking up relics of Romano- British or 



I'he Seventy -fourth General Meeting. 125 

earlier times from the site of the well-known settlement. Even as it was 
one very notable relic was found by Miss Pugh, the half of a bronze brace- 
let of Hallstatt type, perhaps dating from dr. 400 B.C. It is understood 
that this find will eventually come to the ISociety's Museum which has no 
example of the type.^ The cutting short of the time spent on the top necessi- 
tated a wait at the bottom of the hill after lunch before starting for Stourton 
at 2 p.m. On arrival at Stourton members first visited the Bristol High Cross, 
of which Mr. Goddard gave the history, and then adjourned to the Church. 
Here the principal points of interest were the old glass in the N. aisle win- 
dow, and the Stourton effigies with their accompanying helmets, one of 
these being a remarkable example of an actual helmet, the points of which 
were dwelt on by the Rev. 11. Jeli'coate in remarks which showed him a 
master of his subject. 

Sir Henry Hoare, accompanied by his forester, then led the members by 
the singularly beautiful path round the lake to the temples which over- 
look it, and thence by the path which strikes ofi" to Stourhead House. 
Happily the weather had improved much by this time, and members were 
able to enjoy the lovely views over the lake, and the magnificent trees that 
clothe the sides of the narrow valley. All trees indeed grow to an extra- 
ordinary size in the moist and mild climate of this sheltered valley, and the 
great cedar not far from the entrance, now about 230 years old, is probably 
the largest in the county if not in England. Undoubtedly there is no 
place in Wiltshire to compare with these grounds, and perhaps none in the 
whole country that excels them in beauty. Stourhead House was rebuilt in 
1720 by Henry Hoare, who also began the planting and laying out of the 
grounds. It is good to see that Sir Henry Hoare, the present owner, is not 
only keenly appreciative of the beauty of his inheritance, but is also con- 
tinually adding to its interest by planting fresh examples of rare trees for 
the benefit of succeeding generations. In showing members over the house, 
which was freely thrown open to them. Lady Hoare joined Sir Henry, and 
pointed out as fully as time allowed the many objects of interest preserved 
within it. Amongst the most remarkable things, is the furniture of the 
library, &c., specially made for Sir U. C. Hoare by the younger Thomas 
Chippendale in 1804 and 1805, and differing entirely from the ordinary 
designs of " Chippendale " furniture, resembling indeed work of the Empire 
style. 

At the evening meeting in the Public OflBces Mrs. Cunnington read her 
paper on "Recent Archaeological Excavations at Durrington," ^ in other 
words, on " Woodhenge." Members and their friends present numbered 
41, and the paper, an admirably clear account of the monument's discovery 
and excavation, and the evidence for its having been a wooden structure, 
was listened to with the closest attention. Mrs. Cunnington made no dog- 
matic pronouncement as to its age or purpose, for the pottery found, so far 



^ It has since been given to the Museum. 
^ An abstract of Mrs. Cunnington's paper is printed in the Wiltshire 
Gazette of July 28th, 1927. 



126 The Seventy -fourth General Meeting. 

as it has been examined, seems to be of a different type from both Neolithic 
and Bronze Age wares, but threw out the possible suggestion that it may 
have been the wooden prototype of the later Stonehenge. It became known 
during the meeting that Capt. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington with their usual 
liberality have bought the " Woodhenge " site and that they will probably 
hand it over for preservation to the National Trust, as they have handed 
over more than one site before. 

WEDNESDAY, JULY 27th. 

Motors left Frome at 9.30 for Mells, which was reached at 10 a.m., the 
Church being first visited.^ Here the Rector, the Rev. Canon Hanney, 
better known to fame as *' George Birmingham," the author of many novels, 
described the building and its history. It is a beautiful late Perpendicular 
Church, with, as is fitting in Somerset, a fine tower, and perhaps one of the 
most beautiful porches in England. It suffered a very " complete restora- 
tion " which cut up its Jacobean pews and made a dado of them round the 
walls, but provided it on the other hand with perhaps the unique distinction 
of quite good oak bench ends throughout the Church, all carved in the 
village itself, as well as the whole series of stained glass windows in the nave, 
also entirely made in the village. These latter cannot be described as good, 
but they are by no means so bad as many windows of their age elsewhere. 
This painted glass industry was started in the village by a curate who 
having learned glass painting himself taught the art to others. It eventually 
developed into the firm of Horwood, glass painters, who removed to Frome, 
and have now since ceased to exist 

By this time it was raining hard, but the Elizabethan Manor House of 
the Horners adjoins the churchyard and members had only a few steps to 
go. H ere Lady H orner received the party most kindly and did the honours 
of the house, originally a large house built in the shape of the letter H* C>f 
this only one side of the H now remains, the larger part having been pulled 
down, and the remainder degraded to the status of a farm house when more 
than 100 years ago the Horner of the day built himself a large classical 
house in the Deer Park some distance away. The late Sir John Horner, 
however, restored the old house and lived in it. It contains family por- 
traits, furniture, and numbers of other objects of interest, including the 
large veil worn by Mary, Queen of Scots, at her execution. The party re- 
turned to Frome for lunch and set forth again at 1.30 p.m. for Orchardleigh 
Park. A little way inside the precincts of the large park, at Murtry Hill,^ 
the cars stopped and members walked a short distance to the site of the 
Long Barrow excavated by Mr. H. St. George Gray not long ago. Here 
they were met by Dr. Arthur Bulleid, F.S.A., who gave them an address on 
the Chambered Barrows of Somerset, of which this was one. Two large 
stones are now standing upright on the mound which is almost worn away, 
but the late excavations seemed to show that they are not now in their 



1 See Wiltshire Gazette, August 11th, 1927. 

2 See Wiltshire Gazette, August 11th, 1927. 



The Seventy -fourth General Meeting. 127 

original positions. Two or three other smaller stones uncovered in the ex. 
<;avations are still visible. Returning to the cars, the members drove on 
through the park to the house, a large modern building. 

From this point a walk through part of the gardens and a quarter of a 
mile of the Park brought members to the little Church,^ standing on an 
island surrounded by a stream. The most remarkable features here are the 
two corbelled figures standing out from the north and south walls of the 
chancel in front of the altar rails, of which that on the south side still holds 
in his hands the iron ring from which the lenten veil was suspended in 
front of the altar in Lent. The font, too, is a remarkable one, perhaps 
originally Norman with figures and other ornaments added in the 14th 
Century. During the walk back to the cars the rain came down heavily, but 
happily, there were trees here to shelter under. 

Lullington Church, the last item on the programme, was reached at 3.30, 
and here, as at Orchardleigh, the Vicar, the Rev. H. Vaughan Johnson, 
kindly read notes on the chief features of the Church.^ These are the 
remarkable Norman work of the N. door with tympanum and high pediment 
over it, enclosing a figure of Christ seated in glory, of 12th Century work, 
and the chancel arch with Norman zig-zag moulding re-used in the 13th 
Century re-building of the arch. In the vestry is a good coflSn slab with 
the iManus Dei issuing from clouds above a cross. From this place the cars 
went back to Frome, arriving about half-an-hour before scheduled time. 
With the exception of the cutting short of the stay on Cold Kitchen Hill 
the programme was carried out as laid down, but the weather on Tues- 
day morning and practically the whole of Wednesday was the worst the 
Society has experienced for many years. The numbers attending some 
part of the proceedings were between 90 and 100. and everything, except 
the weather, went pleasantly and well, and time, as usual, was kept strictly 
throughout, thanks to Capt. Cunnington's careful and exact preparations 
beforehand. The balance on the meeting amounted to £.Q 2s. 9d. 



' See Wiltshire Gazette, August 18th, 1927. 
= See Arch. Journal, June 1900, by Rev. J. G. Marshall. Wiltshire 
■Gazette, K\xgVi&t\nh,\^n . 



128 



NATUEAL HISTOKY NOTES EOUND GEEAT BEDWYN, II. 

By Cecil P. Huest. 

Mosses. 
The following mosses do not seem to have been recorded by Mr. H. N. 
Dixon in "The Moss Flora of the Marlborough Greywethers " (W.A.M.y 
vol, XXXV., p. 587) or by me in "East Wiltshire Mosses" {W.A.M., vol. 
xxxiv., p. 449), "East Wiltshire Mosses, Hepatics, and Land Shells" 
{W.A.M., xl„ p. 231), or "East Wiltshire Mosses, Hepatics, and Lichens " 
(W.A.M., vol. xli., p. 40). They are mostly common species which have in 
some way escaped record. It may be mentioned that the rare Seligeria 
paucifolia was found on flints in Rivar Copse, a hanging wood on the chalk 
escarpment to the south-east of Bedwyn, the greater part of which lies just 
outside our county boundary, in Berkshire ; this moss should be looked for 
in Wiltshire. With reference to the edentate form of Mnium rostratum 
recorded by me in "East Wiltshire Mosses, Hepatics, and Lichens," Mr. 
Dixon writes on p. 380 of the third edition of " The Student's Handbook of 
British Mosses" : — "Mr. C. P. Hurst has gathered a remarkable form in 
Savernake Forest with the leaves quite entire ; it is sterile, but if it should 
prove dioicous, as is possible, it would be identical with the Indian i/. 
integrum Fleisch. In any case I can hardly look upon it as anything but 
a varietal form." This moss was plentiful on the gravel of Rhododendron 
Drive in the south-east of the Forest in the spring of 1927. Interesting 
forms of Barbula fallax and Orthotrichum leiocarpum, are noted below. 
Fissidens viridulus var, Lylei growing upon an ant-hill near Newtown 
Shalbourne is rare, and Tortula muralis var. aestiva on a wall at Durley is 
an uncommon variety. The abundant Bryum argenteura^ hitherto un- 
recorded, may be looked upon as the sparrow among the mosses for it 
attaches itself to man and seems to flourish amid the surroundings of great 
cities, and I have observed it under doorsteps in Cromwell lioad, S.W., and 
have seen it growing luxuriantly in Kensington Gate. Orthotrichum 
stramineumt included below, is a moss that is much more at home upon 
trees on the Welsh mountains than upon the beech near London Ride in 
the Forest where it was found. 

v.c. 7=North Wiltshire, v.c. 3=South Wiltshire, c. fr. = with fruit. 

Tetraphis pellucida. 8. On a stump in Botley Great Copse to the south 
of Bedwyn ; a very pretty and interesting moss easily recognised by the 
gemmiferous cups ; a widely distributed but not abundant species, common 
in peaty districts. 

Seligeria calcarea, 7. Chalk-pit near Froxfield with one or two capsules ; 
it grows on the bare surface of the chalk and is frequent on the chalk hills 
of the south and east of England, looking like the film of a protophytic alga 
until carefully examined. 

Fissidens viridulus var. Lylei. By the side of an ant-hill on clay near 
Burridge Heath. Mr. Dixon wrote :— " Your Fissidens has too small cells 



By Cecil P. Hurst. 129 

for F. exilisdiXid. I think you are right in referring it to F. viridulus var. Lylei^ 
of which it is a very extreme form in its departure from type, having 
sheathing lamina quite without border (so far as I have seen) and often 
denticulate." The locality was just in Berkshire (v.c. 22) by the old county 
boundaries but in South Wiltshire (v.c. 8) by the new ones. 

Tortula ambigua. 8. On the ground at Dod's Down ; a common moss 
in calcareous districts. T. muralis. 7, 8. Abundant on walls and stone 
everywhere ; vslt. aestiva, growing on a wall at Durley. Mr. H. H. Knight 
writes : — "Your moss is Tortula muralis var. aestiva. The leaf margin is 
not right for T. marginata and as Mr. Dixon says, this latter moss grows in 
wide patches, not in small cushions like yours. I have never seen T. 
marginata on brick walls. Its favourite habitat seems to be a calcareous 
sandstone. It is quite common in this county (Gloucestershire) on our Red 
Keuper Sandstone. I have two localities for it on the Cotswolds, where it 
seems to be quite rare." 

Barhula rubella. 7, 8. Rather common at the foot of trees, and nearly 
always fruiting ; the red colour of the lower part of this moss is very 
characteristic and may be relied upon to distinguish it from allied species. 
B. fallax. 7, 8. Not very frequent in this dry chalky country, Mirl Down, 
near Wilton Brails, near London Ride ; about a form which grew in a 
hollow in Tottenham Park, Mr. Dixon wrote :— " Your Barhula is a per- 
plexing one. It has many — most perhaps — of the characters of B. recurvi- 
folia, but it has not the habit and colour, which are important, and the 
leaves are perhaps a little too acute. On the whole I should incline to put 
it under B. fallax, showing a marked approach to B. recurvifolia" B. 
unguiculata. 7, 8. Very common everywhere. 

Weisia microstoma. 7, 8. Here and there on sandy soil ; known from 
the closely allied W. viridula by the small mouth and absence of the peri- 
stome ; in April, 1925, both species occurred on ant-hills with deoperculat- 
ing fruit near St. Katharine's Church, in Savernake Forest, and it was 
interesting to compare the mouths of the capsules and to note the presence 
of the peristome in viridula and its absence in microstoma : about plants 
which grew at Mirl Down Brickworks, Mr. Dixon wrote : — "Your Weisia 
is hardly var. hrachycarpa ; the leaf characters are pretty typical ; it is 
rather the var. ohliqua which, as I have said, seems hardly worth keeping 
up." W. tenuis. 7. A tiny evanescent tuft of this moss appeared on the 
oolitic barrier surrounding the Column in Tottenham Park ; an uncommon 
species, occurring on sandstone or calcareous rock. 

Orthotrichum leiocarpum. 7. On felled beech near London Ride, April, 
1922; Mr. Dixon wrote: — "You are quite right in thinking that your 
Orthotrichum is not 0. pulchellum ; it is not, however, 0. afine^ as it has 
16 broad striae and sparsely hairy calyptra. It is a somewhat peculiar 
form of 0. leiocarpum, having the outer teeth redder than usual, and the 
capsule darker, with occasional traces of broad bands." 0. affine. Well 
distributed and very common on trees, 0. stramineum. Beech near Lon- 
don Ride ; not uncommon in mountainous districts but rare in the low- 
lands ; it may be distinguished from the closely allied 0. afflne by the very 
hairy vaginula and immersed stomata of the leaves. 
VOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLVIII. K 



130 Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn. 

Funaria hygrometrica. 7, 8. Very common everywhere ; often grow- 
ing on ground that has been burnt, and hence known to the French as La 
Charbonniere. 

Aulacomnion palustre. A large paludal species occurring on marshy 
ground near Stype Wood ; the locality by the old boundaries is in Berk- 
shire v.c. 22, but by the new ones, it is well within South Wiltshire v.c. 8. 

Bartramia pomiformis. 7. The Apple Moss. A beautiful species 
which avoids lime and so is very rare in this chalky country ; it occurs 
sparingly on the Heading sands in one place in Tottenham Park and on the 
23rd February, 1926, 1 counted over twenty-five of the pale green spherical 
capsules on tufts of the moss. 

Bryum argenteum. 7, 8. An extremely common silvery green species 
growing on roads, paths in gardens, etc., especially where there are cinders ; 
it also occurs on roofs ; it is one of the few Brya that fruit in autumn, the 
majority producing their capsules in early summer. 

Homalia trichomanoides. 7. C. fr. Hedgebank between Bedwyn and 
Sadler's Hill ; a common species. 

Porotrichum alopecurum. 7, 8. Hedgebank in Bedwyn village, etc., 
etc. A fine dendroid moss which is common in woods and hedgebanks ; 
the fruit, which is uncommon, I have noticed near the hamlet of lUvar and 
also in Foxbury Wood. 

Thuidium ahietinum. 8. A scrap of this species, which affects dry cal- 
careous soil, was found near Wilton Brails ; the fruit is extremely rare and 
and has not been found in Britain. 

Camptothecium lutescens. 7, 8, A golden green moss, occurring prin- 
cipally in calcareous districts, which is very common among grass on the 
downs. I have seen the fruit on the sandhills at Burnham-on-Sea, in 
Somerset, but have not been able to find it here. 

Brachythecium velutinum. 7, 8. Rather frequent near Bedwyn in hedge- 
banks and tree trunks, and freely producing its rough-stalked fruits. Mr. 
Dixon states that it is common in the eastern and midland counties and 
much less so in the west and north. 

Eurynchium confertum. 7, 8. Near London Ride ; wall at Fosbury ; a 
common species on stones, stumps of trees, etc., in shady places, the stem 
is prostrate and adheres by radicles to the substratum. 

Amblyategium serpens. 7, 8. Abundant in the woods and fruiting pro- 
fusely; the red fruit-stalks tipped with small white calyptras are very 
characteristic and this is one of the mosses with which the beginner first 
familiarizes himself. 

Hypnum molluscum. 7, 8. Not infrequent on calcareous ground ; the 
fruit is not common in this district, but I found capsules in 1925 in Bedwyn 
Brails, near a chalk pit. This species is indicative of calcareous soil. 

Hylocomium triquetr%im. 7, 8. Rather frequent on downs and in bushy 
places ; a large soft moss used for packing china, and when dyed green, for 
ornamental purposes. 

The following species which have previously been recorded in the Wilti 
Arch, Mag. were observed during 1927, and are interesting plants. 

The fruit of Zygodon viridissimus, which is rare, was seen on an elder in 



By Cecil P. Hurst 131 

Birch Copse, in Savernake Forest, and on an oak near the Grand Avenue ; 
this moss is occasionally found fruiting in the Forest. It has been sug- 
gested that Z. conoideus (more slender than Z. viridissimus, with leaves not 
recurved, and with a distinct peristome) and Z. Forsteri, the var. Sendtneri 
which was found on trees at Burnham Beeches in 1902, may occur in Saver- 
nake Forest and these should be looked for. On the 26th March nine cap- 
sules of the pretty little Orthotrichum pulchellum, were observed on elder 
in Birch Copse ; by the 16th April, three of them had deoperculated, dis- 
playing the orange-red peristomes. Other noteworthy and uncommon 
species seen were Brachythecium illecehrum on soil by the Column in 
'I'ottenham Park, Pterogonium gracile growing with the lichen Leptogium 
lacerum on an oak close to the King Oak in Savernake Forest, Leptodon 
Sniithii on a beech near the Grand Avenue, Brachythecium caespitosum on 
an oak at Tidcombe, Rhacomitrium canescens and Funaria ericetorum 
on sandy ground in Tottenham Park, and Hypnum Patientiae growing 
finely on clay upon rides in Bedwyn Brails, Foxbury Wood, and Burridge 
H eath Plantation. Funaria ericetorum and Hypnum Patientiae we probably 
owe to the presence of Reading sands and London clay in the district. 
Barhula sinuosa was observed on felled timber at Tidcombe ; it is interest- 
ing to note that this moss, which occurs chiefly in calcareous districts, has 
not been found in fruit in any part of the world. A gathering was made of 
Hypnum Jluitans var. gracile which grows plentifully on peaty soil in a 
pool in the upper part of Chisbury Wood at a little over 500 feet. It may 
be mentioned that the type of this variety, Hypnum Jluitans, a calcifugous 
species, is the principal component of the peat in the Fens in Eastern Eng- 
land. I have just (19th January, 1928) received a letter from Mr. H. H. 
Knight, of Cheltenham, who writes : — " I have been looking through the 
specimens of Zygodon viridissimus in my herbarium, and I find that a 
specimen of yours from Bedwyn Common dated 14th October, 1913, is 
Zygodon conoideus . . . The peristome is ' small and fugacious ' and 
soon disappears in old capsules. The best time to get the fruit is in April 
or May, and October is rather late in the year, for by that time the peris- 
tome may have perished. . . . In Z. viridissimus the leaves are re- 
curved when moist, and in Z. conoideus straight. Mr. Dixon, in the third 
edition of the Handbook gives a further method of distinguishing these two 
species by the gemmae, which seem to be always present on the leaves. 
But in your specimen from Great Bedwyn, I found a capsule in which the 
peristome had not quite gone." Zygodon conoideus, which is not included 
among Wiltshire mosses in the second edition of "A Census Catalogue of 
British Mosses " (1926) is an interesting new record for the county. Plants 
gathered during the latter half of March, 1928, on elder in Birch Copse, 
Savernake Forest, have also been placed under Z, conoideus hy Mr. Knight. 

Hepatics. 
I do not appear to have recorded the following eight hepatics in the 
Wilts Arch. Mag. 

Aneura major. 8. Mirl Down and near Round Copse, on clay, and 
fruiting in Foxbury Wood. 

K 2 



132 Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn. 

Lophozia hadensis. 8. Fruiting copiously by a chalk pit on the east 
side of Bedwyn Brails and also growing on the Drove Road on the downs 
near Botley Copse ; an uncommon plant of moist calcareous soil which is 
occasionally present in some abundance on sand-dunes. L. ventricosa. 8» 
On London Clay at Uod's Down ; a very common hepatic that extends to 
the Shetlands, ascending to the summit of the hills. 

Lophocolea hidentata. 7, 8. Common in grassy places ; all the species 
of Lophocolea have a musky odour and it is said that the smell noticeable 
when a lawn has been mown upon a warm moist day is due to plants of 
this genus. L. hidentata and L. cuspidata are particularly frequent amongst 
grass. 

Calypogeia arguta. 8. Sparingly in a depression in Foxbury Wood ; 
an uncommon delicate species, with flat almost whitish leaves, most com- 
mon near the west coast. 

Scapania nemorosa. 8. Along a bank by the side of a path in Bedwyn 
Brails, where the plants with their clusters of reddish-brown gemmae at 
the apices of the stems and upper leaves, become conspicuous in the 
autumn ; frequent except in the extreme north. aS'. dentata. 7, 8. In very 
small quantity in Bedwyn Brails and also occurring in Savernake Forest 
by the path between Marlborough Station and the Keeper's Cottage; of 
plants from the latter locality Mr. Knight wrote : — " One would expect a 
Scapania from your district to be irrigua and not dentata. The latter is 
common in our mountain country (West Gloucestershire). However, I 
make out your plant to be S. dentata, the lobes are as you say markedly 
dentate, the cell structure is that of dentata^ and also the absence of 
rhizoids up the stem. It is a green form, dentata is usually purple, and was 
formerly known as purpurascens.'* Mr. Knight also mentions that the 
purple plant found on mountains has a very dififerent appearance from the 
local specimens I sent him. 

Anthoceros crispulns. 8. In some quantity in a cultivated field near 
Burridge Heath Farm, growing on moist soil with various species of Biccia. 
As in Blasia, a curious form of symbiosis occurs in this order of liver- 
worts. In the thallus there are cavities containing mucilage and colonies 
of Nostoc (a genus of freshwater algae) ; they form small dark bluish-green 
round masses and can be frequently seen with the naked eye. Anthoceros 
crispulus and A. punctatus are frequently found in arable fields, fruiting 
in the autumn after harvest, and often so late as hardly to mature their 
capsules before the frost destroys them. 

Other noteworthy liverworts seen during 1927 were Blasia pusilla 
occurring luxuriantly on London Clay at Dod's Down, Marsupella Funckii 
growing in some quantity by the side of a walk in Cobham Frith Wood^ 
and Alicularia scalaris, Gyninocolea inflata and Sphenolohus ex&ectiformis^ 
the last with orange clusters of gemmae at the apices of the leaf lobes 
gathered on sandy ground in Tottenham Park. The rare and pretty 
Ptilidium pulcherrimum appears to be extinct in Foxbury Wood, the bark 
on which it grew having decayed. Microlejeunea ulicina is by no meana 
uncommon on the Forest beeches. 



I 



By Cecil P. Hurst, 133 

Lichens. 

Mr. H. H. Knight, of Cheltenham, has very kindly sent me a list of sixty 
corticolous lichens which he noted near Marlborough when with the 
Mycological Society at the Fungus Foray held in the early part of June, 
1927. Of the species included in the list, the following eighteen are new to 
Marlborough. 

Chaenotheca chrysocephala. Trees near the Grand Avenue ; apothecia 
uncommon ; a local and scarce lichen found in a few localities in England. 

Loharia laetevirens. On old oak near the Grand Avenue. 

Parmelia perlata. On elder, Martinsell Hill. 

P. acetabulum. On elder, Martinsell Hill. 

Cetraria chlorophylla. On tree, Martinsell Hill. 

Physcia stellaris. Near Great Bedwyn and Martinsell Hill. Mr. Knight 
states that P. stellaris is in some forms very like P. pulverulenta but is 
easily distinguished from that by the reaction with caustic potash. Near 
Cheltenham the two species often occur on the same tree. 

Lecanora Hageni. On elder, Martinsell Hill. Mr. Knight mentions 
that Lecanora Hageni and Biatorina cyrtella are common species, they are 
small but are easily recognised when one knows them. 

L. symmicta. On elder, Martinsell Hill; a rare species. 

L. symmictera. On an old gate near Great Bedwyn. 

Lecania syringea. On elder, Martinsell Hill. 

Pertusaria multipuncta. Fertile ; on beech near the Column in Totten- 
ham Park. I have seen this species in Foxbury Wood ; it is very like P. 
faginea, but it has not a bitter taste. ; it is probably not uncommon. 

P. lutescens. Sterile, on old oak with Loharia laetevirens near the Grand 
Avenue ; a rare species. 

Phlyctis argena. With apothecia on elder, Martinsell Hill, 

Biatorina cyrtella. On an elm tree near Great Bedwyn, and on elder, Mar- 
tinsell Hill ; I also observed this species on an elm near Hill Barn, Great 
Bedwyn, with five other interesting lichens. 

B. Griffithii. On trees, Savernake Forest. 

Bilimbia ^itschkeana-. On elder, Martinsell Hill; a rare species ; there 
appear to be specimens from only two localities in the British Museum. It 
may be mentioned that Mr, Knight includes B. Naegelii, one of our most 
interesting rarities, in his list ; it was recorded in the Report of the 
Marlborough College Natural History Society for 1919. I have given 
some account of its local distribution in my paper " East Wiltshire 
Lichens " ( W.A.M., vol. xlii., p 1). 

Bacidia luteola. On elm, by the Canal, near Great Bedwyn. This lichen, 
the large orange apothecia of which are conspicuous, also grows plentifully 
on a maple in Chisbury Wood ; it is general and common in most parts of 
England, but is rare in Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, and is found chiefly 
on elms. 

Opegrapha betulina. On ash at Manningford Bruce. 

Upon the low wall surrounding the Column in Tottenham Park,Mr. Knight 
noticed the saxicolous lichens, Placodium rupestre and Lecanora calcarea 
var. contorta, both new to Marlborough ; he tells me that near Cheltenham 



134 Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn. 

he finds the latter, which is rather rare in Britain, on monumentsin country 
churchyards ; the detached greyish-white scale-like areolae give it a curious 
appearance. I niay mention that I once saw a tiny evanescent tuft of the 
moss, Weisia tenuis, otherwise unknown in this district, on the same low 
barrier round the Column, and that on it also grows the orange aerial alga, 
I'renUjpohlia aurea. 

The following four lichens are also new to our list. 

Leptogium lacerum. A blackish lichen with thin lacerate lobes growing 
on the moss, Pterogonium gracile, upon an oak, close to the King Oak, in 
the middle of Savernake Forest. 

Parmelia duhia. On trees near Thistleland, Great Bedwyn, and else- 
where ; probably not uncommon ; somewhat similar to P. sulcatah\xt differ- 
ing in the round soralia, and in the thalline reactions. 

Pertusaria glohulifera. Mr. A. G. Lowndes and I have seen this species, 
which has an extensive greyish-green thallus crowded with large discoid 
soralia, on beeches in various parts of Savernake Forest ; it is general and 
common throughout the British Islands. 

Acrocordia hiformis. A pyrenomycete lichen found near Hill Barn» 
Great Bedwyn, on a very prolific elm which also bore Ramalina calicaris, 
Placodium cerinum, Opegrapha varia, Bacidia incompta, and Biatorina 
cyrtella ; in A. hiformis the perithecia are small, black, numerous, and 
semi-immersed in the substratum. 

Other interesting plants observed were : — 

Chaenotheca melanophaea with apothecia on an oak in Birch Copse ; it 
is not uncommon round Bedwyn, generally growing on coniferous trees. 

Parmelia sulcata fruiting finely on old elder in a sloping meadow between 
Burridge Heath and Shalbourne Newtown ; the apothecia, which are rarely 
produced in this species, have reddish-brown discs, and Miss A. L. Smith 
says this lichen is " fertile chiefly in the Highlands of Scotland." Speci- 
mens of the fruit from the Bedwyn locality were sent to Mr. Paulson, of 
Pinner, Middlesex. 

Fine apothecia of Lecidea contigua were seen upon small sarsen stones 
on the sandy ground in the north part of Tottenham Park, and Buellia 
myriocarpa was observed on palings near Folly Farm. 

Fungi. 

The following species, new to the Marlborough list, were found round 
Great Bedwyn in 1927. My acknowledgments are due to Mr. E. W. Swanton, 
of the Educational Museum, Haslemere, for kind identification of species. 

Amanita nitida. Two specimens of this poisonous plant were found at 
the foot of a beech in Haw Wood in October ; the plants were snow-white 
and the caps, which were covered with fragments of the volva, afterwards 
became reddish-brown ; it is an uncommon fungus. 

Lepiota rachodes.. A large species, with a scaly cap and long stem, 
closely allied to the Parasol Mushroom (L. procera), from which it differs 
in its smooth stem, and in the flesh becoming reddish-brown when bruised 
or cut, and also in other points ; it is a common plant which was seen in 
various parts of Savernake Forest, and was plentiful and conspicuous in 



By Cecil P. HursL 135 

the fir plantation near Woronzoff Lodge, by the Bath Road, in October. 

L. clypeolarioides. A small agaric which is found in woods, gardens, and 
hedgerows, in late summer and autumn ; the cap has small reddish-brown 
scales, and the stem is scaly below the ring ; it was noticed growing under 
firs in Rhododendron Drive in early October. 

Tricholoma Georgii occurred gregariously among Dog's Mercury (Mer- 
curialis perennis) in Foxbury Wood on the 25th May ; this is an interesting 
plant very similar and nearly allied to St. George's Mushroom (Tricholoma 
gambosum) and appearing about the same time of year, but it is smaller, 
grows in woods as well as on downs, and has a naked instead of a downy 
margin. 

T. acerhum. A large prominent Tricholoma, with firm compact flesh, and 
yellowish-buff cap, which becomes rufous at the disc, seen in October in 
Foxbury Wood, where it occurred in several places ; a not uncommon agaric 
in woods and on downs. 

Clitocyhe curtipes, a rare species, with orange cap and shining white gills 
was gathered near Bedwyn Common. 

Mycenaflavo-alha. A group occurred under firs by the side of Rhodo- 
dendron Drive, in early November ; my specimens of this common little 
Mycena were wholly white, and the caps were noticeably umbonate. Mr. 
Carlton Rea records as British no fewer than ninety-six species of this very 
large genus. 

M. rorida. A tiny, greyish toadstool, the cap is measured in millimetres, 
growing plentifully on fir needles in Rhododendron Drive, at the beginning 
of November ; the pileus is sulcate when dry, and its margin is crenate ; 
this fungus is found until December. 

M. corticola. Some specimens were seen on the mossy trunk of an oak, 
near the Grand Avenue ; an interesting and well-known little purplish 
species growing commonly among moss on the trunks of trees ; it is found 
from June to January, and soon withers in dry weather, reviving with 
moisture. 

Entoloma rhodopolium. On short turf upon a sloping meadow near 
Burridge Heath Plantation ; a common pink-spored species with sometimes 
a smell of new meal or sugar ; the cap varies from three to twelve centi- 
metres across, and is first bell-shaped, and then expanded and subumbonate, 
and the gills are white and then rose-colour. 

Pholiota destruens. At the base of a tree in Foxbury Wood, in Septem- 
ber ; an uncommon agaric with the tawny, scaly cap sometimes 20 centi- 
metres across ; the thick stem is covered with white squamules which dis- 
appear, and its base is bulbous and rooting ; the spores are dark rust- 
coloured, and the fungus has an unpleasant smell. 

Inocyhe hystrix. Near London Ride, at the end of July ; an uncommon 
Inocyhe of a dull brown or mouse colour, with scaly cap and stem, and 
brown spores ; it has a smell of new meal. 

Psaliota pratensis. The Meadow Mushroom. A few specimens in Totten- 
ham Park, near Haw Wood, in October ; a Psaliota with brownish, granular 
or rimosely squamulose cap, darkish gills and brown spores. Mr. Rams- 
bottom states that this species is intermediate between the common Field 



136 Natural History Notes round Great Bedwyn. 

Mushroom (P. campestris) and the large Horse Mushroom (P. arvensis) ; it 
is an interesting addition to our small list of mushrooms, which, however, 
includes such noteworthy rarities as P. Bernardii and P. dulcidula. It may 
be remembered that the former was found in May, 1922, in a sloping meadow 
near Burridge Heath ; it is sold in the markets of La Rochelle, in France, 
in marshy, maritime meadows near which it was first found by M. Bernard, 
and was an unexpected find so far inland. 

Bolhitius tituhans. A few specimens were gathered upon Burridge Heath, 
on the 31st October ; a very tender, slender Bolhitius^ X\iQ specific tituhans^ 
tottering, indicating its extremely fragile and delicate nature ; the cap is 
light yellow at the disc or centre, and becomes greyish at the margin, and 
the stem is white and shining. 

Cortinarius fulmineus. An uncommon Cortinarius with tawny viscid 
€ap and golden yellow crowded gills, of which a single specimen was 
gathered near Bedwyn Common at the end of October ; the yellow stem has 
a very depressed marginate, i.e.^ with a distinct ledge above, rooting bulb ; 
it is generally found in deciduous woods. Mr. Carlton Ilea records 209 
Cortinarii in '"''British Basidiomycetae " ; they are difficult of determination, 
€ven by experts. 

C. alboviolaceus. A little colony of this interesting agaric was noticed 
under beeches near London Ride at the beginning of October ; the cap 
is whitish violet in colour and is beautifully silky, and the club-shaped 
stem is of the same colour ; it is common in woods, especially beech woods. 

C. holaris. Light yellow and covered with spot-like red scales, this 
striking species is instantly recognized ; it grew under beeches near the 
last-named fungus, and like that, is pre-eminently a plant of beech woods : 
Mr. Swan ton tells me 1927 has been a favourable year for this very notice- 
able toadstool. 

C. caninus. A Cortinarius with yellowish cap and long white stem, 
which was collected in Burridge Heath Plantation in October ; it is very 
common in deciduous woods. 

C. privignus. A little tuft under beeches, near St. Katharine's Church, 
in the Forest ; it has a brown cap and fragile white stem, and is an un- 
common plant of pine and oak woods ; its association with privignus, a 
step-son, requires explanation ; Fries gave the fungus this name as it is 
fragile in a non-fragile group. 

C. rigens. With tan clay-coloured cap, long whitish stem and very broad 
gills, often veined on the sides, this is a scarce plant of pine woods, that was 
collected in Bedwyn Brails in September. 

C. obtusus. By Rhododendron Drive in early November ; not infrequent 
in pine woods from April to November ; an agaric with cinnamon cap, 
whitish when dry, long, ventricose, curved stem, and very broad gills con- 
nected by veins. 

Hygrophorus fusco-albus was noticed near Haw Wood in October ; it has 
a grey sticky cap, and stem, white fioccose at the apex ; an uncommon 
Hygrophorus occurring in woods and amongst grass under conifers. 

Russula lilacea has a violet or lilac cap, often brownish, with a striate 
margin, a white stem often rosy at the base, and white ventricose gills, and 



By Cecil P. Hurst, 137 

was gathered in Bedwyn Brails in September ; it is an uncommon plant 
which has a pleasant smell of apple and a mild taste. 

R. lutea var. armeniaca was also found in Bedwyn Brails in September ; 
it differs from the type in the rich apricot colour of the pileus. 

Boletus pachypus. A single plant near London Ride in October ; my 
specimen had a pale cap, yellow tube-openings, and a swollen stem, with 
blood-red reticulation. This species has yellow tube-openings at first, and 
may thus be distinguished from the much rarer B. satanas, also found in 
the Forest, which has them blood-red at first. 

Clavaria corniculata var. pratensis. Amongst short grass on West Leas ; 
in this variety the branchlets form a level top ; it is common in exposed 
places, and sometimes occurs in vast quantities ; one of the yellow Clavariae. 

Helvetia elastica. By the side of Rhododendron Drive ; a not uncommon 
Helvetia^ with a longitudinally grooved stem. 

Humaria pilifera. In March, in the north part of Tottenham Park, on 
sandy ground ; a tiny Humaria 1 — 2'5 millimetres across ; the orange-red 
disc has a pale fimbriate margin ; it was found growing among moss, and 
was kindly identified by Mr. W. B. Grove, of Birmingham University. 

Plant-Galls. 
On the 13th August the hypertrophies on the leaves and flowers of the 
hedge woundwort {Stachys sylvatica) caused by the fly Perrisia stachydis 
were seen by the roadside near Dod's Down, and in the autumn of 1927 
the spherical galls due to the presence of the larvae of the hymeiiopteron 
Dryophanta folii were plentiful on the under surface of oak leaves in 
Chisbury Wood and Rhododendron Drive, and specimens of the little black 
fly-like wasps still in the galls were collected. These latter galls, as is usual 
in summers deficient in sunshine, were by no means vividly tinted, the 
usual reddish colour being very sparingly present. 



138 



OBJECTS FOUND DUKING EXCAVATIONS ON THE 

EOMANO-BRITISH SITE AT COLD KITCHEN HILL, 

BKIXTON DEVERILL, 1926. 

By Pv. DE C. Nan Kivell. 

The following illustrated list of objects discovered contains all the im- 
portant "finds" during the very few excavations carried out in 1926. 

With the exception of the iron "involuted " brooch there is not anything 
outstanding in comparison with the previous discoveries from this site. 
The pottery, beads, bone and iron work, etc., are of exactly the same 
character as the objects from the site previously illustrated. (See W.A.M., 
xliii., pp. 180—191 ; 327—332). 

Plate I. 

A. Iron "involuted " brooch. Pin missing. Length l^in. This is the 
second almost complete specimen from this site ( W.A.M., xlii., 67). These 
are the only two known iron specimens of this type of brooch. The other 
four known examples are of bronze (See Man, 1921, 80, Fig. 1, and Arch- 
SRologia Gambrensis, June, 1927). 

This specimen closely resembles, without the ornamentation, the bronze 
one found by Sir Arthur Evans at Beckley, Oxon (illustrated in ^rcA^o^o^rm 
Cambrensis, June, 1927). 

B. Bow of iron bow brooch with perforated catch-plate. Length 2|in. 
(Iron brooches with perforated catch-plates are very rare ) 

Plate II. 

A. Bronze penannular brooch with ends colled back. Part of circum- 
ference moulded into four knobs. Diameter lin. Complete but crushed. 

B. Bronze hinge-pin bow brooch. Flat bow ]/l6in. thick, 7/16in. wide^ 
with shoulders projecting to fin. at head. Bow tapers to the foot. Three 
sunken grooves along the bow, the two outer ones feathered and a sunken 
punch mark on each shoulder. Length 1 gin. Perfect. 

C. Bronze hinge-pin T-shaped bow brooch. Round bow with raised 
moulding tapering from head to apex of bow. Has had iron pin fixed. 
Length 2^m. 

D. Bronze pin, with circular grooves cut, and fine lines incised at head. 
Length 4^in. Diameter l/16in. Perfect. 

E. Bronze spring-pin T-shaped bow brooch with eight coils to spring- 
Grooved incisions on projections at head. Pin missing. Length 1 ]3/16in. 

F. Bronze hinge-pin T-shaped bow brooch. There is an added pro- 
jection tapering to a point immediately over the elongated catch-plate which 
also ends in an upturned point. The pin attachment is unusual, as the 
whole of the projections at the head are definitely fixed to, and work with,^ 
the pin, thus the end of the bow of the brooch has only a loop to it for 
attachment. 



By B, de G. Nan KivelL 



13g 



PLATE I 
A 





Iron Involuted Brooch of the •' Beckley " type, &c. 
Cold Kitchen Hill, 1926. \ 



140 Objects found at Gold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverill, 



PLATE H. 
A 




Brooches and pin. Cold Kitchen Hill, 1926. ^ 



By B. de G. Nan Kivell 



141 



Further finds not here illustrated include the following. 



Eleven coins. 



Small brass. 
3 Tetricus 



A.D. 267—273. 



2 Claudius Gothicus „ 268—270. 

3 Carausius „ 287—289. 
2 Constantinus „ 306—337. 
1 Magnentius „ 350— -353. 

This brings the total number of coins found during the excavations up to 
180. 

Nineteen glass beads, which with those previously found, number 428. 

Two bone needles and four fragments of others. 

Two bone pins and six fragments of others. 

Broken bone comb of six teeth. 

Small bronze ring, pin of brooch, and twelve fragments of bronze. 

Iron hinge-pin bow brooch. Length 2^in. Complete. 

Bow of iron hinge-pin bow brooch. Length 2jin. 

Iron awl. Length 6in. 

Ditto. Length 4jin. 

Worked bones. 

Two baked clay sling bullets. 

Six fragments of glass. 

Pottery whorl. Diameter 2in. 

One pound, three ounces, of iron nails of dififerent sizes, and numerous 
sandal cleats. 

Pottery fragments of all recognised types. 



The piece of cast bronze here illustrated from a block which appeared in 
the Wiltshire Gazette in the account of the Annual Meeting in 1927, is 




Fragment of Bronze Bracelet (?) of Hallstatt age from Cold Kitchen 
Hill, 1927. \ 



142 Objects found at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton JDeverill. 

perhaps part of a bracelet, or of an anklet. It weighs 7/16 of an ounce, and 
measures two inches across the bow. On the under side there are openings 
into the hollow lobes, or beaded projections. The metal is finely patinated, 
especially on the under side where the surface seems to have been some- 
what protected. This beaded design occurs frequently on ornamental 
bronzes of Hallstatt date. The settlement on Cold Kitchen Hill no doubt 
goes back to this period, for pottery of the All Cannings Cross type, and 
pins of the swan-neck variety have been found there. 

This fragment was found on the surface by Miss Constance Pugh when 
the society visited the site during the Annual Meeting in August, 1927. 
Mi-ss Pugh has kindly given the bronze to the society, and it is now in the 
Museum at Devizes, f M. E. Cunnington. 

t The Society is indebted to the Editor of the Wiltshire Gazette for the 
kind loan of this block. It is from a drawing by Mr. C W. Pugh. 



I 



143 



NOTES ON CLYFrE PYPARD AND BROAD TOWN. 
By the late Canon Francis Goddard.* 

The name is spelt variously in old documents, as Clyve, Olive, Cleeve, 
Cleve, White Cleve, Pepper Cleve, Cleve Pypard, Cleve Pepper, Pypard's 
Cleve, and in modern times as Clyfife, Cliff, Cliffe, Cleeve, White Cleve, 
Clyffe Pypard, and Pepper Cleeve. Twelve "Cleves" are mentioned in 
Domesday as in the County of Wilts. It seems a common name for places 
situated beneath the steep chalk hills, and is explained as signifying the 
brow or sloping side of a hill. 

An old rhyme containing names of places in this neighbourhood mentions 

" White Cleeve, Pepper Cleeve, Cleeve, and Cleveancy, 
Lyneham and lousy Clack, Cus Mavord (Christian Malford) and 
Dantsey." 

Of these the first three now apply to the same place, Clyffe Pypard. 
Cleveancy is in the adjoining parish of Hilmarton and is situated under the 
hill exactly as Clyffe Pypard is. 

It is properly Cleve Wancy, from a family of that name. William and 
Godfrey de Wancy were owners temp. Hen. III. and Ed. I. Pypard is a 
Norman family name. The Pypards held Clyffe under the Columbars, who 
held under Bigod, Earl Marshall.' 

Broad Town. 

The hamlet of Broad Town, N.E. of Clyffe Pypard Church, was made a 
separate ecclesiastical district, and a Church was built upon a site given by 
Horatio Nelson Goddard, Esq., in 1844, chiefly through the efforts of the 
Rev. Edward Wyndham Tuffnell, then curate of Broad Hinton, now (1863) 
Bishop of Brisbane. 

The district, Christchurch, was endowed partly from the tithes of Clyffe 
Pypard, partly from those of Broad Hinton, afterwards augmented by the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners to the sum of £120 per annum.' Portions 
both of Broad Hinton and Clyffe Pypard are included in its boundaries. 
The trust deed states that the district was set apart by consent of George 



* These notes were written in 1864 by the late Canon Francis Goddard, 
then Vicar of Hilmarton. He was the son of the Rev. Edward Goddard, 
Vicar and Lord of the Manor of Clyffe Pypard. He was born January 21st, 
1814, and died November 2nd, 1893. 

' The name has of late years been quite unwarrantably changed to Cliff- 
ansty, a name which has no authority except the fancy of a late owner. — 
E.H.G. 

' It is now (1928) stated to be of the net value of £300 a year. 



144 Notes on Glyffe Pypard and Broad Town, 

Ernest Howman, clerk, Master of St. Nicholas Hospital, Sarum, and patron 
of Broad Hinton, and Horatio Nelson Goddard, Esq., of ClyflFe Fypard, 
patron of the Vicarage of the latter parish. 

There was much diflSculty in filling the office of incumbent by reason of 
the insufficient income, and there being no Parsonage House ; it was in the 
first instance vacant two years, and in the second instance rather longer. 

The first incumbent, the Rev. William Farley, was inducted in 1846, 
resigned Nov., 1853, living afterwards at " Coleses," in Broad Town, until 
he died there 1864. 

He was succeeded by the Rev. Alex. G. W. Morrison, who was inducted 
July, 1856, and died almost suddenly in August, 1865. During his incum- 
bency a Parsonage House in brick was built under the hill on a site granted 
by the Trustees of the Broad Town Charity in 1857. 

Lower down on the road to Wootton Bassett very excellent schools, with 
master's residence attached, have been built on a site granted by the above- 
mentioned trustees in the year 1859. Through the great exertions of the 
Rev. Alex. Morrison in collecting subscriptions for this purpose, these 
schools now rank among the best village schools of the neighbourhood, and 
their opening was an era in the advance of civilisation in Broad Town, a 
place formerly much out of the way, and of a decidedly low grade of 
population. 

Broad Town was held in 1299 by Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, and Philip 
Basset under the Honour of Wallingford, by the families of Birnard and 
Parys [whose tenement was called " Pary's Place "] under the Earl Marshall 
and afterwards under the Mortimers. In 1400 the Manor belonged to the 
Crown ; in 1415 to Edmund, Duke of York ; in 1446 to Beauchamp, Earl 
of Warwick ; in 1478 to George, Duke of Clarence, jure uxoris. In 1536 it 
was granted to Sir Edward Seymour, Viscount Beauchamp, afterwards the 
Protector Somerset. , 

The Broad Town Charity. 

The Duchess of Somerset, by will dated May 17th, 1686 [she died Oct. 
26th, 1692] gave certain estates called Cotmarsh, in Broad Hinton, which 
she bought of William Basset, situated in the lower part of Broad Town, 
and her Manor of Broad Town for apprenticing poor boys, preference being 
given to those born on the Manors of Broad Town, Thornhill in Clyfi'e, 
Wootton Rivers, Huish and Froxfield [all in the county of Wilts], and in 
default of these, to boys in the county at large. These estates came under 
settlement with her second husband, John Seymour, 4th Duke of Somerset, 
great grandson of the Protector, who died without issue in 1675. She is 
believed to have married thirdly, at the age of about 40, in 1682, Henry 
Hare, Lord Coleraine. She was also the founder of the Froxfield Alms 
Houses for the widows of clergymen and lay widows. 

The first trustees of the Broad Town Charity were Henry, Lord Dela- 
mere, Sir Samuel Grimstone, Sir William Gregory, and the heirs of their 
survivors. Of these Sir S. Grimstone survived. In 1711 a commission 
decided that the trust should conveyed to seventeen trustees, whose 
numbers were to be filled up as often as they were reduced to eight. They 



By the late Canon Francis Goddard. 145 

were to be members of the Church of England and inhabitants of the county 
of Wilts. The trustees in 1712 were Eobert Loggan, clerk; Sir Edw. 
Seymour, Bart. ; Francis Popham, Esq. ; Richard Jones, Esq. ; Charles 
Tooker, Esq. ; Thomas Bennet, Esq. ; Samuel Whitelock, Esq. ; Lovelace 
Bigg, Esq. ; Farwell Parry, clerk ; Basil Devenport, clerk ; Servington 
Savory, M.D. ; Thomas Foster, clerk (Vicar of Clyffe Pypard) ; and Thomas 
Toker, clerk. 

Trustees were successively appointed to fill vacancies in 1758, 1772, 1784, 
1790, 1803, 1814, 1837, 1846. Those appointed in 1837 and 1846 were Sir 
John Dugdale Astley, Bart. (Everleigh) ; John Hungerford Penruddock, 
Esq. ; The Earl Bruce ; The Rt. Hon. Henry Pierrepoint ; Horatio Nelson 
Goddard, Esq. (Clyffe) ; Thos. Henry Sutton Bucknill Estcourt, Esq. (New 
Park) ; George Wroughton Wroughton, Esq. (Wilcot) ; George Heneage 
Walker Heneage, Esq. (Compton Bassett) ; Lord Ernest Bruce, M.P.; Francis 
Leybourne Popham, Esq. (Littlecote) ; Ambrose Lethbridge Goddard, Esq. 
(Swindon); The Hon. Sydney Herbert (Wilton); Sir John Awdry, Kt. 
(Notton) ; Rev. John Leybourne Popham (Chilton) ; Rev. George Ashe 
Goddard (Clyffe Pypard). 
In 1838 the following were the particulars of the Charity property : — 

Extent. 
Premises. Tenants. a, r. p. 

Manor Farm Thos. Gale 249 3 10 

[Robert Chesterman in 1863.] 
Ham Farm Thos. Gale 164 3 21 

[Will. Stiles in 1863.] 
Goldborough Farm Rich. Parsons 101 2 

[Kdward Parsons in 1863.] 
Farm at Broad Town Rich. Gale 32 2 26 

There were four cottages let on leases for lives in 1838. 
The number of boys apprenticed from the foundation to 1838 were : — 
Manor boys, 614; County boys, 1842.' 

[Since the Great War the whole of the charity lands have been sold, and 
the income available for the purposes of the charity has been thereby nearly 
doubled.-E. H. G.] 

Thornhill Tithing. 
Called Tornelle in Domesday. It belonged to Gilbert de Bretville. A 
considerable portion of this tithing is now included in Broad Town, whilst 
some remains in Clyffe. In 1861 the Clyffe portion had 15 houses and 58 
persons, the Broad Town portion 32 houses (3 uninhabited) and 117 per- 
sons. The greater part of the tithing is held by Brasenose College, Oxford. 
Sarah, Duchess of Somerset, gave by will dated 1686 to the Principal and 
Fellows of Brasenose College, Oxford, the Manor of Thornhill to increase 
the number of her scholars, she having already founded four scholarships 

* For further particulars see Some Particulars relating to the Broad Town 
Charity, by James Bradford, Steward of the Charity, 1838, and subsequent 
editions. 
VOL. XLIV.— NO. CXLVIII. L 



146 Notes on Clyffe Pypard and Broad Town. 

to be maintained from certain estates in the parish of Iver, co. Bucks, for 
scholars of Manchester School, with preference for natives of Lancashire, 
Cheshire, and Hereford. The Thornhill scholars were to be elected in turn 
from Manchester, Marlborough, and Hereford Schools. She further gave 
her leasehold farm in the said Manor (Thornhill) to found other scholar- 
ships in Brasenose. Also by codicil dated 1691 she gave the advowson of 
the living of Wootton Rivers to Brasenose Coll. and to St. John's Coll., 
Cambridge, who are bound to present alternately one who has been a 
Scholar on the Duchess's Foundation.' I myself enjoyed the benefit of 
one of the Duchess's scholarships at Brasenose Coll. for four years, being 
nearly, with allowances, £60 per annum. 

The Manor Farm House is a structure of no architectural pretensions in 
brick, occupied (1863) by the tenant, Mr. Henly. On the end of the stables 
is an inscription on a stone built into the wall on which " Comes de Here- 
ford " is legible. 

BusHTON Tithing. 

Bushton in 1861 contained 87 houses and 378 persons. The name is said 
by Canon Jackson to be a corruption of Bishopstone. It was held at the 
Conquest by the Bishop of Winchester. At the dissolution a lease was 
granted by the Crown to John Warnford, Esq. The land is chiefly held (1864) 
by Sir Robert Buxton, Bart., Mr. Broome, and Mr. Goddard. Mr. Thomas 
Hill, yeoman, and Mr. Spackman, also have freehold lands therein. Many 
of the cottagers own their respective residences, having built them originally 
on the common, which was enclosed within my memory. 

About the centre of Bushton there is a well-built brick mansion, now 
(1864) inhabitated by Mrs. Smart, the tenant of the farm. This was 
formerly the residence of the Hunton family (see Pedigree in Visitation of 
Wilts, 1623), and Aubrey mentions that a monument of Elizabeth Hunton, 
of Bushton, stood in the chancel window of Clyflfe Church and was removed 
by order of the Chancellor when the Communion table was set altarwise. 
Portions of this monument, which must have been a very large one, block- 
ing the whole of the lower part of the east window,^ remain in fragments in 
a recess in the East end of the North aisle and a part of the shield with the 
Hunton Talbots or hunting dogs upon it. Eichard Hunton, Esq., of Bush- 
ton, presented Henry Burford, clerk, to the Vicarage of Clyffe in 1614. It 
is probable that Mr. Hunton was lessee of the Goddard family to whom the 
advowson belonged from the period of the Dissolution, and the lessee had 
the presentation to the Vicarage. The family of Hunton were of East 
Knoyle, Wilts. This estate of Huntons has been for a long time in the 

^ This was previous to the Oxford reforms. 
^ The shield of arms here mentioned has entirely disappeared. The other 
pieces of the tomb were probably turned out at the time of the restoration 
of the Church in a corner of the churchyard, where they remained for many 
years. It is possible that one or two of the fragments now placed above 
the beam over the S. door in the porch may have belonged to this tomb — 
E. H. Goddard. 



By the late Canon Francis Goddard, 147 

family of Broome. The first I can trace is Ralph Broome, who by will 
<iated 1767 devised the estate to his son Ralph Broome, and by heirship it 
has descended to the present (1864) possessor, Christopher Edmund Broome 
Esq., who has never resided at Bushton.^ 

Mr. Wayte, late of Highlands, Oalne, had a small farm at Bushton, now 
(1864) occupied by the widow of Jasper Lewis as tenant. Among many 
small holders of freeholds in Bushton are Skuse, a tailor ; Church, a wheel- 
wright ; and Cook, a labourer. 

A new road leading from Bushton to Hilmarton is in progress of con- 
struction by what were formerly almost impassable lanes ( 1 863). [This road 
was completed under the New Highway Act, 1864 — 5, and chiefly enclosed.] 

BupTON Tithing. 

This is in the Hundred of Potterne, because [as is supposed] the Bishop 
of Sarum was lord of both. 

Bupton at present (1863) contains only the farm and two cottages, the 
latter very dilapidated and called Lower Bupton. [Two more cottages were 
built in the iMarsh in 1864.] 

The Farm House, situated immediately under the hill, at the extremity 
of the parish [the next field to it being in Hilmarton parish] is a place of 
some note as the residence of the Quintin family, who also held property 
in Hilmarton, in which Church they have a monument, and in the registers 
of that period is the entry of the death of one of the Quentins on Tower 
Hill in the time of the rebellion. If the present house is the same in which 
this family resided, the home of a squire of the old time contrasts strangely 
i?^^ith modern requirements in the same rank of life. 

Sir Kichard ISimeon, Bart., sold Bupton Farm, of which Mr. Jasper 
IlumboU Maskelyne was tenant for a long period, to Mr. Richard Stratton, 
yeoman, of Broad Hinton, the celebrated breeder of shorthorn cattle, in 
1860. 

In the Goddard deeds the Pile family are frequently mentioned in con- 
nection with Bupton Estate, and in 1602 Thomas Goddard, Esq., of Clyflfe, 
sold certain property in Bupton to the Piles. 

Sir Seymour Pile held Bupton in 1699. Mr. Stratton has during his 
ownership very much improved the approach to this place which was before 
without a road, by making a hard road connecting with Hilmarton lanes in 
the Marsh. 

The Goddard family seem to have held property in Bupton subsequent 
to the above mentioned sale in 1602, as it appears by family deeds, certain 
holdings in Upper and Lower Bupton and Oadhill revert to Francis 
■Ooddard, Esq., of Clyfi*e, son of Edward and Bridget Goddard, having been 
in his mother's jointure, the date of the jointure being 1656. The said 

^ The house which was either built or greatly altered by Ralph Broome 
as stated in an inscription on a stone formerly in the interior but now built 
into the front of the house has been since 1926 the residence of the well- 
known novelist, Mr. A. S. M. Hutchinson. — E. H. G. 

L 2 



148 Notes on Glyffe Pypard and Broad Town, 

Bridget, daughter of Sir Cecil Bishopp, Bart., married after Edward 
Goddard's death Kasper Keeling, Esq., as her second husband, who is a 
party to the deed by which the property reverts to her son Francis Goddard 
during her life. Gabriel Pile conveys certain lands called Rosyers in Clyffe 
parish to Thomas Goddard, Esq., dated 8th June, 1602, and a deed en- 
dorsed " Counterpart of Thomas Goddard's feofment of his part of Bupton 
to Gabriel Pile" is dated August 24th, 1602 [this by an error in Jackson's 
Aubrey is printed 1682]. 

BusHTON, 1549. 

[Extracted from an original Survey of Crown Estates in Co. Wilts made 
for Sir John Thynne, Receiver of the Crown ; and now among the docu- 
ments of the Marquis of Bath at Longleat, contributed by Canon J. E. 
Jackson.] 

Anno III. Ed. VI. Bushton Manor in . . . Swithini et nuper 
Domi S. (Seymour probably) fermarii ibidem. 

Tenants by Copy. Nicholas Lanfere : copy dated Oct. 2nd, 35 M. VIII., 
Messuage, garden and orchard. Wholme Close, Shaw Close, the Heaths 

1 vesture (?) of mead in Lansdowne and Hencroft. 10 acres in East field, 
10 acres in West field, Common for 30 sheep in the field, for 6 beasts and 

2 horses in the Hurst payable yearly. Fine 53s. 4d. by report. Court 
silver Id. and Id., 10s. lOd. 1 yard land. 

Richard Fermor, copy dated St. George's Day, 27 Hen. VIII. Whoma 
closes, the Breach, and in East and West field and Common. 

John Byde, messuage, Broad Mead, Callcroft, Hamons, Tuckeys, 1 . . . 
in Lansdown, Common, &c. Copy 19th Oct., 13 H. VIII. pays 26s. 8d. 
Fine £3. Heriot. Court silver 7d. and 7d. 

John Phelps, copy April 19th, H. VIII. Messuage, Whome Close, pas- 
ture called Lydgates, Broad Close, Inocks, Breach, 1 ... in Lansdown^ 
Hencroft, East field, Common. Court silver 4d. and 4d. 19s. Fine 8. 4d. 

John Farmer alias Hay ward, copy 18th April, 21 Hen. VIIT.. Messuage 
and two closes called Rockes (?), Broad lease. Lane close, Tare (?) close,, 
Heath, Common. Court silver 4d. and 4d, 19s. Fine 6O3. Yard and 
half. Heriot, 

Paeticulaes of the Manor, so called, of Bushton. 

Christian Harding holdeth by custom during widowhood a messuage and 
Tare close, the Breech, &c., &c. 

Thomas Hayward, Holcroft, Okesey (?), Scotsclose (?). 

Walter Bush in the same grounds as above. 

Mawde Clerk, Holcroft, Rummead. 

Thomas Gale, John Willes, Robert Parker, all various holdings in the 
Breach, Hancroft, Inocks feeding, and Lansdown, and also paying court 
silver, fines, &c. 

Site of Manor fine and report £60. Richard Stephens, Thomas, his son, 
by indenture, House and Chapel Hay, Wigsey Hill Close, Hill Close, Shaw 
16 acres, Woodcroft, Monckton Lane, Rolands down, — (?) Common 20O 
sheep, &c. 



By the late Canon Francis Goddard, 149 

The certeyn silver coining of the tenants of this manor, 6s. 8d. 

The custom called Monkton Eve, 12d. 

Value of all the issues of this Manor ;S18 2s. 2d. 

Liberties. The Lord may keep two Leets in the year and hath all manner 
of waifs, strays, felons' goods,infangthef and outfangthef within the manor. 
The Sheriff could serve no process, but the Lord's office only. 

Item. The said Manor is situated within the parish of Cleve Pyper and 
is a tithing of hitself. 

Item. There ys ii commons belonging to this Manor called the Hurst 
and the Marsh conteyning by estimation 60 acres. 

Item. There is never a freeholder within this Manor, but all the land 
within this tithing is the Lords of the Manor. 

Woods. None of name : but on hedgerows aboute the Manor, which is 
well wooded, the nature okes and elms. Also in a pasture of the farmers 
called Shawe be okys newly thick sett albeit but scrubbes. 

Customs: the custom of thys Manor ys that there shall be granted but 
one life in a copy and no reverson till the hold be fallen. Notwithstandinge 
the custome is that the child to the father shall have the hold after the 
father, and no stranger. Also the tenant may surrender to a stranger. 

Item : all copies in reversion be voyd by custom as the Homage says, yet 
there be one or two that have copies in reverson, every Wyff surviving her 
husband shall have her Widowe's estate in her holde, whether she be named 
or not, and she be first or last. 

Also Widows pay ... at courts. 

Every tenant shall pay for every pigge or swyne that he shall have above 
XV. months olde for pannage Id. yearly, and of half-year olde 1 farthing at 
Michaelmas only. 

The Tenants do pay yearly Xlld. for a custom called the Monkton Eve, 
yerely at Michaelmas only. 

The Lord of the Manor hath certeyn silver. There be 10 hable men to 
serve the King, when need shall requyre. 

In the copy of a Lease granted by the Monastery of St. Swithin, Win- 
<;hester, to the Stephens family, " To Richard Stephens and Thomas his 
son and Richard eldest son of Thomas, made 12 die Aug. ann H. VIII 
25th," mention is made of a chapel at Bushton attached to the Manor, and 
the articles appertaining to the said chapel are specified, viz. : — " Unum par 
vestamentorum, unum corporale, unum subaltare, unum Missale, unum 
•calicem cum patena argentea, duas fiolas,^ unum manitergum, unum frontale, 
, pertinentia ad capellam." 

Afterwards occurs a provision for a certain custom called Le Gyeve (?) 
-and the most minute particulars are specified for the convenience of the 
tenant, in paying annually 13 marks and 20 pence in equal portions at the 
four seasons, at the feasts of S.S. Simon and Jude, the Purification of the 
B.V.M., S.S. Philip and James, and St. Peter ad Vincula. The Stephens 
bound themselves to repair everything and to reside continually in the 

^ Two stoles, one towel. 



150 Notes on Glyjffe Pypard and Broad Town, 

house, and to find the steward of the monastery meat and drink and good 
beds stuffed with wool, with provender for horses two days in the year. 
Sealed by the Prior (Dnus Henry Broke) and Convent and the Stephens, 
12th Aug., 25 H. VI ri. 

Walter Engford is called by a title which Canon Jackson thinks is 
" anniversarius," perhaps the same officer who at Glastonbury was called 
"Custos Anniversarii." 

3rd Ed. VI. Tenants of this Manor do pay yerely xiid. for a custom 
called the Munckton Eve yearly at Michaelmas only. 

I may add here that the fields in every instance retain the names above 
mentioned, and that individuals in the neighbourhood have at this time^ 
1865, the same names as those that then occupied the lands. 

The Manorial rights of Bushton have long since been in abeyance, and na 
memory remains of the fact that it was a Manor. 

COKTON [in HiLMARTON]. 

William of Worcester, in his journey from Salisbury, 30th August, 1468,* 
leaves Wilton and sleeps at Cheverell on Sunday. On Monday, 31st Aug., 
he rides through Devizes (De Vyes), Yatesbury, and at last the Manor of 
Crofton (Corton), formerly Catermains (Quartermayne's), in the parish of 
Hilmarton, where he did the business of Thomas Danvers, Esq. [William 
of Worcester was receiver to Sir John Fastolf, Lord of Castle Combe]^ 
Corton, three miles from Hilmarton Church, immediately adjoins Bupton 
on the west. 

It is interesting as having had a chapel at an early period, which is said 
to have been a chapel of ease to Clyffe, but not a trace of the site of it re- 
mains except the inequality of the ground. The Kectory of the Free 
Chapel of Corton was sold by the heiress of Russell, widow of Quarter- 
mayne, to Walter, Lord Hungerford, in 1434, by whom the proceeds were 
added to the Chantry of St. Mary's in Heytesbury (see Jackson's Aubrey). 
In 1438 Thomas Danvers held Corton, late Quartermayns. I have lately 
sought for the site of this Chapel. The tenant, Mr. Crook, points out a 
spot immediately over the hedge of the first (home) field westward from the 
Farm House as the situation of the former Chapel. There are no traces 
whatever of buildings, but they say stones are found there occasionally 
where no stones exist by nature. 

The estate, which is the property of Magdalen College, Oxford, pays a 
modus of Is. in lieu of tithe. Mr. John Large has (1866) the lease of it, 
and Mr. Henry Crook is the tenant. [His family formerly had the lease.] 
It is about 600 acres and runs along the boundary of Clyffe parish to 
Whyrr Farm in Winterbourne Bassett. The Pinnigers lived at Corton in 
the last century. 

Oadhill or Woodhill Park. 
The Quintins held Oadhill under Bigod, Earl Marshall temp. Hen. III. 
It is a farm house of brick, and lies in the fields N.E. of Bupton, and is now 

^ Scrope's History of Castle Combe, p. 195. 



By the late Canon Fra^icis Goddard. 151 

(1866) commonly called Woodhill Park, a corruption of Oadhill, the name 
which it bears in old deeds. There is no cottage belonging to the farm 
below the hill, but above the hill there is one in a farm yard called Nebo 
belonging to this estate. It is the property of the Broome family, Mr. 
Pritchard is the tenant.* 

Kichard Broome, Esq., of Grays Inn, London, bought Oadhill Park Farm 
in 1792, of the Kev. John Sheppard, who bought it of John 8mith, Esq., of 
Lee, Kent, in the year 1720. Mr. Beak, now of Somerford Magna, was for 
many years (I believe 30) resident at Oadhill Park. It had no outlet by 
any hard road till 1862, when a stoned road was made up the hill in con- 
nection with the Marlborough road above Clyflfe hill, and another way out, 
through the " Marshes" below, has been completed. Mr. Beak's daughter 
married Mr. William Abbot Large, the present (1866) owner of Cleveancy 
estate. 

In the beginning of this (19th) century the Pinneger family occupied 
Oadhill ; being connected with the Broomes. Of this family we find a 
John Pinneger residing on his own estate at Tockenham, temp. James I. 
The Pinnegers owned Cowage Farm (in Oompton Bassett but enclosed in 
Hilmarton) which formerly belonged to the Goddards of Clyffe and Purton, 
The late Thomas Poynder, Esq. (of Hartham and Hilmarton), purchased it 
of the Pinneger family. 

Pedigree of Pinneger, now of Chippenham : — 

Broome Pinneger, = Alice Broome 



living at Oadhill 
Park, died 1780 



Broome Pinneger = Mary, d. of John Pinneger, 
of Oadhill Park, I of Gorton, Hilmarton 

living 1800 j 

Bartlett Pinneger, Broome Pinneger, Esq., Rev. Richard Pinneger, 

living 1863. B.1796, d. Chippenham 1863. Rector of Wishford. 

Jericho is a small farm above the hill between Bupton and Nonsuch. 
There is a cottage in the farm yard. Mr. Spackman, the owner of this and 
of some land at the bottom of Bushton, is of a family that have held it for 
a long time. 

Stanmore Lane is a muddy way leading from the top of Clyflfe Hill to- 
wards Devizes by the side of the wood of the same name. The road has 
now (1864) been for the first time partially stoned. The wood is a fox 
covert hunted by the Duke of Beaufort, lying beside the lane on the way to 
Yatesbury. It is not all in Clyflfe parish. One half belongs (1864) to Lady 
Holland, a small portion to Mr. Broome, and the remainder to Sir Robert 
Buxton. 

^ The property is now owned by Mr. E. Pritchard who purchased it from 
the Broome family.— E. H. G. 



152 Notes on Glyffe Pypard and Broad Town. 

Nonsuch is a corn farm above the hill between Jericho and Broad 
Town field, the property of H. N. Goddard, Esq., of Clyflfe. It has two 
cottages beside the farm buildings. The inhabitants of these cottages, and 
those at Jericho^ and Nebo, are the only parishioners of Clyffe Pypard 
above the hill. 

Under the hill lies a house and garden the property of Mr. Thomas Hill, 
bacon factor. [This was converted into several tenements before 1864.]' 

Nearer to Clyflfe on the right as you ascend the hill are two cottages 
(1 864). 3 

There are other detached buildings between Clyflfe and Wootton Bassett 
as Littleworth, two cottages at a distance of two miles,^ and Barnhill Farm 
which belongs to Mr. Grosvenor Drax, of Charborough, Dorset. Canon 
Jackson derives the name from Barnville, owners of lands in Clyflfe, temp. 
Hen. III. Rosiers, three cottages, and Woodstreet, two farms and cottages, 
lie between Bushton and Thornhill on Mr. Goddard's estate. 

All the western and middle part of Clyflfe Pypard, beneath the hill, is 
pasture, and all above the hill and at Broad Town for some little distance 
below the hill is arable,^ chiefly cultivated in beans, wheat, and oats ; barley 
is the exception, the soil not being favourable for its growth and malting 
qualities. The soil on the chalk above the hill is very fertile, the produce 
is often 28 bushels per acre of wheat, and rather more perhaps below the 
hill. Dry seasons suit it best. The motto of the old " Uphill " farmer was 
** Dry weather and plenty to drink." But wet seasons are the more healthy 
for the population. 

There is no stone in the parish except the chalk, which when used for 
building will only endure on the north side of walls. 

Census of Clyflfe Pypard, 1861. Enumerators, Thos. Gale, master of the 
Free School, Thornhill, and Parish Clerk, and Henry Draper, Mason. 

Houses. Void. Males. Females. Total. 

Tithing of Clyflfe Pypard ... 28 — 44 61 105 

St. Peter's District 
Tithing of Thornhill ... 13 2 31 27 58 

In St. Peter's District 
Tithing of Bushton ... 85 2 191 187 378 



In St. Peter's District 



126 4 266 275 541 



' The cottage at Jericho was pulled down many years ago. — E. H. G. 

2 It is now again (1928) reconverted into a single residence, which belongs 
to the County Council and is rented by Mr. A. Gleed, smallholder.— E. H. G. 

2 They have been for half a century (1928) a blacksmith's house and 
forge.— E. H. G. 

*The cottages at Littleworth have been pulled down and only the small 
enclosed garden now marks the spot (1928). — E. H. G. 

^ A great deal of land above the hill, and nearly the whole of it below the 
hill, is now (1928) under grass.— E. H. G. 



Houses. 

29 


Void. 

3 


Males. 

52 


Females. 
65 


Total. 

117 


53 


1 


124 


128 


252 



By the late Canon Francis Goddard. 153 

Tithing of Thornhill 

In Christ Church District 

Tithing of Broad Town 

In Christ Church District 

82 4 176 193 369 

Total ... 206 8 442 468 910 

The total population in 1851 was 890. 

The five tithings of the parish each maintained their own roads till Lady 
Day, 1864, when the new Highway Act came into operation. 

The last waywardens of the ty things were in 1863 : — Mr- Charles Bevan, 
for Clyffe ; Mr. Thomas Tuck, for Thornhill ; Mr. John Smart, for Bush- 
ton ; Mr. Thomas Pritchard, for Woodhill ; Mr. Will Stratton, for Bupton. 

Goldborough 100 acres is a tithing of itself below Broad Town. 

The village of Clyffe, situated beneath the hill, consists of the Church, 
Manor House on the N. side of the Church close adjoining, and Vicarage 
on the S. ; a farm house called " Hunters," an inn (" The Goddard Arms "), 
and about seven or eight cottages near together, with one called " Drapers," 
in a field called " Runmead." At about 70 yards distance the school house 
and school room built in the year 1854, three cottages near the school, and 
one larger ^rick house belonging to the Lewis family with a smithy 
attached. The school was erected at a cost of about £500. 

The Manor House, the residence of Horatio Nelson Goddard, Esq , stands 
on a lawn, formerly the old Bowling Green on the N. side of the Church, a yew 
hedge dividing the lawn from the churchyard. Until my father's, the Rev. 
Edward Goddard's, death the house had its chief face only to the east, and 
before my grandfather's time 1 have heard that there was a long dining 
hall on that face in which all the family and dependants dined together, the 
i former on a raised dais at one end. My father (Edward Goddard) altered 
the arrangement of the house when he married in 1801, and under his 
son, Horatio Nelson Goddard, the whole has been renovated. The walls 
were removed with a view to rebuilding it, but it was found that the roof 
was supported by oak timbers concealed in the walls and these with the old 
roof were suffered to remain, The timbers were a portion of the original 
wooden building, and one of them can still be seen extending from the cellar 
to the roof. 

The present Vicarage was built about the year 1839—40 by the Rev Geo. 
Ashe Goddard, then Vicar, without the aid of Queen Anne's Bounty or 
' other public funds, at a cost of nearly £5,000. At its building a carpenter's 
shop and cottage, and the blacksmith's shop and house were taken down 
: in order to form the western portion of the Vicarage garden and stable yard. 
I The Vicarage stands on the only glebe land there is, but not on the site of 
the old Vicarage which I remember standing where the entrance gate now 
is. This old Vicarage, was built by the Rev. Edward Goddard but was 
never inhabited, and was taken down at his death when the existing Vicarage 
was built. 



154 Notes on Gly£'e Pypard and Broad Town. 

There are a great many family deeds extant relating to the advowson of 
the Vicarage. At the dissolution of the monasteries it was alienated from 
Lacock Abbey and granted to John Goddard, ancestor of the present family, 
and from that time to the last presentation has remained in the same line, 
but subject to continual interchange among members of the family. Thus 
having bought the Kectory (great tithes) and Vicarage advowson in 1542 
John Goddard conveys it to Thomas Goddard, his second son, who in turn 
conveys it to Anthony Goddard, second son of his elder brother John, in 
1586. 
The following are amongst the deeds preserved at the Manor House : — 
1542. Feb. 14th. The feofment of the farm and parsonage of Clyflfe 
Pypard to Thomas Goddard, sen., my son, from John Goddard, of 
Upham (in Aldbourne). 
1542. Licence of Alienation from John Goddard, of Aldbourne, to Thomas 

Goddard (Godard) of the Rectory of Clyife Pypard. 
1567. Ap. 28th. Feofment of Rectory and Parsonage of Cliffe Pypard 
to John Godard, of Standen Hussey, from John Godard, of Upham, 
1586. Thomas Goddard, Esq., of Standen, conveys the Parsonage of 
Cliflfe Pypard to Anthony, second son of John Godard, late of Stan- 
den, Esq., father of the said Thomas and Anthony, reference being 
made to the will of this John bearing date July 1565. 
1647. By deed bearing date 6th December, 1647, there is a repurchase of 
the Parsonage of ClyfFe by Francis Goddard, Esq., of Lancelot Hum- 
ber, son of Lancelot Humber, who was second husband of Mary 
Goddard, widow of the above Anthony Goddard. Thus it returned 
to the senior branch of the family after a long lease had attached it 
to the junior branch (Anthony Goddard's). It is probably because 
there was a sub-leasing to other persons that the Goddards did not 
present to the Vicarage till 1660, and that Richard Hunton, Esq,, of 
Bushton, obtained the presentation by being the lessee of the Rectorial 
tithes (called the Parsonage) as he presented Henry Burford to the 
Vicarage in 1614. The last presentation by Lacock Abbey mentioned 
in Phillipp's Wiltshire Institutions, was in 1544. Between that date 
and 1660 when Edward Goddard presented, there are five institutions 
mentioned, but in fact there was a sixth Vicar not mentioned, 
Richard Hopkins, who held the living from 1648 to his death in 
1656. It is not improbable that in those troubled times he was 
never instituted. I hope he was not an "intrusionist," for he was 
a careful man, keeping his registers beautifully. 
I do not remember seeing the name of Stephen Jay in the registers. He 
seems to have been instituted in 1645. Perhaps Hopkins supplanted him, 
but there is no record of this. The Crown presented in 1582, 1620, and 
1645. After that there appears no presentation other than by a Goddard, 
with one exception, that of Richard Gale, of Everleigh, "pro hacvice" 
1718. 

The person presented by Edward Goddard, the proprietor in 1660, was 
Henry Blake, a name which suggests a family connection, as the Blakes,. 



By the late Canon Francis Goddard. 155 

of Pinhills (now included in the Bowood estate), intermarried with the 
Goddards.* Blake was dispossessed two years later, in 1662, probably for 
nonconformity, when so many who had been intruded into benefices were 
compelled to leave the Church. Blake never performed any baptisms. 
Was he an Anabaptist ? He signs the other registers till his " deprivation." 
He appears to have officiated in 1659 (before be was presented to the living). 
He was succeeded by William Stampe in 1663, who remained Vicar for 21 
years, and was the donor (1683) of the large plate-shaped Paten still in use. 
The office of registrar under the Commonwealth was not necessarily 
attached to that of Vicar. William Newman was appointed registrar 
by Justices Bruges and Blewett, 1656. It survived the Restoration, for 
Ambrose Spackman was registrar from 1660 to 1683. 

Thomas Taylor, Vicar from 1730 to 1745, was a college friend of my 
grandfather's, who presented him and lived to repent it. His carelessness 
appears in the registers of his period, which are sadly confused and negli- 
gently kept. From about 1754 his name ceases in the registers, and it is 
probable that he was absent, when there was a continual feud between him 
and the squire, who upon Taylor's death in 1769 is said to have declared 
that he " would have no more Vicars at Clyffe," and so presented himself, 
not being till then in holy orders. Having served the office of Sheriff in 
1767 he was ordained deacon in 1769 and priest in 1770, being 47 years of 
age. He was instituted in 1770 and died 1791. He married Johanna Reed, 
of Crowood, Wilts, and left his estates to his eldest son, Edward Goddard, 
of Clyffe. In 1865 there was living at Clyffe Ann Bedford who had been 
a servant in his household. She told me that " The Old Justice," as he was 
always called, and Mrs. Goddard always fasted on Fridays and often did so 
on Wednesdays. His eldest son, Edward Goddard, succeeded him in the 
Vicarage as well as in the estate and held them for 47 years, dying on Jan. 
23rd, 1889, in his 78th year. His widow, Annica Susan Bayntun, survived 
him till 1855. They lie together in the vault under the chancel. This was 
the last interment in Clyffe Church and I believe the 43rd of the Goddard 
family buried there, as the registers testify. He was always known as " the 
old Squire," and was all his life an active magistrate and much engaged in 
county business. In his days the business now done at Petty Sessions, and 
many cases that go to Quarter Sessions were settled by his dictum in his 
little study. 

List of Vicars of Clyffe Pypard from 1304 to 1928. 
[From Phillipps' Institutiones Wiltoniae. ] 
"^"^^ Rector {¥.) Patrons. [ Vicars or Rectors]. 

1304 V Alexander . . . Rector Robert of Eton 
of the parish 

* Anthony Goddard, of Hartham, 4th son of Thomas Goddard, of Og- 
bourne, married Jane, d. of Roger Blake, of Pinhills ; they had two children 
Edward and Jane ( Wilts Visitation, 1563). 



156 



Notes on Glyjfe Pypard and Broad Town, 



Date 


ZZ^Jl P<^*rons. 


1327 


E 


Henry de Cobeham, Kt. 


1328 


V 


John Jokyn, Rector 


1332 


V 


Thomas de Cobeham,Kt. 


1342 


E 


John de Hoby 


1343 


E 


Thomas de Cobham, Kt. 


1381 


E 


William Worston 


1381 


E 


William Worston 


1400 


V 


John de Maydenhith, 
Dean of Cirencester 


1421 


V 


Abbess of Lacok 


1421 


V 


Abbess of T-acok 


1422 


V 


Abbess of Lacocke 


1434 


V 


Abbess of Lacocke 


1435 


V 


John Heryng, armiger 


1439 


V 


Abbess of Lacok 


1441 


V 


Abbess of Lacock 


1468 


V 


Abbess of Lacock 


1489 


V 


Abbess of Lacock 


1513 


V 


Abbess of Lacock 


1544 


V 


Thos. Tymes, by con- 
cession of Joanna 
Temyse, late Abbess of 
Lacock 


1562 


V 


Thorn. Halknight,notary 
public by concession 
of . . . 

Richard Hunton, of 


1582 


V 






Bushton, armiger 


1620 


V 


The King (for this turn) 


1645 


V 


(none given) 


1660 


V 


Edward Goddard, of 

Standen, armiger 


1662 


V 


Edward Goddard, armi- 



ger 



[ Vicars or Rectors]. 

John Jokyn 

John de Henton 

John de Hoby 

John de Whetewang [exchanged 

with Will, of Blebury] 
Henry Wyldegos 
Thomas Worston, by exchange 

with John de Campeden 
John Walcote 
Roger Attehurne 

Nicholas Frankelyn, by resigna- 

ation of John Smyth 
John King, by resignation of 

Nicholas Frankelyn 
Thos. Cook 
Will. To we, by resignation of 

John Durneford 
John Derneford 

Nicholas Kempston, by resigna- 
tion of John Derneford 
John Cleydon, by resignation of 

Nicholas Kemston 
Will. Hegges, by death of John 

Cleydon 
Richard Foster, by exchange with 

Will Higges 
John Gerrard, by death of Richard 

Foster 
William Hodgekinson, by death 

of Johanna Garard 



Ralph Wyks 



Henry Burford, by death of 
Francis Burford 

Henry Burford 

Stephen Jay 

Henry Blake, by death of U. V. 
(i.e., ultimi vicarii) 

William Stamp, by the depriva- 
tion of Henry Blake 



By the late Canon Francis Goddard. 



157 



Date 
1683 

1685 

1718 

1745 

1770 

1780 

1791 

1839 

1863 

1883 



Patrons. 



Vicar (V) 
Rector {K) 
V Edward Goddard, armi- 
ger 
Francis Goddard, armi- 

ger 
Richard Gale, of Ever- 

leigh (for this turn) 
Edward Goddard, of 

Cliffe Pypard, Esq. 
Edward Goddard, clerk 



Edward Goddard, clerk 
Rev. Edward Goddard 

Horatio NelsonGoddard, 

Esq. 
Horatio NelsonGoddard, 

Esq. 

Horatio NelsonGoddard, 
Esq. 



[ Vicars or Rectors'] 

Bernard Hore, by death of Will. 

Stamp 
Thomas Foster, by resignation of 

Bernard Hore 
William Gale, by death of Thomas 

Foster 
Thomas Taylor, by death of Will. 

Gale 
Edward Goddard, by death of 

Thomas Taylor 
The said Edward Goddard, by 

gift of himself 
Edward Goddard, by death of 

Edward Goddard 
George Ashe Goddard, by death 

of Edward Goddard 
Charles William Bradford, by 

resignation of George Ashe 

Goddard 
Edward Hungerford Goddard, by 

death of Charles Will. Bradford 

[present Vicar 1928.] 



Deeds preserved at Clyffe Pypard Manor House. 
[A list made by Edward Goddard, 1763.] 

1. Edw. T. 1304. Charter granting the Free Warren of Pipard's Cliffe 
to Roger de Cobham. 

2. Hen. VIII. 1510. Robert Duckett's Release to John Brook of all 
his rights in lands in Cliffe Pypard, late William Cobham's. 

3. Hen. VIII. 1518. Release to John Broke of all his interest in the 
Manor of Cliffe Pypard to Edward Cobham. 

4. Hen. VIII. 1518. Lease from Edward Cobham to William Home 
of the Manor of Cliffe Pypard. 

5. Hen. VIII. 1521. Edward Cobham's grant of the Manor of Cliffe 
Pypard to John Roper, Simon Webb, Richard Patten, and others, upon his 
son's marriage. 

6. Hen. VIII. 1522. Release from John Roper and others to Simon 
and Richard Patten of their interest in the Manor of Cliffe Pypard. 

7. Hen. VIII. 1522. Exemplification. Cliffe Pypard. Simon Webb 
and Richard Patten against Edward Cobham. 

8. Hen. VIII. 1525. Edward Cobham's grant to William Dantsye, of 
London, alderman, of the Manor of Cliffe Pypard. 

9. Hen. VIII. 1526. Simon Webb's release to Edward Cobham of 
the covenants of indentures between them concerning Cliffe Pypard. 



158 Notes on Clyffe Pypard and Broad Town. 

10. Hen. VIII. 1526. Release of Simon Webb and Richard Patten 
of their rights in Cliflfe Pypard to William Dantsye and others. 

11. Hen. VIII. 1530. William Dantsye, of London, Alderman, his 
conveyance of the Manor of Cliffe Pypard to John Goddard, of Aldborne, 
woolman. Purchase ^£400. 

12. Hen. VIII. 1530. William Dantsye's feofment to certain persons 
to the use of John Goddard of Upham, Cliffe Pypard. 

13. Hen. VIII. 1531. Grant to John Goddard, sundry persons of 
Clyffe Pypard to the use of John Goddard, of Upham. 

14. Hen. VIIL 1541. Tenements and lands in Wanburghe and Up- 
ham. Tenements and lands in Weglestok in the parish of Wroughton. 
The Rectory of the Church of Clyffe Pypard and the gift of the Vicarage 
belonging to the Monastery of Laycock, paying thereof yearly to the King at 
Michaelmas £1 16s. Tenements and lands in North Tidworth belonging 
to the Monastery of Broadstock, paying yearly at Michaelmas to the King's 
M ajesty 6d. [This is the original grant of K. Henry VIII. to John Goddard, 
of Aldbourne, gentleman, of the Rectory of the Church of Cliffe Pypard 
with the Parsonage and gift of the Vicarage and tithes. 

15. Hen. VIII. 1542. Licence of Alienation to John Goddard of 
Alborne of the Rectory of Cliffe Pypard with the appurtenances to Thomas 
Goddard the elder. 

16. Hen. VIII. 1542. John Goddard's feofment to his son, Thomas 
Goddard, senr.,^ of the farm and Parsonage of Cliffe, &c., with an entayle 
thereof. 

17. Elizabeth. 1560. Edward Fawley's feofment of a tenement and 
lands in Hungerford to John Goddard, of 8tanden. 

18. Elizabeth. 1567. Thomas Goddard, of Upham, his conveyance to 
John Goddard, of Standen Hussey, of the Rectory and Parsonage of Cliffe 
Pypard. 

19. Elizabeth. 1567. Thomas Goddard, of Upham, his feofment to 
John Goddard, of Standen Hussey, of the Rectory and Parsonage of Cliffe 
Pypard. 

20. Elizabeth. 1586. Thomas Goddard's conveyance for 99 years to 
his brother Anthony Goddard, of the Parsonage of Cliffe, recites a will of 
John Goddard, Esq., of Standen Hussey, dated July, 1567. 

21. Elizabeth. 1586. Copy of lease for 99 years from Thomas 
Goddard, Esqre., to his brother Anthony Goddard, of the Rectory of Cliffe 
Pypard. Rent ^10 per ann. It is noted that these are the sons of John 
Goddard, Esqre , of Standen, 1567. 

22. Elizabeth. 1602. Gabrill Pile's conveyance of certain lands in 
Cliffe Pypard called Rosyers to Thomas Goddard, of Standen Hussey. 

23. Elizabeth. 1602. The counterpart of Thomas Goddard's feofment 
of his part of Bupton to Gabrill, except Rectory and all tithes whatsoever 
to M r. Goddard. 

1 This Thomas was the elder of the two sons named Thomas, but John 
was the eldest son and heir. 



By the late Canon Francis Goddard. 159 

24. James I. 1609. Will of Thomas Goddard. His two sons by a 
second marriage were Alexander and Edward. 

25. James I. 1617. Indenture of Francis Goddard to Sir Anthony 
Hungerford and Mr. Edmund Hungerford, diverting the use of the fine 
levied by the said Francis to the said Sir Anthony Hungerford and Mr. Ed. 
Hungerford, to the use of Francis Goddard, Esqre.,in fee, all that belonged 
to Francis Goddard, Esqre. [except Standen Hussey. The fine is enclosed 
in this deed which includes the Rectory with the advowson of the Vicarage]. 

26. James I. 1623. Feofment of a messuage, garden, 1 acre meadow, 
and 2 acres pasture. Harolds to Francis Goddard, Esqr. [called Copped 
Hall]. 

27. Ch. I. 1643. Decree touching Rectory of Cliffe Pypard, between 
Rartlett and H umber. [Concerning the remainder of lease from Thos. 
Ooddard to his brother Anthony Goddard, who is said there to have died 
^bout 1605]. 

28. Ch. I. 1647. Sir John Ernley's surrender of the Parsonage of 
Cliffe. 

29. Ch. I, 1647. Deed of the uses for the Parsonage of Cliffe pur- 
chased by Francis Goddard, Esqre. [Francis was great grandfather of 
Edward, owner in 1754]. 

30. 1652. Cowich Farm now bought by Mr. Northy. [It is recited in 
this deed that Francis Goddard, of Standen Hussey, by indenture 4 Sept., 
1650, left to his brother of Black Bourton, Oxon., Esqre., in trust, Cowich 
Farm to his youngest son Francis, younger brother to Edward, grandfather 
to Edward, owner in 1763. This Francis was ancestor of Dr. Richard 
Ooddard, of Purton (1763). £10 out of Cowich Farm is left to the right 
heirs of Francis Goddard for ever]. 

31. 1652. Probate of will of Francis Goddard. 

32. 1652. Probate of will of Francis Goddard, of Standen Hussey. 

33. 1655. Counterpart lease, Sarah, widow of Francis Goddard, and 
Edward, their son, to Daniel Gale. 

34. 1656. Uses of deed of settlement of Major Goddard's father, 
Edward Goddard. [Major G. was Francis]. 

35. 1617. Surrender of Copse called " Chesterman's Copse," by Thomas 
Ohesterman to F. Goddard, of Standen Hussey. 

36. 1721. Assignment of lease, Robert Gale to John Baker in trust for 
Francis Goddard, Esqre. [Father of Edward G., 1763]. 

37. 1724. Copy of- will of Francis Goddard, Esqre. 

, 38. 1742. Will of George William Goddard, Esqre., of Cliffe Pypard. 
[An illegitimate son of Francis Goddard]. 

39. 1721 ? Marriage settlement of Major Francis Goddard, of Standen 
Hussey. [Married at Grays Inn Chapel, London, 1721]. 

Registers of Clyffe Pypard. 
Extracts fy-om Baptisms. The first leaves of the Baptisms seem to be 
lost Tbey do not begin till 1600, but in the margin of the first existing 
page are some entries from another book. 



160 Notes on Clyffe Pypard and Broad Town. 

1597. Ann Hunton, bap. Oct. 5, 1597. 

1598. Giles, son of Anthony and Mary Goddard, Aug. 19, 1598. 
1612. Francis Goddard, son of ffrancis and Ann, 25 Oct. 
1618. Richard Goddard, son of R^ and Eliz*\ Aug. 9th. 

1620. Ann, d. of Richard (of Upham) and Elizabeth Goddard May. 

Mr. Richard Hopkins was buried 21 April, 1656. 

Francis Burford, Vicar, died Ap. 4, 1614. 

1576. Constance, d. of Bernard Hore, Vic. of Cleeve, and Elizabeth his 
wife, bap. 3rd Jan., 1576. 

1688. Jan. 3, John, son of John and Margery Goddard, bap. 

1701. Dec. 10, bap. Meliora d. of Richard Baskerville, gent., and Jane 
his wife. [Of Ricardston, Winterbourne Basset]. 

1704. Jan. 1, Jenevora, d. of George and Elizabeth Baskerville. 

1730. Thomas, s. of Francis and Jane Baskerville. 

1745. Thomas Taylor, Clerk, M.A., inducted by me John Bromich. 

1755. Joanna, d. of Edward Goddard, Esqr., and Joanna his wife, born 
June 7, and bap, 

1756. Ann, d. of the above. Bap. June 10. 

1757. Sarah, d. of the above. Born April 12. Bap. May. 

1758. Elizabeth, d. of the above. Born and bap. May 1 (?). 

1758. Bridget, d. of the above. Sept. 16. 

1759. " Through neglect many entries omitted " till 1763. 

1759. Edward, son of Edward Goddard, Esqre., and Joanna his wife, was 
born Whitsunday and baptized May 10. 

1763. Francis, son of the above. Born Feb. 15. Bap. June 3. [Died 
1841]. 

1767. Priscilla, d. of the above. Born March 31. Bap. June 20. [Died 
1850]. 

1766. Richard, son of the above. Born Nov. 28, 1766. Bap. Feb. 25, 1767. 
[Some mistake here]. Entry in Register, " Many Baptisms 1767 omitted." 

1776. New Register Book. On the first leaf is an entry from Draycott 
ffoliat parish, signed E. Goddard, who was Rector of that parish as well as 
Vicar of Clyffe. 

1783. Oct. 28 seems the last entry in the Vicar's hand, which commences 
again 1785, after which it ceases altogether. I believe he had a paralytic 
seizure. 

1785. Rev. E. Goddard, junr., signs as " Minister." 

1794. He signs as " Vicar " for the first time. 

1796. Broome Pinniger, son of Broome and Mary. 

1803. Annica Werden, d. Rev. Edward and Annica Susan Goddard. 
[Married James Bradford, Esq., of Swindon, who died 1861.] 

1804. Edward John Ambrose, s. Edward and Annica Susan Goddard* 
Aug. 19th. 

1806. Sept. 10th. Henry (William) son of Edward and Annica Susan 
Goddard. B. 18th April, 1805. 

1806. Dec. 8th. Horatio Nelson, s. of Edward and Annica Susan Goddard. 
B. Dec. 8th, 1806. 



By the late Canon Francis Goddard. 161 

1808. Nov. 7th. Lucy Charlotte, d. of Edward and Annica Susan 
Goddard. B. June 3rd. 

1810. George Ashe Goddard, s. Edward and Annica Susan Goddard. B. 
Aug. 15th, 1809. 

1812. Sept. 15th. Thomas, son of Edward and Annica Susan Goddard. 
B.Aug. 4th, 1811. 

1814. Fanny, d. of Edward and Annica Susan Goddard. B. Nov. 23rd, 
1812. 

1815. April 14th. Francis, s. Edward and Annica Susan Goddard. B. 
22nd Jan., 1814. 

1816. April 29tb, Septimus, s. of Edward and Annica Susan Goddard. 
B. same day. 

1819. October 7th. Arabella Thring, d. Edw. and Annica Susan Goddard. 
B. June 7th. [Married April, 1851, Rev. Richard Dartnell, then Vicar of 
Rodbourne Cheney.] 

Extracts from Marriage Registers. 

1601. John Kingston and Frances Goddard, Jan. 11th. 

1602. Christopher Clyflfer and Cathern Goddard, Jan. 3rd. 

1605. Robert Paulet (?) and Elizabeth Goddard, April 22nd. [These 
were 1 the daughters of Anthony Goddard.] 

1620. Under this date it is said " For those that are married till 1632 
look to the other book," now lost. 

1649. John Jacob and Martha Calley. [The Jacob family were of 
Tockenham, represented (1863) by Sir Robert Buxton. They had property 
in Hilmarton. The Galleys were of Highway and Hilmarton. There is a 
place called "Galleys" in the old Hilmarton register, but not known now. 
Calley monuments are in Hilmarton Church, and the name is frequent in 
Hilmarton registers. The family is represented (1863) by Major Henry 
Calley, of Burderop Park. Miss Ann Jacob, third daughter of John and 
Martha above mentioned, left £100 for the education of poor children in 
Hilmarton. Will proved May 6th, 1810.] 

1714. " Married Mr. Thomas Young, of Malmsbury, and Madam Bridget 
Keeling, of Cleve Pipper." She was a daughter of Sir Cecil Bishopp, Bart., 
and widow (1) of Edward Goddard, Esq., Cliffe, and (2) of Kasper Keeling, 
Esq., and mother of Francis Goddard, Esq., of Standen and Clyflfe. John 
Kasper Keeling by deed 28th March, 1711, conveys lands at Tytherton 
Lucas and Langley Burrell to Francis Goddard, Esq. By his marriage with 
his wife Bridget he obtained a life interest in lands at Bupton, Oadhill, and 
Lower Bupton. 

1744. James Keeling and Elizabeth Looker, July 8th. 

1749. Neville Maskelyne, of Broad Hinton, and Eliz. Self, of Marl- 
borough, were married by licence Feb. 11th. [The family now represented 
(1868) by Mr. Story Maskelyne, of Bassett Down, who married Miss 
Maskelyne, the heiress of the property, and took the name in addition to 
his own name Story ] 

1754. Edward Goddard, Esq., impropriate Rector of this parish, and 
Lord of this Manor, was married at Ramsbury to Miss Joanna Read, of 
VOL. XLIV.— NO. CXLVIII. M 



162 Notes on Clyffe Pypard and Broad Town. 

Crowood, August 28th. [This is the first entry " under the new act by 
publication of Banns," and is so noted.] 

1824. Sept. 16th. James Bradford, jun., of Swindon, and Annica War- 
den Goddard. 

Burials. 

1581. Thomas Goddard was buried 1st February, 1581. [Third son of 
John Goddard, Esq., of Upham and Clyflfe, and founder of the Goddards of 
Berwick Bassett.] 

1584. John Goddard was buried upon the 4th (?) October. [Fourth son 
of John Goddard, of Upham.] 

1584. Elizabeth Goddard was buried 23rd October. [Elizabeth, d. of 
Sir Robert Phetyplace, wife of John Goddard, to whose memory the old 
wooden monument was erected.] 

1603. Richard Goddard, buried March. 

1606. Anthony Goddard was buried June. [Lived at Clyffe, but was 
not Lord of the Manor. The " Parsonage " (Rectorial Tithe) was conveyed 
to him by Thomas Goddard, July 20th, 1586, but he seems to have had a 
prior interest in it under his father (John Goddard's) will dated 5th July, 
1567. The lease passed from him to his wife's son Lancelott Mumber, and 
was re-purchased by Francis Goddard 1647. This Anthony had a son John 
baptized at Calne October, 1570, by Bp. Jewell. [Ualne Register.] 

1614. Thomas Burford, died 4th April, buried 6th, Vicar. 

1616. Francis Goddard, son of Francis, buried 6th August. 

1617. Richard Goddard. Buried 20th January. 

1623. William Phillipps buried. [Ancestor of Sir Thomas Phillipps, 
Bart, of Middle Hill. The Phillipps' family was of Wanborough.] 

1633. The name of Henry Burford ceases as Vicar. 

1638. John Kingston was buried 3rd (?) June. [He married Jan. 11th, 
1601, Frances Goddard, and was the donor of the existing fine Jacobean 
pulpit.] 

1645. Edmund Goddard. Buried Dec. 24th. 

1656. Richard Hopkins. Buried 21st April. [Vicar since 1648.] 

1658. Elizabeth Goddard. Buried 1 6th May. 

1682. Elizabeth Goddard, of London, was buried 6th Dec. 

1718. June 7th. Mr. Thomas Foster, Vicar. 

1724. Jan. 20th. Francis Goddard, Esq. [Major of the Berks Militia. 
Died at Hungerford. Married in Grays Inn Chapel, 23rd May, 1721. 
Owner of Clyffe and Standen Hussey. He lived chiefly in London, and is 
said to have invested largely in the South Sea Bubble and to make good 
his losses sold Standen Hussey, 17 19, to his kinsman, Stonehouse Eyre.] 

1730. Sept. 26th. Sarah, widow of Thomas Forster. 

1745. Dec, 3rd. Rev. Mr. Gale, Vicar. [He is the first of the Vicars 
registered as " The Rev." I do not think he resided at Clyffe but occasion- 
ally he appears in the register.] 

1756. Joanna Goddard, infant. June 17th. 

1758. Elizabeth Goddard, infant. Aug. 31st. [Children of Edw. and 
Joanna Goddard.] 



By the late Canon Francis Goddard. 163 

1769. The Rev. Thomas Tayler, M.A., died July 7th, buried July 11th, 
^t. 50, Vicar. 

1772. Ann Goddard, daughter of Edw. and Joanna. Died May 12th, 
buried 16th May, aet. 16 years. 

1785. " Mr. Thomas Spackman, of Kimbolton, in Huntingdonshire, who 
endowed the Charity School, aged 76." Oct. 29th. 

1791. Edward Goddard, Vicar, died Jan. 6th, aged 69 years. [Son of 
Francis and father of Edward,] 

1792. Edward Goddard, the new Vicar and Lord of the Manor, first signs 
as Vicar July 3rd. [He presented himself 1791.] 

1802. Joanna Goddard, widow of the late Edw. Goddard, died Feb. 
22nd, aged 77. [Daughter of Henry Heed, Esq., of Crowood, Ramsbury.] 

1818. Aug. 9th. Hen. William, second son of Edw. and Annica Susan 
Goddard, died August 3rd, aged 13. 

1827- [In margin.] Mrs. Wadley died at Marden. [Bridget, sister of 
Rev. Edw. Goddard, married Thos. Weston Wadley, of Stow in the Wold, 
1803.] 

1 828. Edward John Ambrose Goddard, died 1 1th Nov., aged 24. [Eldest 
son of Edward and Annica Susan.] 

1832. [In margin.] Mrs. Hallilay died at Wedhampton (Urchfont) 
Nov. 2nd, 1832, aged 76 years. [Sarah, sister of Rev. Edw. Goddard, 
married Richard Hallilay, Jan. 1st, 1784] 

1833 July 3rd. Richard Goddard, Esq., Post Captain, R.N., died June 
28th, aged 66. [Brother of Rev. Edw. Goddard.] 

1833. Lucy Charlotte Goddard, aged 25, died Nov. 6th. [D. of Rev. 
Edw. and Annica Susan Goddard.] 

1834. July 22nd. Fanny Goddard, died July 17th, aged 22 years. [D. 
of Kev. Edw. and Annica Susan Goddard.] 

1839. Jan. 28th. Hev. Edward Goddard, Vicar, died Jan. 22nd, aged 78. 

1841. Francis Goddard, of Wootton Bassett, aged 78. [Brother of Rev. 
Edw. Goddard, unmarried.] 

1841. Oct. 3rd. Susan Werden Goddard, died September 29th, at Pur- 
ton, aged 7 months. [D. of Horatio Nelson Goddard.] 

1845. Feb. 1st. Edward Werden Goddard, aged 4 months, died Jan. 
26th, at Clifton. [S. of H. N. Goddard.] 

1849. [In margin.] Died at Torquay, Feb. 21st, Anne Elizabeth, (1st) 
^ife of Horatio Nelson Goddard. Buried at Tor (Devon). 

1850. July 23rd. Priscilla Goddard, died at Morden, Rodbourne Cheney, 
-uged 86. [Sister of Rev. Edw. Goddard.] 

1851. Nov. 24th. Katherine Ann Goddard, died at Brighton Nov. 19th, 
1851, aged 9 years, last surviving child of Horatio Nelson Goddard by his 
iirst marriage. 

1855. April 12th. Annica Susan Goddard, of Morden House, Rodbourne 
Cheney, in her 83d year. 

I think one may gather from the registers that the families of clergymen 
in the last two centuries were contented to marry into lower grades of life 
than that in which they were born. Many instances occur in the Clyffe 
registers of the remains of old Vicars' families in the parish, I presume in 

M 2 



164 Notes on ClyJ^e Pypard and Broad Town. 

the grade of yeomen. This is not surprising when one reflects that the 
position of the younger sons of country gentlemen of that period living on 
some small " portion " of the family property must have been little above 
the condition of the farmers. Indeed the modern farmer is a prince ta 
what they must have been as regards the comforts and conveniences of life. 

1 have copied in the preceding pages all the entries in the registers that 
had a name that would attract attention, and it will be perceived that with 
the exception of Goddard, no such name occurs frequently from the first 
date of entry 1576. The Quentins had been at Bupton, but Aubrey says^ 
that in his time they were so completely extinct that only one poor boy 
remained of the name. The Huntons had been at Bushton in Aubrey's 
time, but their monument erected in 1604 had then been removed, and we 
see the name no more in the register after that of Elizabeth, wife of Richard 
Hunton, to whom the monument was placed in the chancel. It does not 
appear that any family of note as a rule were baptised or married or buried 
at Clyffe from the period of the Reformation, or soon after, except the 
Goddards, and the Goddards themselves did not always reside there. The 
head of the family indeed did not reside at Clyffe until a much later period. 
Some younger members of the family, who either had a lease or some ex- 
isting interest in the estate, usually inhabited the Manor House. 

The family residences were at Upham, in Aldbourne, and at Standen 
Hussey, near Hungerford. But the estate never failed to pass from father 
to son, and there is perhaps no other instance in the county of Wilts of a 
property having descended in an unbroken line from father to eldest son 
through so many generations. The late Horatio Nelson Goddard (the last 
of the name to hold the estate) was the ninth eldest son to succeed his 
father in the estate. It is a family of no great importance in the county,, 
nor has it ever seen its members persons of eminence in the state, but it ha& 
held for many centuries nearly the same position and has always had men 
to fill those offices usually occupied by country gentlemen and regarded a& 
posts of honour. The name Godard occurs in the Winton Domesday, 1107 
— 1128, but does not occur in the Great Domesday under Wiltshire. 

[A silver penny of Hen. II. was struck by '" Godard on Lund " (in 
London)] 

Soon after the date of the Oxon Domesday Godards were to be found in 
almost every county, especially in Norfolk and Leicestershire, where they 
became important families. The earliest direct ancestor of the Clyffe family 
mentioned in Wiltshire was John Godard, of Poulton, buried at Milden- 
hall in 1386, who left lands in Marlborough to his son John Goddard, the 
grandfather of John Goddard, the first owner of Clyffe.' 

From this time a large branch settled in Wilts, and their properties were 
to be found over the greater part of North Wilts in the 16th and 17th cen- 
turies. In a deed dated 1 405, John Goddard, of "Hye Swindon," and Thomas 
Poulton (died 1415, his brass is in Wanborough Church) made over lands, 
&c., to John Palmer, of Hye Swindon, the witnesses being John Everard 



Testamenta Vetusta. Sir Harris Nicholas. 



4 



By the late Canon Francis Goddard. 165 

(Vicar of Wanborough when the Church tower was built in 1435. The 
Everards held Wiglestoke, or Westlecott, temp. Ed. III.), Thomas Brome, 
and others. 

The Swindon estate was purchased by Thomas Goddard, Esq., of Upham 
or Ogbourne, second son of the John Goddard who bought the Clyffe 
-estate. He married Ann, daughter of Sir W. Gifford, and was the ancestor 
of the existing Swindon branch of the family. ' 

In the Oxon Domesday the Hundred of Chinbrige or Chingbrigge (now 
Kingsbridge) is said to contain 110^ hides of which Gislebert de Cliva held 
four hides and one virgate. In the Great Domesday he is called Gislebert 
{Gilbert) de Breteuille or Bretville. This Clive is identified as Clyffe 
Pypard by the mention of " Tornelle " (Thornhill) in it. The successive 
owners after him were Bigod, Earl Marshall ; under him, the Columbar 
family ; under them, the Pypards (not actually owners) who gave the exist- 
ing name to the place. 

The date at which the property passed from the Columbars to the Cob- 
hams is not quite certain. Collectanea Topographica, &c. , states that 
Michael Columbar conveyed Pypards Clive to John Cobham in 1284 and 
that Henry, second son of John Cobham, conveyed the estate to his son 
Thomas Cobham, on the authority of a Patent of Ed. I., 1284. This would 
make John, the father of Henry, the first Cobham owner in 1284. But the 
original deed of the grant of Free Warren at Clyffe Pypard by Ed. I. to 
Roger (not Heginald as Burke's Extinct Peerage, p. 130, says) de Cobham 
in 1305 is still preserved at Clyffe, having come down with the title deeds 
■of the property. This Roger de Cobham is mentioned in an inquisition 
p. m. of 25 Ed. I. (1297) as the Chief Lord of Clyve Pypard. 

In 1362 Henry de Cobham, son and heir of Thomas de Cobham, dates 
■*'apud Clyve Fipard." He was obviously therefore living there. 

In 1397 John Cobham, eldest son of Henry Cobham (died 1339), forfeited 
his estates, amongst them being Chisbury, Bincknoll, and Clyffe Pypard 
Manor and A,dvowson. 

In 1457 there is a feofment by John Latton of premises at Cliff Pypard 
to Sir Edmund Hungerford, Kt., Henry Longe, and others, and in 1476 a 
*' Quitclaim of premises at Cleve Pypard to Isabella Latten, widow (prob- 
ably widow of John Latton), and John Home, by Sir Edmund Hungerford, 
Kt., Henry Longe, and others.^ 

Tha Cobhams, however, seem to have still retained some rights in the 
property. The heirs of Agnes de Cobham are entered in the Castle Combe 
Court Rolls for 1454 as "holding a Knight's fee in Pypardes Clyve of the 
Lordship of Combe," and in 1523— 47.^ 



^ See Pedigree of Goddard of Swindon, in British Museum. MS. Roll 23, 
237. The Goddards of Brooklyn, and Boston, U.S.A., are descended from 
the same Thomas. 

2 Deeds in Library of Wilts Arch. Soc. at Devices given by Richard 
Mullings. 

^History of Castle Combe and Wilts Arch. Mag., II., 280. 



166 Notes on Clyffe Fy'pard and Broad Town, 

In 1518 William Herring has possession of the estate by Indenture dated 
Nov. 16th. 

In 1527 there is a release from Simon Webbe^ and Richard Patton of 
*' Free Rights" in Clyffe Pypard to William Dauntsey, Alderman of Lon- 
don. William Dauntsey held the Manor for only three-and-a-half years 
and then transferred it to John Godard, of Upham, son of Walter Goddard, 
for ^400 by a conveyance dated 26th April, 1530. This John Godard, the 
founder of the Clyffe Pypard family, and also those of Godard of Swindon, 
Hartham, and Berwick Baasett, purchased in 1541 the Rectorial Tithes and 
advowson of the Vicarage lately alienated from the monastery of Lacock. 
I think it probable that what is called the " Parsonage Farm," at Thornhill, 
now held by the possessor of Clyffe, is a portion of this purchase of " The 
Rectory." The deed preserved at Clyffe is endorsed " To John Goddard» 
Grant of the Rectory of C. P. with the Parsonage and the gift of the 
Vicarage and tythes." The grant is made to " John Godard de Albourne.'" 

The Church.^ 

The Church, with the exception of the chancel, is entirely of the 15th 
century, about 1470. The columns of the nave have on them their original 
marble painting which is considered very effective.^ The seating (1864) is 
chiefly of the old oak, now white with age, not of a good period. The aisles 
have modern deal pews. At the east end of each aisle is a square enclosure 
with a screen, that on the north side containing the Goddard sittings, and 
that on the south the Bupton sittings. There appears to have been an altar 
with piscina on the Bupton side, and within this chapel lay in my memory 
the brass of Quintin [now (1928) on the north side behind the organ]. The 
screens dividing these chapels from the nave are of the same pattern as the 
chancel screen but are much defaced and decayed (1864). The north door 
in my memory opened on the Manor garden and flower beds ; the church- 
yard is now more clearly defined. It would appear that all the windows 
were painted glass, and all those that at present (1864) retain the old diamond 
quarries have portions of the painted glass remaining, but several of the 
windows have been renewed and have square panes of glass. The painted 
glass seems to have been uniform throughout ; it consisted of diamond 
quarries of a gold Tudor rose or some such ornament rather obscured by age 
and dirt within a border with vine leaf running through the whole window. 

The chancel, which was of 13th century date, has been quite rebuilt by the 
Impropriate Rector, Horatio Nelson Goddard, of the Manor House, at a 
cost of i'7C0 in 1860. 



^The Webbes were of Overton (Wroughton) which the Galleys purchased 
of them 3 Ch. I. 

2 See account of the architecture by C. E. Pouting, [r..4.J/., xxxvii.,421 — 
428. Plates. 

' At the restoration the "marbling" was left on the arches, but the columns 
had to be patched and they were coloured first of all buff and afterwards 
slate grey, as they are at present, 1928.— E. H. G. 



By the late Canon Francis Goddard, 167 

The fittings are of walnut wood, from trees in the Manor grounds, which 
fell in the great storm of 22nd Sept., 1856. The roof is of oak concealed by 
plaster, after the manner of the old one. The new work exactly copies the 
old. A vestry has been erected on the N. side of the chancel. In this work 
the monumental stones both on the floor and on the walls of the chancel 
have been removed, some have been relaid in the chancel, some in the 
vestry, and I fear some have been lost. But in the year 1854 fearing some 
such general disturbance of monuments after the fashion of modern restora- 
tion I made an exact copy of all the inscriptions on those in the chancel and 
noted their position, as follows. 

On N. wall of chancel within the rails, the remarkable wooden monu- 
mental tablet mentioned by Aubrey. It is of oak, 6ft. high by 3ft. Sin. wide 
painted with colours almost obliterated, having in the centre a shield of 
arms, Goddard impaling Fhetiplace, surmounted by the crests of the two 
families. At the top stands the date of its erection (I presume) 1605, and 
below the shield the inscription :— 

" Heare lyeth the Bodye of / Elizabeth Godard wife of John / Godard 
Esquier and daughter / to Sir Robart Pheteplas Knight / who desseced> 
in the yeare of our Lord 1585." 
The age following the date of the year had been there but was quite gone 
in 1845, as was also the date of the year. This lady is registered as buried 
at Clyflfe 23rd Oct., 1584. This interesting monument was removed to 
London under Mr Butterfield's direction and perfectly restored. It has 
now resumed its old place in the chancel 1862, and is the only tablet now 
there.^ 
Tablet on E. wall of chancel, S. of the Holy Table : — 

"Near this place lyeth Daniel Foster, he died October 28, 1719^ 
aged 16 years." [Son of the Vicar.] 
Flat stone in pavement in chancel. [On vestry floor 1928.] : — 

" Here lyes Francis Goddard / of an antient family / Both by Father 
& Mother /A most obedient son /of the true Church of England /Dear 
to everyone especially to his family & relations / By his sweet & candid 
behaviour / who after he had waited on the / Lord Jesus sixty-seven 
years / Quietly rested on him / the day before ye Ides of Janu : / 1724.'' 
[His portrait is at the Manor House. He married at about 60. His 
widow, much younger, married secondly J. Harris.] 
On the same stone : — 

•* Here also lies / the Rev. Edward Goddard / Vicar of this Parish / 
son of the above Francis Goddard / He died January 6 : 1791 /In the 
69 year of his age. 
Flat stone in floor of chancel : — 

" Here lieth the body of William Stamp, Master of Arts and Vicar 
of the parish, who died 23 day of April, A.D. 1682. Resurgam."' 

* At the time of the restoration of the nave it was placed over the south 
door and is there now, 1928. — E. H. G. 

2 He was the donor of the large paten still in use. 



168 Notes on Glyffe Pypard and Broad Town, 

Flat Stone nearly obliterated : — 

" Mrs. Elizabeth Stamp, wife of Mr. William Stamp, who deceased 
Jan. . . . and was buried Jany . . . A.D. 1674." [These two 
stones are not now in the chance], 1928.] 
(On the same stone) : — 

*' Underneath rest the remains of Johanna Goddard / wife of the Rev. 
Edward Goddard, late Vicar of this parish, who departed this life 22 
day of February, 1802, in the 78 year of her age." 
(On the end of the same stone, now in pavement at the vestry door) : — 

"In memory of / the ReV^. William Gale / Late Vicar of this Parish 
/ who died Dec. 3 : 1744 / aged 57 years." ^ 
Flat stone, floor of chancel within the rails [now in vestry floor] : — 

" In memory of / Anne Elizabeth wife of / H. N. Goddard, Esqr / 
who died at Torquay, Feb, 21st, 1849 / and was buried in the church- 
yard / of that parish aged 34 years / 

" Also Katherine Anne their / only surviving child / who died at 
Brighton Nov. 19, 1851 / and was buried in the Chancel of / this 
Church. She was in the 10th / year of her age. 
Flat stone in chancel floor within the rails [now in vestry] : — 

" In the / Chancel of this Church / rest the remains of the / Rev. 
Edward Goddard, M.A. / Patron / and Vicar of this Parish / who died 
Jan^y 22, 1839 / aged 77 years / 

Of Edward John Ambrose / eldest son / and heir of the above / and 
Annica Susan his wife / who died Nov' 11, 1828 / aged 24 years. 

Of Frances Goddard / of Wootton Bassett, who died Feby 26, 1841 / 
aged 78 years. 

Of Richard Goddard Esq>^ / Post Captain R.N. / who died June 28 
1833 / aged 66 years. 

Of Priscilla Goddard, who died July 18, 1850, aged 85 years. [Sister 
of Richard Goddard, died unmarried, lived with her brother, and after 
his death with Annica Susan, widow of Edward Goddard, at Moredon, 
until her death. 
Marble Tablet on N. wall of chancel [now on vestry wall] : — 

" Dedicated / with duty and respect / to the memory / of Edward 
Baynton, Esq. / His Majesty's Consul General at Algiers / who died 
there Nov. 1st, 1777, aged 35 years / and was buried within a Bastion 
at Fort St. Philip's / in the island of Minorca. Likewise / of Susanna 
his relict / who died in London August 25th, 1819, in her 77th year / 
and / whose remains were interred in the new burying ground at 
Marylebone the 7th of Sept. / she was the last surviving child of the 
late Sir John Werden, Bart., of Chester, / and was mother of nine 
children, seven of whom died in her lifetime / all unmarried and the 
other two, a son & daughter, are now living, 
[Note. — These two children were Sir Henry William Bayntun, G.C.B., a 
distinguished Naval ofiicer under Lord Nelson, who died in Bath, December 

^ I think he did not reside. 



By the late Canon Francis Goddard. 169 

16th, 1840, and was buried at Weston, near Bath ; and Annica Susan relict 
of the Rev. Edward Goddard, of Olyfife, who died at Moredon House, Rod- 
bourne Cheney, April 5th, 1855, and was buried at ClyflFe, aged 82 years]. 
Marble tablet on N. wall of chancel [now on vestry wall] : — 

" A tribute / of parental affection / to the memory / of Henry William 

/ second son of the Rev. Edward and / Annica ISusan Goddard / who 

whilst in the enjoyment of perfect health / was attacked by a violent 

fever / and snatched away from this transitory world / on the 3rd of 

August, 1818 / at the early age of 13 years." 

Marble tablet on N. wall of chancel [now on S. wall of vestry, E.H.G.]. 

" In this chancel lie the remains / of the Rev. Edward Goddard / (son 

of Francis Goddard, of Standen, Esq.) / patron and Vicar of this parish 

/ who departed this life Jan. 6th, 1791, aged 69 years / also / of Joanna 

his widow / who died Feb. 7th, 1802, in the 78 year of her age. She was 

the youngest daughter / of Henry Reed, of Crowood, near Ramsbury / 

in the county of Wilts." 

[As to the two kneeling eflagies of a man and woman, now (1928) on 

either side of the chancel arch, in the arches at either end of the screen, 

formerly the rood loft. Canon Goddard writes : — 

" An old inhabitant recollects the worshippers on Sunday making 

their obeisance to these figures then placed somewhere near where the 

Manor servants sit. The figures themselves have passed as John 

Goddard, of Upham and Clyffe Pypard, and his wife as long as I 

recollect. The material of these figures is " chalk of the place." He 

seems, however, at one time to have thought that they might possiJDly 

have belonged to the Hunton monument which Aubrey says stood in 

the East window and was removed to make way for the altar."]. 

Of the recumbent eflagy in the canopied recess Canon Goddard quotes 

Aubrey (Jackson's Aubrey, p. 165) who speaks of " the figure of a man 

incumbent, which they say is the monument of Lord Cobham, who they say 

died in one of the grounds here. He built this Church." John de Cobham, 

Lord Cobham, however died apparently in 1407, having founded a college 

at Cobham, in Kent, where he was buried. The figure has also been 

attributed to Henry de Cobham (father of Thomas and John) who died 1389. 

Of the helmet now (1928) hung on the N. wall of the nave. Canon Goddard 

writes : — 

" Ever since my memory the helmet has been in the Manor House. 
There is no account of it." 

The font, he says, was carved by himself about 1841, and is a 
copy of that in Over church, Cambs. 
Of the small bell, on which the clock strikes at the top of the tower, he 
writes : — 

" I have heard that this bell was formerly used as my grandfather's 
dinner bell." 

" I have a not very distinct recollection of some pictures painted on 
panels used as a partition in the old Vicarage house, which were said 
to have been taken from the gallery of the Church. They represented 



170 Notes on Clyjfe Pypard and Broad Town, 

large figures of angels and I think they had tears running down their 
cheeks." 
Of the elaborate marble monument to Thomas Spackman at the W. end 
of the S. aisle he notes : — 

" A costly piece of sculpture by Duval said to have been made during 
the life time of the founder and to have cost ^filOOO." He built and 
endowed with /30 a year a school house and school room at Thornhill 
for the education of the children of the poor. He is said to have been 
of a family who held property at Bushton temp. Ch. II. He was buried 
at Clyffe Oct. 29th, 1785, aged 76. He was a carpenter apprenticed 
by the Broad Town Charity. 
Of the churchyard Canon Goddard notes : — 

" A large beech tree near the S.E. corner planted by my grandfather 
and now (1864) about 100 years old, also two ash trees and an old elm 
once a pollard." [Of these the beech, a splendid tree, is standing still 
(1928), the last of the ash trees died from the ravages of goat moth 
caterpillars, and the elm was blown down several years ago. E.H.G.]. 

" There have been no interments in my memory on the north side of 
the Church. In many Wiltshire churchyards the north side is avoided."^ 



171 



WILTS OBITUARY. 
Col, Sir George Coope Mashiter, K.C.B,, C.M.G., 

died Aug. 11th, 1927, aged 83. Buried in Chippenham Cemetery. Born 
Nov. 25th, 1843. Second son of Thomas Helme, of the Manor House, Little 
Bookham, Surrey. Educated at Winchester and Sandhurst, joined 10th 
Foot as Ensign 1862 ; Captain, 1876 ; Major, 1881. In 1883 he exchanged 
into the Wilts Regiment, was promoted Lieut.- Col, and retired in 1889. Soon 
after this he came to live at Rowden Lodge, Chippenham. C.B. 1898. He 
commanded the 6th Middlesex Regt. in the S. African War from 1900 to 
the end of the war, was mentioned in despatches and made C.M.G. From 
1906 to 1909 he commanded the West Hiding Volunteer Brigade and was 
created K.C.B, in 1909. J.P. for Wilts 1891, D.L. 1919. In 1922 he changed 
his name from Helme to Mashiter under the will of a great uncle. He was 
Hon. Col. of the 6th Batt. W. Yorks Hegt. since 1907, and of the 6th Batt. 
Middlesex Regt. since 1921. During the Great War he was recruiting 
officer for Chippenham area. He was one of the oldest members of the 
Beaufort Hunt. He was a Conservative and Churchman. His chief 
work at Chippenham was in connection with the Cottage Hospital, of 
which he continued chairman until two years before his death, and the 
present condition of the hospital is largely due to his untiring interest in 
it. He married Florence Sophia, second daughter of the Rev. J. Pearson^ 
Rector of E. Horndon and Little Warley, Essex, who survives him. He 
had no children. 

Obit, notice, Wilts Gazette, Aug. 18th, 1927. 

James Hugh Smith Barry, died Aug., 1927. Son of a great 
Cheshire landowner. Served in the Grenadier Guards, lived in Cheshire, 
but owing to bad health he spent several years at Hyeres, where he took up 
gardening and made a beautiful garden. Some 20 years ago he bought 
Stowell Lodge, in Wilcot, where he built up one of the best herds of Jersey 
cattle in England. He had knowledge and taste, and was a collector of pic- 
tures and works of art. 

Obit, notice. Times, reprinted in Wilts Gazette, Aug. 11th, 1927. 

James Welch, died Aug. 27th, 1927, aged 71. Buried at Market 
Lavington. Born at Cwm Avon, s. of James Welch, manager of the Cwm 
Avon Copper and Tin Works. Began life in the analytical department of 
the Cwm Avon works, but after a few years followed his father, who had 

I retired to Market Lavington (Mrs. Welch was one of the Gye family of that 
place) and from 1875 became a clerk in the North Wilts Bank at West- 

i bury and Melksham for some eight years. He then became assistant secre- 
tary to Mr. W. Bouverie, of Lavington, who was the first secretary of the 

I Wiltshire Agricultural Association in 1885, and became secretary in 1886, 
holding the post for 41 years until his death. To the work of the associa- 
tion and its shows he largely devoted his life, and was widely known to and 
respected by Wiltshire agriculturists. He had also been (Steward to the 
Dauntsey School Foundation since 1892 (three years before the opening of 



172 Wilts Obituary, 

the school in 1895). He was one of the four oflBcial crop reporters for Wilts 
to the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. During the war he had the 
supervision of horses over a wide area for the Food Production Department 
of the Ministry of Agriculture. He was an earnest churchman, and a mem- 
ber of the Diocesan Conference. He served 26 years in the Glamorgan and 
Wilts Volunteers and was a good rifle shot. He married in 1886 the 
daughter of Mr. Frank Earle, architect, who with a grown-up son and 
daughter survives him. 

Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 1st, 1927. 

Admiral Sir Hugh Henry Darby Tothill, died Sept. 

25th, 1927, aged 62, Buried at Fleet, Dorset, Born March 14th, 1865, s. of 
Francis Tothill, Barrister. Entered Navy as cadet July, 1878, served as 
midshipman on the Invincible at the bombardment of Alexandria (1882). 
After service in the West Indies he became Sub- Lieutenant 1884, and 
Lieutenant 1888. Served in the Benbow 1888 to 1891, and afterwards in 
the Transport Service in the troopship Serapis. He served in the training 
ship Ganges at Falmouth, and in 1895 in the training ship Lion at Devon- 
port. In 1898 he commanded the training brig Nautilus. Promoted 
Commander 1900, and Captain 1905. Served in two cruisers on the N. 
American Station, and as Flag Captain in the Reserve Division at Ports- 
mouth, on the Barfleur, the Illustrious, and the London. In 1910 he 
commanded the cruiser Lancaster in the Mediteranean. In 1913 he became 
Naval Assistant to the Admiral Commanding Coastguard and Reserves. 
In Dec, 1914, he took command of H.M.S. battleship Conqueror, and was 
in the Second Division of the Battle Fleet at Jutland, commanding the 
sub-division of two ships. For his services he was awarded the C.B. Pro- 
moted Kear-Admiral 1917, and became Fourth Sea Lord and Chief of 
Supplies and Transport. In 1918 he was created K.C.M.G. From 1919 to 
1921 he was Commander-in-Chief in the East Indies, and was promoted 
Vice-Admiral 1921. He was made K.C.V.O. in 1921. In 1923 he became 
Admiral Commanding Reserves and K.C.B. In 1926 he was promoted 
Admiral. In addition to his British decorations he held the Russian Order 
of St. Anne, the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun, the Legion of Honour, 
and the American D.S.M. He married 1892 Hilda Montgomerie, d. of John 
Beddoe, F.R.S., who survives him with two sons and a daughter. He died 
at the Chantry, Bradford-on-Avon. 

Lt.-CoL Robert Francis Guy, C.M.G-., D.S.O., died 

Oct. 1st, 1927, buried at Devizes. Born at Cork Dec. 2nd, 1878. Educated 
at Monkton Coombe School, commissioned in King's Royal Rifle Corps 
(Militia) 1899. Posted to 2nd Batt. Wilts Regt in same year, and served 
with it in the S. African War. Lieutenant 1901. Transferred to 1st Batt. 
in India 1902. Adjutant 1905 — 1908, when he was promoted Captain and 
joined 2nd Batt. at Dublin. He became Brigade Major to Yorks and 
Durham Infantry Brigade 1912. Served in France from 1915, where he 
held several Staff appointments, becoming Brevet-Lieut. -Colonel in 1918. 
After the Armistice he was a General Staff Officer in the Army of Occupa- 
tion in Germany, and in Malta in 1919. He rejoined the 1st Batt. Wilts 



Wilts Obituary. 173 

Regt. at Tid worth in 1923 as second in command, and had commanded the 
Regimental Depot at Devizes since 1925. During the Great War he was 
mentioned in despatches eight times and received the C.M.G. and D.S.O. 
Obit, notice Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 6th, 1927. 

Thomas Smith, died Oct. 8th, 1927, buried at Devizes Cemetery, 
born April 15th, 1851, s. of Thomas Smith, of Potterne. He was for nearly 
39 years Pastor of the Chapel at Coate. He was a governor of Devizes 
Secondary School, and one of the oldest members of the Board of Guardians 
and District Council. He was a frequent contributor to the Wiltshire 
Gazette, especially of obituary notices. He was the author of the series of 
articles on " Potterne as it was between 1850 and 1900," published in the 
Oazette^dl^o the " History of Music in Devizes," an article published in the 
the issue of May 15th, 1924. 

Long obituary notice in Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 13th, 1927. 

£mma Marie Calllard, died Sept., 1927. Born 1852. Eldest 
d. of Camille Felix Desire Caillard, County Court Judge, of Wingfield. 
She had been a life-long invalid from the age of 17. She devoted herself 
first to the study of physics and published her first book in 1888. Later she 
turned especially to the relationship between science and religion and the 
developments of the New Psychology. About 1914 she settled permanently 
in London, and occupied herself mainly with two societies, of which she 
was practically the foundress. The Religious Thought Society and the Guild 
of Health, which is concerned with mental healing considered from the 
Christian point of view. She also published several small volumes of verse. 
" To a profound spiritual sense and religious faith she owed her unshake- 
able optimism and wide and delicate sympathies." 

Obit, notice, Wilts Gazette, Sept. 15th, 1927. 

She was the author of the following ; — 
A Poem of Life. Loudon Literary Society, 376, Strand, W.C. 

N. D. [1883]. Cloth, thin cr. 8vo.; pp. vii. + 120. 
The Invisible Powers of Nature. 1888. Cr. 8vo. 
Electricity the Science of the Nineteenth Century. 1891. Cr. 

8vo. Illust. 7/6. 
Progressive Revelation, or Through Nature to God. John 

Murray, London. 1895. A series of essays reprinted from The 

Contemporary Review with an introductory chapter. 6/- 
The Relation of the Christian Revelation to Experience, The 

Contemporary Review, Jan., 1896. 
The Intellectual Position of Christians. Ten articles in Parents' 

Review, 1896. 
The Use of Science to Christians, Good Words, Jan., Feb , April, 

June, Aug., Sept., 1896. 
Force. Good Words, May, 1897, pp. 314—318. 
Power in Work. London. 1897. Square 16mo. Price 2d. [Advice 

to women workers on health, &c.] 



174 Wilts Obituary. 

Heasonin Revelation : or the Intellectual Aspect of Christianity. 

London. J. Nisbet. 1898. Or. 8vo. 2/-. A series of essays re- 
printed from 7^he Parents' Revievj. 
The Relation of Choice to Freedom. Contemporary Review, March, 

1898, pp. 439—449. 
Law and Freedom. Nisbet & Co. 1899. Post 8vo. 3/6. 
Individual Immortality. London. John Murray. 1903. Cr. 8vo. 

Cloth 3/6. The first four chapters reprinted from Contemporary Review. 
At Montmirail in 1814. Cornhill Mag., Aug. 1906. Translation of 

MS. diary kept by her French grandmother during the invasion by the 

allied armies. 
The World of Personal Spirits, a study of Lotze's Philosophy of 

Religion. Contemporary Bevieiv, July, 1906, pp. 64 — 75. 
A Psychological Puzzle. Contemporary Review, Feb., 1907. pp. 230— 

245. On the case of Miss Beauchamp. 
Ancient Wisdom and Modern Knowledge. Contemporary Review, 

May, 1908, pp. 569— 581. 
Subjective Science in ordinary Life. Contemporary Review, July, 

1908, pp. 86—96. 
Subjective Science and Religion. Contemporary Review, Dec , 1908, 

pp. 718— 730. 
The Rationale of Spiritual Healing. Contemporary Review, April, 

1911. 
The Church and the XiTew Knowledge. Longmans, London, 1915. 

2/6. 
A Sheaf of Verse. 1917. 
Spiritual Healing and Mental Therapeutics. Guardian, Jan. 15th, 

1920. 
Man in the Light of Modern Psychology. Hihhert Journal, July, 

1920. vol. xviii. 

John Buckuell, died at Studley, November, 1927, aged 91. Buried 
at Monkton Farleigh. A Devonshire man by birth, he farmed at Know- 
stone, Devon, in early life, and afterwards in other counties. " In con- 
junction with Mr. Henry Spackman he established one of the most notable 
flocks of Hampshire Down sheep in the county of Wilts." Well known as 
an exhibitor and a judge of sheep and cattle (Devon and Shorthorn) at the 
Hoyal and West of England Agricultural Shows. As a follower of the 
Devon and Somerset staghounds, he was intimate with both " Parson 
Jack Russell " and " Parson Froude." For the last 50 years he had lived 
in Wiltshire, having bought a house near Trowbridge. A long appreciation 
of him in Wiltshire Times, Nov. 12th, 1927. 

Canon George Frederick Tanner, late Eector of Colling- 

bourne Ducis. A striking tribute to the character of Canon Tanner is 
contained in the address by Archdeacon E. J. Bodington (now of Dorset, 
late of Wilts) on the occasion of the dedication of a treble bell placed in 



Wilts Ohittiary. X75 

the tower of Collingbonrne Ducis Church, as a memorial to the late Canon 
by his wife. It 13 printed in full in the Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 17th, 1927 

Prederick Standish O'Grady, 6tli Viscount Guilla- 

more, of Cahir Guillamore, Ireland, died Oct, lltb, 1927, aged 80 Born 
April 20th, 1847, 6th son of 2nd Viscount. Educated at Charterhouse and 
bt. John s Coll., Oxon. He spent several years in New Zealand. In 1881 
he married Mary Theresa Burdett, d. of the Hon. William James Coventry 
and widow of Mr. G. S. Tucker de Windt, and of Mr. J. H. Empson of 
Yokefleet Hall, Yorks. He then lived at Duffield Park, near Derby where 
he was much interested in trout culture. He was all his life an 'ardent 
fisherman He was a Fellow of the Zoological Society and a prominent 
member of the Society for the Protection of Birds. His first wife died 1910 
and he marri^ed secondly in 1911 Gertrude Lily, d. of John Langford of 
Draycott, Sudbury. He succeeded his brother in the title as 6th Viscount 
«uillamore in 1918. He had lived for many years at Ingleside, Holt He 
leaves a daughter Kathleen Gertrude, by his second wife, who survives him 
Ihe title passes to his cousin Major Hugh Hamon Massy O'Grady 
Obit, notice, Time$, Oct. 13th, 1927. 

M f w*^ "*^* ^^^^' ^'^ °'"- '^27, aged 66, Buried at Bexhill. 

fn^ f "' ""]'• ^'""^- ^'^'"^^^ '° ^"^ °f ^^^^'^- Keary & Stokes 
of Chippenham, and admitted Solicitor. He acted a, Hon Sec of Chin 
penham Cricket Club which owed much to him. He left 31 years ago and 
had since hved at BexhiU-on-Sea. His family owned and occuDTed St 
Edith s Marsh, Bromham. He married a daughter of Mr. Tom Matravers 
of Meksham. Whist living at Bexhill his principal practice araawye; 
was at Hastings At Bexhill his influence in all local matters was gTeat 
and the place owed much to him. The WUtshire Gazette, Nov 10th 1927 
quotes notices from Hastings and Bexhill Papers, and an appreciation from 
a Chippenham correspondent. >.'aiiuu irom 

The Very Rev. Andrew Ewbank Burn Dean of s»ii» 

•bury, died Nov 28th, 1927, after an operation for appendicitis, a»ed 63 
buried m the cloisters. Born at Bareilly, India, s. of Rev. TH Bur!' 
Domestic Chaplain to Dr. Cotton, Bp. of Calcutta, Jan. 7th, 1864, Educated 
at Chfton College, Charterhouse, and Trinity College CamhriH^! R f 
1885, M.A. 1889, B.D. 1899, D.D. 1904. Deaco^, ISslflMest Tsss Dnrh 
Curate of St. Cuthberfs, Gateshead, 1887-91 ;'AucklanTst. Andre^'lSai^ 
790' ' of tf f f y"°«f «y- S-^'OP. 1898-1904 ; Rural Dean of EdTmond 
1902-04; Select Preacher at Oxford, 1906-07 • Rector „f ViT^A 1' 

Ztf.i.^TTT' ^Tr°.'J ^^^-'"'"^ cLpi^r;; 1 "lIS' 

1896-1913 ; Prebendary of Lichfield, 1904-17 • Vicar of H„lif<,^ lono i ' 
Rural Dean of Halifax, 1914-20 ; Hon. Cano,^ of WakeMd and F "' 
,ng Chaplain to the Bishop. 1917-20 ; Chaplain! H,MLeK.ng^r8"' 
20 ; Commissary to Bishop of N. China 1914 • D«ar. ^f q r u ^' ^^^^~ 
his death He married 1^893 Celia ullyX^S:: :' It'Ti^Z^^^ 
of Gateshead who, with one son and three daughters, survives Mm Z' 
nmes. in an obituary article headed " Scholar and Pastor " sayl • " The delth 



176 Wilts Obituary, 

of Andrew Burn will be a great loss to the Church, to whose service hedevoted 
every spiritual and intellectual energy he possessed. . . . Patient and un- 
resting investigation into the origin and history of creeds gradually established 
him as one of the first authorities in a field that had previously been ex- 
plored chiefly by German Scholars. From creeds he passed to cognate 
studies, such as the origin and history of the " Te Deum.' . . . Begin- 
ning with textual questions ... he became more and more interested 
in the theological ideas that found expression in the ancient formularies of 
the Church. ... It was the spiritual issues that underlay the ancient 
controversies and their modern parallels that appealed to him most. It is 
significant that most of his best work was done side by side with his work 
as a parish priest, and he was an almost ideal example of the mutual strength 
that scholarly work and pastoral ministrations can bring to one another. 
. . . His ministry was varied ; but in a country parish, in a flourishing 
suburb, and as incumbent of one of those great Yorkshire Churches whose 
function is almost episcopal in character, he showed the same devotion to 
learning and to pastoral care. He spoke German with ease. . . . Few 
men knew so many German theologians and pastors. He did a remarkable 
work in keeping them in touch with English theological thought and life. 
. . . It was natural to find him as a delegate of the English Church at 
(the Conference at) Lausanne, and he came back deeply impressed with the 
atmosphere created there." Whilst at Salisbury he was instrumental in 
throwing open the choir and east end of the Cathedral to visitors, and in 
having explanatory notices attached to the principal tombs and monuments, 
relying upon voluntary offerings instead of the locked gates and compulsory 
fees which have hitherto vexed the soul of many visitors from distant parts 
of Wilts and Dorset who are told to regard the Cathedral as their mother 
church. Probably few things could be done more likely to increase the 
knowledge and love of the Cathedral beyond the limits of the Cathedral 
city itself. 

An appreciation of the Dean's character and work by Archdeacon Boding- 
ton is given in the Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 1st, 1927, and portraits and 
obituary notices in many other papers. 

He was the author of : — 
The Atheuasian Creed and its early commentaries {Texts and 

Studies, vol. iv. No. I.), 1896. 
Introduction to the Creeds and the Te Deum, 1899. 
Nicetas of Remesiana, his Life and Works, 1905. 
The Crown of Thorns, 1911. 

E. F. Pye-Smith, solicitor, died Nov. 24th, 1927. Cremated. Born 
at Hackney, April 5th, 1853. Son of Dr. E. Pye Smith, F.R.C.S., Educa- 
ted at Mill Hill School, which was founded by his grandfather, Dr. John 
Pye-Smith, 1807, Articled with Mr. Wallis Nash, admitted solicitor 1874, 
practised in London and came to Salisbury in 1884. He was Mayor 1894, 
and served on many committees of the corporation. He was keenly in- 
terested in educational questions, and very largely instrumental in obtain- 
ing the Carnegie gift of £4000 for the Public Library. J.P. for the city, 



Wilts Obituary. 177 

1916. The Y.M.CA. in Salisbury, of which he had been president, owed 
much to his eflforts, as did many other public enterprises in Salisbury. For 
42 years he conducted a Men's Bible Class in connection with the Baptist 
Church. He married, 1878, Gertrude Elizabeth, d. of William Taunton, 
of Redlynch, who with a son and daughter survives him. 
Obit, notice with portrait, Salisbury Times, Dec. 2nd, 1927. 

Frank Henry Trethowan, died Nov. 26th, 1927, aged 45, 

buried at Hale, s. of W. J. Trethowan, entered into partnership with his 
father as solicitor, at Salisbury, 1909. Married the daughter of Mr. 
Egremont, of Damerham. He succeeded his father as Coroner for South 
Wilts in 1913. About two years ago he retired to live at Woodgreen. 
Obit, notice with portrait, Salisbury Times, Dec. 2nd, 1927. 

Thomas Kemm, died Dec. 6th, 1927, 2nd son of Thomas Kemm, 
of Avebury Manor. Salisbury Theological College, 1876 ; Deacon, 1878 ; 
Priest, 1880 (Salisbury) ; Curate of Ch. Ch., Warminster, 1878—84 ; York, 
West Australia, 1884—85 ; Rector of Northam, W. Australia, 1885—91 ; 
Curate of Hessenford (Corn.), 1891—94 ; Vicar of Easton Royal, 1894, 
until his death. He married the eldest daughter of John le Mesurier, of 
Kensington. Much respected at Easton. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 15th, 1927. 

Georgina Fleetwood, Iiady Hobhouse, died almost 

suddenly Dec. 17th, 1927. Buried at Monkton Farleigh. Only daughter 
of G. P. Fuller, of Neston, married 1890 Sir Charles Edward Henry Hob- 
house, later 4th Baronet. The Times, Dec. 24th, 1927, had a remarkable 
appreciation headed " Practical ability and personal charm." " Hera was 
an outstanding personality, an unusual combination of personal charm and 
business-like acumen, of sweet graciousness, humorous appreciation and 
imaginative insight. . . . Her ability was of the rare kind which can 
adapt itself to almost any side of life. She was a County Councillor, the 
first of Wiltshire women J.P.'s, a member of the Magistrates' Advisory 
Committee, of the Voluntary Association for Mental Welfare, of the Council 
of Bristol University, chairman of the District Red Cross Society, of the 
County Arts and Crafts Association, chairman also of the County Nursing 
Association, which she had been largely instrumental in starting. She was, 
indeed, one of the pioneers in nursing organisation, and the mainspring of 
many endeavours in that field of work. The foundation of the Wiltshire 
Nursing Association owed much to her practical organising powers. At the 
opening of the Great War, when her husband was Postmaster-General, she 
originated the Post Office Relief Fund, which by voluntary effort secured 
hospital treatment and after-care for the sick and wounded who were Post 
Office employees, and a whole system of assistance for the widows and 
orphans of those who fell. She was nominated by the Privy Council as a 
member of the General Nursing Council for England and Wales. . . . 
In political life her mark was as notable, and her influence widely felt. 
Always an ardent Liberal, she took an active part in her husband's electoral 
contests, and a deep interest in political problems ; while her powers of 
VOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLVIII. N 



178 Wilts Obituary. 

organisation, inspiration, and public speaking, led to her holding for several 
years the chairmanship of the Women's Liberal Federation. . . . More- 
over the fullness of her nature included other powers which are generally 
associated with a contemplative rather than an active life. Her water- 
colour painting was above the average of amateur accomplishment ; her 
output of embroidery might have been envied by any idle woman ; her de- 
light in flowers and in every aspect of nature found vent in the making of 
a beautiful garden and in the detailed superintendence of more than usually 
successful farming operations. . . . Her friendship was a thing to 
treasure. It would be hard to say whether she fulfilled to most perfection 
the rSle of daughter, of sister, or of wife. She radiated happiness and 
found it everywhere." 

Obit, notice, N. Wilts Herald, Dec. 23rd, 1927. 

Rev William Harvie Weekes, died Jan. 14th, 1928, aged 68. 
Eldest son of William Weekes, of Willestrew, Lamerton, Devon. Educated 
at Honiton and Sherborne, Wadham Coll., Oxon.,and Salisbury Theological 
College. Deacon, 1884: Priest, 1888 (Salisbury) ; Curate of Pewsey, 1884 
—88; Andover, 1888—89 ; Potterne, 1890—91 ; St. Peter's, Devizes, 1891— 
1900 ; Chaplain to Devizes Prison, 1900—14 ; Chaplain to Devizes Union 
Workhouse, 1914 ; temporary Chaplain to the Forces, 1914 — 19. He married 
the daughter of the Rev. E. S. Harris, Vicar of Rowde, who with a son and 
daughter survive him. Their two elder sons, Walter, 2nd Lieut, in Lincoln- 
shire Regt., and Harold, private in the Somerset Regt., were killed in the 
war. Canon Phipps' appreciation of him is quoted in the long obituary notice 
in the Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 19th. 1928. "Of a most generous tempera- 
ment, expressing itself at times in acts of marked unselfishness, he won, and 
deservedly won, the warm esteem and deep regard of many. His musical 
talents — not to call him a genius — were a great asset to this town, and not 
only the town but the whole diocese and even further afield . . ." His 
death " may be said to have as a consequence the falling to pieces of a whole 
chain of musical activities." Mr. Weekes was indeed the mainspring of 
such activities in all central Wilts. About 1895 he formed the Devizes 
Orchestral Society, whose concerts in the Corn Exchange for several years 
were notable events. These great efforts, however, proved too expensive 
and came to an end, though the society still exists, and in 1926 presented a 
gold watch to their conductor. He did not confine his activities to Devizes. 
For some years he conducted the Philharmonic Society at Trowbridge ; he 
was one of the founders and most enthusiastic supporters of the Wiltshire 
Musical Festival ; he was the conductor of five village choral societies, at 
Rowde, Potterne, Poulshot, Worton, and West Lavington, in addition to 
the ladies' choir in Devizes. He was an admirable organist, whilst his own 
special instrument was the double bass, with which he travelled far and 
wide to musical events. He was also a composer, and " Weekes in D " 
setting for choral celebrations of the Holy Communion is widely known. 

John Mitchell Harris, of Chilvester Lodge, Calne, died Oct. 
12th, 1927. Buried at Holy Trinity, Calne. Son of Thomas Mitchell 
Harris. Chairman of Calne bench of magistrates. 



Wilts Obituary. 179 

Rev. Henry George Ommauuey Kendall, F.S A., 

died April 16th, 1928, aged 62. Magdalen College, Oxon., B.A., 1888 ; M.A., 
1893. Leeds Clergy School, 1890. Deacon, 1891 ; Priest, 1893, St. Albans. 
Curate of Cheshunt, 1891-94; Bishops Hatfield, 1896—98; Lanteglos, 
1898—99 ; Launceston, 1899—03 ; Welwyn, 1903—04 ; Rector of Winter- 
bourne Bassett, 1904—24 ; Rector of Baverstock and Vicar of Dinton, 1924, 
until his death. He married the daughter of Canon Thomas Jackson 
Nunns, Vicar of Launceston, who with three sons and four daughters sur- 
irives him. During his twenty years at Winterbourne Bassett he spent the 
whole of his spare time in the study and collection of flint implements, 
more especially those of the Eolithic and earlier Paloeolithic periods as ex- 
emplified in the clays of Hackpen Hill and the gravels of Knowle Farm Pit, 
Savernake. To these localities he added that of the famous flint mines of 
<^rimes Graves in Norfolk, where he spent many of his holidays excavating. 
He also began in the ditch of Windmill Hill, Avebury, on a small scale, the 
great work of excavation there which is still being carried on by Mr. Alex. 
Keiller. The result of this concentration of his abilities on this particular 
branch of Prehistoric archaeology was that he came to be widely recog- 
nised as a specialist on early flints and on the obscure and difficult subject of 
their manufacture and patination as bearing upon their probable age. He 
was elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 19 1 3. He also served as 
President of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia, in whose Proceedings 
many of his writings, as given below, were published. Other branches of 
archaeology hardly interested him at all, his whole interest was taken up in 
his own subject. Before leaving Winterbourne he had gathered a very 
large collection of flints, chiefly from Knowle, Hackpen, Windmill Hill, and 
other localities in North Wilts, the larger part of which, it is understood, 
have passed into the private museum of Mr. Alexander Keiller, F.S. A. He 
was a most conscientious parish priest, but after leaving Winterbourne his 
liealth rapidly broke down. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, April 19th, and Salisbury Diocesan 
■Gazette, May, 1928. 

Bibliographical List of Writings. 
JSoliths and Pseudo-Eoliths. Man, Nov., 1905, No. 91, pp. 163—165. 
Investigations at Knowle Farm Pit. Man, March, 1906, pp. 38—41. 

Reprinted with some alteration in Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxiv., 299 — 307. 
A Correction and a Note on the Gloss on Flint Implements. Man, 

August, 1906, pp. 115 — 1 16. [Refers to preceding paper.] 
Pygmy Flints, Man, Sept., 1907, p. 133. [A short note.] 
The Case for Eoliths re-stated. Man, June, 1907, vol. vii , pp. 84—86. 

[Eoliths on Hackpen Hill.] 
Talseolithic Microliths. Man, July, 1908, vol. viii., pp. 103, 104. 

Seven illustrations. 
Palaeolithic Implements, &c„ from Hackpen Hill, Winterbourne 
Bassett, and Knowle Farm Pit, Wiltshire. Abstracts of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Geol. Soc, No. 874, March 4th, 1909, also in Quarterlt/ 

-N 2 



180 Wilts Obituary. 

Journal of Oeol. Soc, May, 1909, vol. Ixv., pp. 166—198. [Both these are 

short abstracts of the paper.] 
The Oldest Human Industry, 1910. Pamphlet, 8vo. pp. 19. Three 

illustrations. Post free 7d. 
Palseolithic Periods at Knowle Farm Pit. Proc. Soc. Ant.^ 2nd 

series, xxiii., 453—460. [Paper read May 11th, 1911.] 
Flint Implements from the surface near Avebury ; their classi- 
fication and dates. Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd series, xxvi., pp. 73—88, 13 

illustrations. 
Middle Glacial and Pre-crag Implements in South Norfolk. 

Proc. Prehistoric Soc. of Bast Anglia for 1914 — 15, vol. XL, pp. 31 — 55. 

Two plates of flints. [Paper read at Norwich, Oct. 19th, 1914.] 
Flint Implements in Cornwall. Ibid., vol. ii., pp. 58, 59. [Paper 

read at Norwich, Jan. 25tl), 1915.] 
Some Palaeolithic Pits and Periods in Hertfordshire, etc. [Read 

at Norwich, March 23rd, 1915.] Ibid., vol. II., pp. 135—139. 
Neolithic Flint Implements in North Wilts. Trans, of N. Wilts 

Field and Camera Club, 1912 8vo., vol. III., pp. 1 — 4. Three plates. 
Windmill Hill, Avebury, and Grimes Graves. Proc. Prehistoric 

Soc. of East Anglia for 1915—16, vol. ii., pp. 230—239 and 563. Five 

illustrations. [Read at Norwich, March 13th, 1916.] 
Windmill Hill, Avebury, and Grime's Graves. Cores and Chop- 
pers. Proc. Prehistoric Soc. of East Anglia, vol. iii., part 1, 1919, pp. 

104—108. Two plates. [Read in London, March 11th, 1919.] 
Eoliths : Their Origin and Age. Presidential address, read in 

Iiondon, March 16th, 1921. Proc. Prehistoric Soc. of East Anglia 

for 1920—21, 20 pp. Nine plates. 
A fragment of Blue Stone [Micaceous Sandstone] near Avebury 

and its accompaniments, Man, April, 1918, pp. 54, 55. One fig. 
Iiaver stock Down, Some Flint Tools of the Iron Age. Aiit.Jour, 

April, 1925, v., pp. 158—163. 
Eoliths from Braydon and elsewhere. Proc. Cotteswold Naturalists 

Field Club, 1925, vol. xxvi., pp. 123—135. Four plates. 



181 



WILTSHIRE BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, AND ARTICLES. 

[N.B. — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The Editor 
appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views, in any 
way connected with the county, to send him copies of their works, and to 
editors of papers, and members of the Society generally, to send him copies 
of articles, views, or portraits, appearing in the newspapers.] 

The Druids, a study in Keltic Prehistory. By T. 

D. Kendrick, Department of British and Mediaeval Antiquities, 
British Museum. Methuen & Co., London [1927], 

8vo., pp. xiv. + 227. Fifty-one illustrations, among which are a Portrait 
€f John Aubrey ; Medal with bust of Stukeley and Stonehenge; Plan of 
Stonehenge, and Stonehenge restored ; and a Wiltshire Disc Barrow. The 
author begins by examining the Stonehenge tradition in order to trace the 
earliest appearance of the idea of Druidism in connection with the monu- 
ment. The Merlin stories of Geoffrey and Nennius originally concerned 
two persons, one a Welsh Prince of the 6th century, the other Ambrosius, 
Vortigern's prophet or sorcerer in the 5th century ; Geoffrey combined these 
stories as if they referred to a single individual. 

" It is almost impossible ... to see any trace in this story of Geoffrey's 
that can reasonably be held to reflect the tradition of a Druidic origin of 
Stonehenge " and " this story represents the only popular belief ever cur- 
rent so far as one can tell about the monument before the beginning of the 
17th century." 

Inigo Jones, at the command of K. James I., drew up in 1620 a treatise 
on Stonehenge which was published some 30 years later. " At the outset 
he discusses the possibility of a Druidic origin, but he does not bring this 
forward as a theory favoured by others or supported by any sort of tradition ; 
he mentions it incidentally as a supposition of his own, and it is discussed 
in a page as an exceedingly improbable alternative to his decided opinion 
that the monument was Roman." Neither Dr. Charleton nor Mr. John 
Webb in their treatises mention the Druids. The first person to claim 
Stonehenge for the Druids was John Aubrey. " I come (he says) in 
the rear of all, by comparative arguments to give clear evidence that these 
monuments were Pagan temples ; which was not made out before ; and 
have also with humble submission to better judgment, offered a probability 
that they were temples of the Druids." He clearly thought that he was the 
first to suggest that Stonehenge was a Druidic temple. His opinion seems 
to have had a great effect on writers who came after him, such as Toland, but 
the real populariser of the Druidic theory was William Stukeley, who pub- 
lished his works on Stonehenge and Avebury in 1740 and 1743. So success- 
ful was he that at the beginning of the 19th century it had become an article 
of general belief. 

At the end of the 4th century the word " Druid " still survived in the 
general literature of Roman Gaul but after the Teutonic invasions the 
word disappears for a good many hundred years until it reappears in the 



182 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

mediaeval manuscripts of Ireland, where in all probability it had never 
ceased to circulate in the vulgar tongue. It is used in the 14th century 
as the equivalent of *' Magi," i.e., seers or magicians. 

" But in the original Historia, written about A.D. 800, the magicians 
of the 5th century King Vortigern were not called Druids ; the Vener- 
able Bede did not write of them in his Ecclesiastical History and there 
is no mention of them at all in any of the Saxon or early mediaeval 
chronicles and romances. In England and on the continent, in fact, the 
Teutonic invasions had effectively obliterated all common knowledge 
of the ancient priesthood. . . . Thus except for the occasional use 
of the name in a debased sense by the Irish schoolmen, and more 
doubtfully, by the Welsh bards, it seems safe to say that throughout a 
long period from the 4th to the 16th century the original Druids of 
antiquity had well nigh passed from man's memory." 

The Druids reappear at the period of the Renaissance in England in Bar- 
clay's Ship of Fools (1509) and on the continent in the Annates Boiorum of 
Aventinus (1521) and from the latter part of the 16th century and through- 
out the 17th century, books and mentions of the Druids multiply. All 
these are carefully dealt with by Mr. Kendrick, who believes that they all 
derive not from any popular tradition of the Druids but from the revived 
knowledge of Cassar, Tacitus and other classical writers, and he concludes 
that " the theory now so popular, that the Druids built the Megalithic mon- 
uments, was an invention of the late 17th century, successfully promulgated 
in the succeeding century by Romanticism." He goes very fully into the 
difiBcult question of the religion, the doctrines, and the practices of the 
Druids who were undoubtedly a very powerful body in Gaul before the 
Roman conquest. All the passages in classical writers referring to the sub- 
ject are given in full, and the rites connected with the sacred oak, the 
misseltoe, the *' Serpent's Egg," human sacrifice, and divination by the death 
of human victims, are discussed, so far as they are supported by ancient 
authorities and are not the fruit of the speculations and fancies of the re- 
vived " Druidism " of the 18th and 19th centuries. Summing up he says 
** I see no reason to suppose that the Druids had developed a special sun- 
worship or a monotheistic religion. I do not see much evidence that they 
possessed any remarkable learning, astronomical or otherwise." He em- 
phasises the fact that in the Keltic pantheon the moon was far more im- 
portant than the sun. The Keltic year was lunar, time reckoning was 
lunar, festivals began with the rising of the moon . . . and many 
agricultural operations were controlled by its wax and wane." According 
to all ancient accounts the Druids worshipped in oak groves. " Until 
Aubrey's time it never occurred to anyone to suppose that they worshipped 
elsewhere." 

" But before I begin a list of various antiquities (megalithic circles^ 
chambered tumuli, &c.) that were certainly not places of Druidical 
worship, I must take this opportunity of stating my conviction that 
there is one building that may very fairly be called a temple of 
Druidism and that is Stonehenge itself. The place, of course, had been 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets^ and Articles, 183 

a famous circle ever since the beginning of the Bronze Age, the time 
when I imagine the temple began its existence as a rough Sarsen circle 
or system of concentric circles, surrounded at a distance by a ditch and 
a bank : that is to say, the time when it was probably a humble version 
of the giant rings at Avebury. But during the Bronze Age and not 
very long after its erection, it was altered by the introduction of an 
outer circle of about sixty foreign stones, chiefly dolerites from the 
Prescelly mountains in Pembrokeshire. . . . It is clear that the 
laborious transport of material from there to Stonehenge was a direct 
contribution of part of the traditional sanctity of the Welsh area ; so 
that the Wiltshire site thenceforward became a place of worship in- 
vested not only with tribal but with national significance. Such sig- 
nificance it never lost. , . . the sacred character of the site remained 
a fixed point in the prehistoric religion of the island, A surprising 
amount of British and Romano-British pottery has been collected from 
the excavations made within its compas?, and I do not think it is possible 
to doubt the continued visits of people to the site right up to the time 
of, and during, the Roman occupation ; thus, it is obvious that it must 
have been frequented by those professing the Druidic religion." 
Mr. Kendrick regards the squaring of the sarsens, and the use of tenons 
and mortices as betraying the indirect influence of classical architecture and 
as bringing the date of the monument down to the La Tene period. He 
dwells on the distinction between Stonehenge and the ordinary and earlier 
stone circles, instancing as the only example known at all like Stonehenge, 
a •* temple " at Odilienberg, in Alsace, unhappily now destroyed, with an 
illustration from a model. This shows a structure of concentric circles of 
stones with larger trilithons, astonishingly like Stonehenge, which does not 
appear to be generally known of in this country. 

Of " Woodhenge " Mr. Kendrick remarks that "it seems to have been a 
kind of wooden version of its famous neighbour'Stonehenge." He does not 
think that such a wooden structure can have been intended as a memorial, 
though the site may have been used already for occasional burials, 
" but this will not make me believe the wooden jungle itself was a funeral 
monument, nor will any analogy that has so far been adduced ; and that 
being so, I can think of no other way to explain Woodhenge than as a 
Druidic grove of the La Tene period." 

Mr. Kendrick can hardly expect that this revolutionary bomb will be 
meekly received by the orthodox archseologist, but apart from the question 
of Stonehenge, his book does provide on the whole a scholarly account of 
all that is actually known about the Druids, and so fills a space that was 
singularly void before. 

The Bristol Avon. By Ernest Walls. With illus- 
trations in pencil and pen-and-ink by R. E. J. Bush. 
Arrowsmith [1927], 

8vo., pp. 318. Twenty-six illustrations, of which the following concern 
Wiltshire: — Malmesbury Abbey from the N. ; Malmesbury Abbey, Inner 
Door, S. Porch ; Malmesbury Market Cross and St. John's Hospital ; Great 



184 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Somerford Church and Bridge ; Christian Malford Church ; Foxham Com- 
mon ; Maud Heath's Causeway ; Chippenham Old Town Hall ; Sloperton 
Cottage ; Lacock Abbey, and C'hurch Street ; Bradford Barn and Bridge ; 
Great Chalfield Manor House. Many of these are charming little sketches, 
the nicest of all perhaps being the interior of Bradford Barn in pencil which 
shows the roof remarkably well. Starting from Crow Down Springs, near 
Tetbury, the perennial source of the stream, the Avon is followed through- 
out its course to the sea in a pleasant chatty way. The author points out 
that the Roman station of Mutuantonis, placed by the maps and Sir R. C. 
Hoare near Easton Grey, is merely an invention of Bertram's in the forged 
chronicles of " Richard of Cirencester." There never was such a place, 
though there was a Roman villa on the spot. A fine medieval barn at 
Brokenborough is noticed, but the author expressly disclaims any great 
knowledge of architecture and does not dwell much on the details of the 
buildings he passes, but the literary and historical aspects of each place are 
pleasantly and adequately touched on, and old stories are retold in un- 
hackneyed form. Thus the chapter on Malmesbury and the life of the 
Abbey is distinctly good and has a fresh taste about it. The appreciation 
of Monasticism, its work, and the reasons for its fall are excellently put in 
a short space. In connection with Chippenham the line of the old Bath 
Road, and the rise and fall of coaching and the events of the Civil War are 
shortly described. The watershed between the tributary streams of Avon 
and Thames near Wootton Bassett is traced with some minuteness. The 
writer describes what he calls '* one of the Old Pilgrim ways " which is said 
*' to have led from Swindon to St. Anne in the Wood at Brislington, near 
Bristol." He acknowledges that he does not know why it started from 
Swindon particularly. It is the field path from Bassett Down by Broad 
Town to Clyffe Pypard and on to Highway and Compton Bassett, under the 
hill. Somebody (Edward Thomas ?) seems to have started the idea that it 
was a " Pilgrims' Way " and now doubtless every guide book will solemnly 
call it by this name, though the evidence that any pilgrim, or even tramp, 
ever used it seems entirely absent. When the author asserts that many of 
the gabled cottages at Compton Bassett *' seem to be contemporary with the 
Mansion House," he is somewhat wide of the mark, for almost all of them 
were built within living memory by the Heneage family. When he visited 
Bradenstoke he seems to have been tired or out of temper, for he 
says " The remains of Bradenstoke Priory . . . consist of the wall of 
some building of the Priory built into the present house and little else, the 
whole surrounded by a farm yard. Ruins such as these, which cannot in- 
spire respect, would be much better out of existence. The whole place is 
disappointing and depressing." Surely he could never really have seen the 
Priory at all. Calne and St. Dunstan, Bowood and its literary associations, 
Sloperton Cottage and Tom Moore, are duly to the fore, and the pulling 
down of Bromham spire by a " Steeple Flyer " is mentioned. Lacock 
Abbey and village come in for enthusiastic praise, " English villages like 
Lacock are now alas easily counted upon one's fingers." The origin, growth, 
and method of cloth manufacture in the Avon Valley, its prosperity, in the 
17th and 18th centuries, the introduction of machinery and consequent 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 185 

destruction of home spinning and weaving, the triumph for a time of the 
water power machine and its later decay before the competition of the 
steam machinery of the north of England is concisely and clearly set forth. 
This is one of the best things in the book. Bradford is sympathetically 
described, especially the Barn. An interesting point is made with regard 
to the monument in the Parish Church to Charles Steward, who died 1698, 
as to which it has been recently asserted that the epitaph states that he was 
" a son born in lawful wedlock" of Charles II. Mr. Walls points out that 
*' the epitaph says nothing of the sort, claiming for Charles Steward no 
more than that he had sprung from an ancient stock and honourable parents 
— ab annosa prosapia ac honestis Parentibus. He was the son of Richard 
Steward, Dean of St. Paul's, and Jane, d. of Sir William Button, second 
Baronet of Tockenham. He lived at Cumberwell, above Bradford-on-Avon» 
which was bequeathed to him by the third baronet. Dean Steward was a 
courtier, and followed Charles II. to Paris, where he died Nov. 16th, 1651- 
Mr. Walls claims to explode another Bradford myth. The tradition is that 
Monmouth spent a night at the Swan Inn, '* but if so it must have been 
the spurious Monmouth who, a year or two after Sedgemoor, deceived many 
good folks in the west, being finally apprehended in Bradford-on-Avon and 
whipped from Newgate to Tyburn." 

There is a good section on the rise of many families, Hortons, Halls* 
Methuens, etc., to importance through the wool trade and the cloth manu- 
facture. The Hungerford family too comes in for special mention, indeed 
the author's real bent seems to lie in the direction of genealogy and family 
history. The last 112 pages follow the Avon to Bath, Bristol, and the sea. 

' A very pleasant and useful companion for any one who journeys through 

! North Wilts and Somerset. 

[Salisbury.] The Charter of Henry III., with a 
translation by Canon Chr, Wordsworth, a Summary 
of the Translation of the nine other Royal Charters. 
New Sarum in the Middle Ages and the History of 
St. Edmund's College, Salisbury, by Alderman Chas. 

Haskins. [1927.] Price 4/6. Cloth, 8vo., pp. viii. + 62 +4. 

This book, published by the Salisbury Times Co. in commemoration of 
the seventh centenary of the granting of the Charter of Hen. III. in 1227, 
has a short Introduction by the Mayor, J. C. Hudson, and a Preface by the 
author, with 12 illustrations, portraits of Sir Wadham Wyndha,m, Mr. 
Wadham Wyndham, M.P. 1815, and the Rev. Dr. Bourne ; the Charter of 
Hen. III. and an Initial letter of that of James I. ; the Ancient Porch from 
the Cathedral ; the College Buildings in 1670 and 1743, with plans for ad- 
ditions in 1790, and the S. and E. fronts in 1926, with the " Collegiate 
School " in 1876. The Charter of Hen. III. is translated in full and abstracts 
of nine other charters are given, these latter being by the the late H. J. F. 
Swayne. Four pages are devoted to the surrendered charters.'' The out- 
'standing events in the history of the city in the middle ages are touched on 
and the continual disputes between the citizens and the Bishop are 



186 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

explained, and the quarrels between John Hall and William Swayne which so 
long kept the city in an uproar are summarised. Bishop Beauchamp granted 
a piece of land in 8t. Thomas's churchyard to William Swayne to build a 
house for the priests of the two chantries he had founded in the newly- 
erected chapel on the south side of the chancel of St. Thomas's Church. 
The house was pulled down by John Hall, but was eventually built up again 
and exists to-day as St. Thomas's vestry. The ledgers of the corporation go 
back to 1398 (Rich. II.) only, and no mayors are known earlier than 1261. 
The " Semplehous " or old Council House, stood in St. Thomas's churchyard, 
and its successor, the timber-framed Council House in Market Square, took 
its place in 1573. The expenses of Charter of James I. in 1611, which 
relieved the city from the jurisdiction of the Bishop, were subscribed by 
between 500 and 600 citizens whose names are preserved in a volume in the 
Corporation Muniment Boom. The Liberty of the Close was, however, ex- 
pressly exempted from the jurisdiction of the iSlayor and Corporation and 
was vested in the Bishop and the Dean. 

Perhaps the most interesting section of the book is the History of St. 
Edmund's College. Saint Edmund Rich, of Abingdon, Treasurer of the 
Cathedral, 1222 — 1234, when he became Archbishop of Canterbury, died 
1241 — 2, and was canonized within five years, and a chapel and altar dedicated 
to him was founded in the Great North Transept of the Cathedral, whilst 
about 1263 Bishop Walter de la Wylye built and endowed the Collegiate 
Church of St Edmund for secular Canons. The Church was enlarged about 
1400. In 1653 the central tower and spire fell destroying the nave, which was 
pulled down, and a new tower built, the choir alone remaining as the parish 
Church. In 1267 — 8 the Bishop granted a site for the college to Nicholas 
de St. Quintin, who became first Provost, and gave a charter in 1269 for 
a Provost and thirteen fellows, at first there were only seven, but four 
more were endowed by Robert Woodford in 1272, and later the num- 
ber was made up to thirteen. At the dissolution the college with its 
property and the advowsons of St. Edmund's and St. Martin's were granted 
to William St. Barbe, In 1549 it was sold to John Beckingham, a merchant 
of Salisbury, whose son Henry, retaining the advowsons, sold the property 
in 1575 to Giles Estcourt, MP. The advowsons in 1611 were made over to 
trustees for the parish, and in 1638 Sir Giles Estcourt gave the churchyard to 
the parish. 

In 1660 Sir Giles Estcourt sold the college to Wadham Wyndham, Esq., 
of Norrington (in Alvediston), 9th son of Sir John Wyndham, of Orchard 
Wyndham, Somerset, Judge of the King's Bench. He lived and died at the 
College, aged 58, in 1668, his widow dying in 1704. The oldest drawing of 
the house, here reproduced, dated 1670, shows a fine Elizabethan or Jacobean 
front with projecting central porch, projecting bays at the ends, six gables 
on the front and two at the sides, a forecourt with low stables on the left 
side. A print of 1734 shows the great alterations made by Sir Wadham 
Wyndham. The gables have been replaced by a parapet and the muliions 
by sash windows. Four leaden busts which stood in the circular niches on 
the S. front, with some of the old chimney pieces and a sundial with inscrip- 
tion given by the 8th Earl of Pembroke to Wadham Wyndham in 1722 were 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 187 

sold between Dr. Bourne's death and the time when the Corporation 
acquired the property. Of these the sundial was rescued by Sir Alfred Mond 
and restored, whilst the busts went to America. Wadham Wyndham's son, 
Henry, who succeeded to the property, lived at Uompton Chamberlain, his 
son, Henry Penruddocke Wyndham, lived at the college, largely recon- 
structed the house and extended the park. The only important existing part 
of the old ditch and rampart of the city made cir. 1315, stands in the College 
garden, and during the levelling of a portion by Mr. Wyndham, between 20 and 
30 skeletons with weapons, supposed to be Saxon, were found. Also stand- 
ing in the grounds is the porch removed by Wyatt from the end of the Great 
North Transept of the Cathedral, the pinnacles and spiral roof being modern. 
The greater part of the property was sold in 1871 and built upon, but in 
1873 the Rev. George Hugh Bourne, D.D., bought the house and land round 
it, and after building school rooms established the "Collegiate School" there 
which was transferred from Chardstock (Dorset). This continued until 1885» 
when the school was closed, but Dr. Bourne continued to live there. On his 
death in 1925, aged 86, the Corporation purchased the house and grounds as 
a new Council House and Municipal Offices. Dr. Bourne had already, in 
1883, given the whole of the adjoining greencroft to the city. The last two 
chapters deal with the ancient city rampart (there never was a city wall), 
" Barres," and gates, and with the history of the " Greencroft." Alderman 
Haskins has put Salisbury under a further debt of gratitude to him by the 
publication of this most useful further instalment of the history of the city. 

The Potteryfrom the Long Barrow at West Kennet, 
Wilts, compiled foy M. E. Cunnington, Devizes. 
Printed by George Simpson & Co , Devizes, 1927. 

For private circulation. Boards, lOin. X 7iin. pp. 19, 13 Plates. 

" Pottery from English long barrows is so scarce that the little that has 
been found is of special interest. The chamber of the long barrow at West 
Kennet yielded more than any other as yet explored. This pottery has 
never been fully published, and therefore is not so well known in detail as 
its value for comparative study deserves." The excavation of this barrow 
by Dr. J. Thurnam in 1859 was fully described in Archs&ologia, xxxviii., 
405-421 ; W.A.M., x., 130; and Smith's Antiquities of N. Wilts, p. 154, 
but only six pieces of the pottery were illustrated by Thurnam. These 
were among the fifteen pieces in the British JMuseum, and the remaining 
nine fragments are now illustrated, together with all the more important 
of the 250 to 300 pieces in the Devizes Museum. All these pieces were 
found in small heaps in the corners of the chamber, and were already merely 
fragments when deposited there. Some of the fragments are worn as 
though they had lain on the surface and been exposed to the weather. 
Mrs. Cunnington says that they were collected, with the bones of animals 
also found in the chamber, from the site of a funeral feast. Dr. Thurnam, 
in his original account, says that he was satisfied that the chamber had not 
been disturbed since the burials took place, and if this was so, the fragments 
must all have been of the same date, or at all events none of them could be 
later than the beaker pottery. Later on, it is true, Thurnam speaks less 



188 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

certainly on this point, but as " Beaker " pottery has been found elsewhere 
associated with " Neolithic " bowls there seems no reason to doubt that his 
first impression was correct. Mrs. Cunnington suggests that the com- 
paratively few pieces preserved do not represent anything like the number 
originally found, for Thurnam speaks of finding " piles of fragments of 
ancient British pottery, of various descriptions," and of " a large heap " in 
one corner. In this book good photo process illustrations, actual size, 
are given of 111 fragments, each of which is carefully described. Mrs. 
Cunnington sums up thus : " It is curious, but nevertheless it seems to be 
a fact, that in some respects pottery of late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age 
(such as that from West Kennet) has more features in common with that 
of the Early Iron Age (All Cannings Cross period) than it has with that of 
the intervening Middle Bronze Age ; that is to say as we know it at present, 
for knowledge of the Middle Bronze Age pottery, in the south of England 
at least, is almost entirely confined to that from the barrows, and we know 
little or nothing of the domestic wares of the period. Furrowing, fingertip 
markings, round and triangular punch marks all occur on pottery of both 
the Early Iron Age and the earlier period. More than this, some of the 
fragments as to paste, colour, and general feel, are quite indistinguishable. 
Complete vessels, or even a fairly comprehensive collection of fragments, 
would undoubtedly at once declare their origin, but picked pieces from the 
two series are difl&cult, if not impossible to distinguish." Mrs. Cunnington 
has done well to make this very important pottery series available for study 
in this way. The book was reviewed in Antiquity, March, 1923, pp. 116, 
117, where, however, somewhat less than justice seems to be accorded to 
the quality of the illustrations. 

Supplement to Charters and Records of Neales, 
of Berkeley, Yate, and Corsham, by John Alexander 
Neale, D.C.L. of Queen's College, Oxford, Mackie 
& Co., Iiondon and Warrington, 1927. iiin. x 7iin., pp. 

3 + 84. Portrait of Robert Neale, of Yate and Corsham. Tomb of Sir 
Thomas Neale, of Warnford, 1621. 

The original volume of Charters and Records was printed for private 
circulation in 1906. The present volume contains a number of supple- 
mentary notes thereoii on Nigells, Fitznigells, Berkeleys, and Neales, and 
families connected in any way with them, tombs, entries in the registers, etc. 
There is a certain amount of matter concerning various Wiltshire families. 
It is stated that Kingston House, in Kensington Gore, was probably built 
out of the proceeds of the sale of the Chalfield estate to Robert Neale by 
the Duke of Kingston. A good many extracts from " Duchetiana " are 
given. The legendary descent of " the O'Neill " of Lisbon and Cintra from 
kings of Spain and Ireland and the daughter of Pharoah, is dwelt upon at 
some length. Some twenty-nine additional deeds connected with Corsham 
and Pickwick are catalogued, followed by fourteen pages of addenda and 
corrigenda to those printed in the original volume, and a list of forty family 
portraits of Neales, Smiths of Shaw, Webbs, Gawlers, etc., is given. Indices 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 189 

of places and persons come at the end. The names of twelve inns at 
Wootton Bassett are mentioned. There are a good many notes on the 
family of Selfe. 

The 2ud Battalion Wiltshire Regiment (99th). 
A record of their lighting in the Great War, 1914 
—18. By Major W. S. Sheppard, M.C., (Adjutant 
1915—16, Second in Command 1917—18). Printed 
by Gale & Folden, Wellington Works, Alder shot, 

1927. 8vo. cloth, pp. 3 + 182. Price 5s. net. 

The 2nd Battalion was at Gibraltar at the outbreak of war, and it was 
not until October 7th, that as part of the 7th Division they landed at 
Zeebrugge and reached Ypres on October 14th. Next day they marched 
out along the Menin road and came into conflict with the advance guards of 
the Germans at Reutel and the neighbourhood. Here they entrenched and 
from the 22nd to the 24th they were subject to continued assaults by heavy 
masses of Germans, six whole battalions as it turned out, against them. In 
this fighting seven officers fell, and the Colonel and others were, with many 
of the men, taken prisoners, so that the battalion which went into the fight 
1100 strong was reduced to about 250 under the command of Sergt.-Major 
Waylen on the 24th. But they had held their trenches by rifle fire alone, 
for they had next to no artillery support, and it " cannot be denied that the 
Germans lost the war when they failed to break the British line in the first 
battle of Ypres." " The Germans were astounded when later they learned 
the actual number of troops that had been opposing them." The first 
chapter is by Col. Forbes, then Commanding the Begiment, and the fighting 
is most vividly described, The Christmas truce of 1914, which lasted until 
New Year's Eve, is described. By March, 1915, drafts from home had 
raised the numbers again to 28 officers and 886 men, of whom 18 officers 
and 276 men died or were wounded at Neuve Chapelle. The ranks were again 
replenished before the battle of Festubert, on May 16th. Mere the losses 
were less severe, about 158 in all, and after recruiting in the rear the num- 
bers were brought up to 35 officers and 1000 men. Throughout this history 
the various officers who served with the Regiment are mentioned by name. 
At the battle of Loos the losses of the Regiment numbered 14 officers and 400 
men. In December, 1915, the 2nd Wilts left the 7th Division with which 
they had been associated since the beginning of the War, and were sent to the 
neighbourhood of Amiens, near Carnoy and Bray. In the Somme offensive 
of July, 1916, they formed part of the 30th Division, and were prominent 
in the capture of Trones Wood, under Col. Gillson, who was wounded on 
the occasion. Their losses here, killed and wounded, were 3 officers and 
228 men, and the Regiment was especially praised by the High Command 
for their share in the success. Later on on October 18th, they lost 14 
officers and 350 men in an unsuccesful attack. In 1917 the Regiment was 
sent to Arras, and on April 9th, in a hopeless attack on the Hindenburg 
line, their losses were again very heavy. In June they were back in the 
Ypres salient for a short time, fighting in the 3rd Battle of Ypres, and 



190 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

Christmas found them where they had begun the War. In 1918 the 30th 
Division took over a portion of the French line and were for a time near 
St. Quentin, when on March 21st the trenches held by two companies of 
the 2nd Wilts were attacked and the whole force was surrounded and killed 
or captured after desperate resistance by two divisions of Germans. Col. 
Martin's account of the surrender and subsequent adventures of the prisoners 
is given. The remnants of the Regiment were now amalgamated with the 2nd 
Beds. Regiment, and experienced heavy fighting at Gheluvelt, after which 
only 2 officers and 71 men were left. The 6th Wilts joined up with these and 
new drafts to form a new 2nd Batt. In May they moved south to Champagne 
and had continuous fighting against heavy German attacks. In August 
they moved to the north again, where on September 14th, Lt.-Col. Lord 
Alex. Thynne, then commanding the Regiment, was killed. In October 
they were at Cambrai following up the retreating Germans and the 
Armistice on Nov. 11th found them at Eth, where it is noted that the one 
Church bell which had been buried to save it from the enemy, was dug up and 
vigorously sounded on a temporary support. The book, which is really a 
diary of the movements of the Regiment day by day for four years, ends 
with a list of the 80 officers killed, and the 110 honours won by officers and 
men during the War. 

Report of Marlborough College Nat. Hist. Society 

for the year 1927. No 76. As usual the Report contains the 
record of excellent work done by the only society in the county which 
devotes itself wholly to Natural History. Among birds, the Pied Flycatcher 
■was seen in Savernake Forest on migration, the Woodlark nested at Clench 
Common, Crossbills occurred at Marlborough and Ramsbury, three pairs of 
l^edshank nested at Poulton, and the Landrail nested at Barton Farm. 
That this last item should be worth recording is a proof of the remarkable 
disappearance over all this part of England of what was a common bird 30 
years ago. 

In the Botanical section a number of plants new to the Marlborough list 
are noted, but they are nearly all either doubtful escapes or varieties and 
subspecies of plants lately advanced in the London catalogue to the position 
of species. Vaccinium myrtillus, however, seems to be established at one 
point in the West Woods. In Entomology Mr. C. P. Hurst records anum- 
of species in orders other than Lepidoptera. Helix pomatia (the great 
" lloman " snail) is noted as abundant at Ramsbury. Mr. H. C. Brentnall 
reprints from Waylen's History of Devizes the story of the ghostly ringing 
of the Wilcot Church bells in 1624. Mr. C. W. Hughes writes on Draycot 
Foliat. It seems that one John Webb, alias Evered, who was connected 
with the place, emigrated to Boston, U.S.A., in 1634, and in 1659 was 
granted 1,000 acres of land on the north side of the Merrimac River, near 
Chelmsford, which he named Draycott on the Merrimac, now shortened to 
Dracut, a village opposite the town of Lowell, which has given its name 
in American geology to the " Dracut diorite." The Wiltshire Draycot 
Foliat having lost its Church, and consisting to-day of two farms and a 
few cottages only, has (most of it) been bought recently by the War Office 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 191 

and will be absorbed by Chiseldon Instructional Camp. Interesting notes 
on the history of the Manor of Draycot and of the Foliat family, the owners 
in the 13th century, and their successors, Crooks, Tyes, and Lisles, are 
given, together with an account of a curious dispute between Sampson 
Foliat and Thomas, parson of Swindon, who had ex-communicated him for 
non-payment of tithe on Walcot, in the parish of Swindon. In 1563 
Aristotle Webb was instituted Rector, and in 1568 Thomas Webb, Rector, 
was deprived. In 1528 a lease of the Manor was granted to Thomas Webbe, 
alias Richman. It is mentioned that the Vicar of Chiseldon is still inducted 
on the site of Draycot Church, pulled down in 1572 when the parish was 
merged in Chiseldon. A paper on Fungi, by C. P. Hurst, follows, and 
another on a minute water animal, Attheyella wulmerit found in great 
numbers round Collingbourne Ducis in 1927. As this species has never 
been identified in England before it is here fully described and illustrated. 

An appreciation of the entomological work of Mr. Edward Meyrick, 
F.RS,, read on the occasion of the award to him of the Captain Scott 
Memorial Medal by the Council of the South African Biological Society, 
for his contributions to South African Entomology is printed in full. This 
is a remarkable record of a life's work in the description and naming of 
many thousands of species of Lepidoptera, largely Australian and South 
African. 

A note on the re-opening recently of Knowle Farm Pit and the continued 
finding of palseoliths there warns collectors that apparently the faking or 
** improvement " of implements is not unknown at the pit nowadays. 

The Wiltshire BrOOmes. The Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 15th, 
22nd, 29th, Oct. 6th, 13th, printed a series of MS. notes on the Broome 
family, compiled by the Ven. George Herbert Rogers, Archdeacon of Rock- 
hampton, Queensland, whose mother was descended from that family. The 
writer says " I have so far failed to trace any connection of our family, settled 
as yeomen under the chalk hills of Wiltshire in the 17th century with their 
more distinguished namesakes of Broome in Shropshire, of Baddesley 
Clinton in Warwickshire, or of Holton, in Oxfordshire, these being un- 
<ioubted ancestors of the Broomes of West Mailing in Kent." The earliest 
Wiltshire Broome of whom mention has been found is Thomas Broome, of 
Kington St. Michael, "husbandman," whose will is dated Sept. 1st, 1616. 
His brother Richard, and his kinsmen William and John Broome, are 
mentioned. But the connection, if any, between him and Elizabeth Broome, 
widow, buried at Clyflfe Pypard, May 11th, 1665, who was the ancestress of 
the writer, is not made out. Her son Ralph, of Spirthill (in Bremhill), yeo- 
man, married Frances Andrews, and had two sons, John and Richard, and 
a daughter, Elizabeth. By his will, dated 1664, he left Spirthill to John, 
and Wilcreek, in Monmouthshire, to Richard. Ralph Broome's property- 
was valued at ^314, and included 38 oxen, 9 cows, 76 sheep, and one horse. 
John Broome, son of Ralph, born 1636, died 1723, was churchwarden of 
Lyneham in 1660 " for his unkle Richard," and in 1661 "for his grand- 
mother Eli. Broome." Richard, son of Ralph, was tenant of Cowage Farm 
<in Compton Bassett), as was his son Ralph after him. His other son. 



192 Wiltshire Books , Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Christopher Broome, of Bushton, married John's daughter, Elizabeth, at 
Clyffe Pypard in 1706„whilst her sister, Susanna, b. 1683, married as his 
second wife, Christopher Pinniger in 1709. The will of Richard Broome, 
dated 1713, appoints Francis Broome, of Preston, and Roger Spackman, as 
trustees for Ralph, son of Christopher and Elizabeth Broome. They are to 
" keep my grandson and school and breed him a good schollar and prefer 
him in the world in the best manner they can." This Ralph married his 
cousin Mary, d. of Christopher and Susanna Pinniger. 

A number of entries of births in a bible that belonged to Thomas 
Mundee, of Hullavington, are given, including six children of Richard 
Broome, of Spirthill, born at Spirthill, Tytherton Kelloways, and Cowage. 
His daughter Dorothy married Roger Spackman, and both are buried at 
Clyffe Pypard. 

Ralph Broome, of Cowage, in 1734, handed over the tenancy of Cowage 
to Ralph, son of Christopher, and Richard, son of Ralph. The rent of 
Cowage payable to William Northey was then £256 a year. The stock was 
5Q milch cows, one bull, 10 oxen, 60 grazing cows, 6 horses, 100 ewes and 
lambs, and " a proportionable herd of swine." Hay was worth £1 10s. a ton. 
This Richard, son of Ralph, of Nuthills, was apparently the R. Broome 
buried at Bremhill, November 21st, 1740. Ralph had retired to his property 
at Nuthills, near Sandy Lane, which remained in the Broome family till 
1860, when it was sold for £Q000 and now belongs to Lord Lansdowne. 
Ralph left the estate to Ralph the younger, and also legacies to others of about 
j^2,000 as well as " five shillings to every poor family that will receive 
charity between the Bear Inn in Sandy Lane and the last house in Cuffs 
Corner." An abstract of the will is given. 

An altar tomb east of the porch of Bremhill Church bearing the arms, a 
chevron with five sprigs of broome, records the death of Ralph Broome in 
1716. This Ralph was a partner in the firm of Robert Cooper and Company, 
looking glass makers. His will leaves the profits of the partnership to be 
divided between the children of his four sisters. Of these Elizabeth's first 
husband was Christopher Broome, and her son was Ralph Broome, of 
Bushton. To John, son of Francis Broome, of Preston, in Lyneham, 
brother of the looking glass maker, was left the dwelling house of Little 
Park, in Wootton Bassett, and 277 acres of land, and to his brother Jacob 
the other part of the Little Park property called the Upper Bargain some 
95 acres of land and buildings. This Jacob died 1731 and is described in the 
Lyneham register as " gent." 

Ralph, the mirror maker, also left ;^450 to provide a school master at 
Lyneham. 

A Sir Robert Mayers Broome, Kt., a J. P. for Middlesex, is mentioned 
who died at Brompton, June 2nd, 1791, aged 97 years, but he is not known 
to be connected with the Wiltshire family. 

Ralph Broome, the mirror maker, must have purchased Little Park Estate 
before 1718 and bequeathed it to John, son of his brother Francis, of Pres- 
ton. John married Alice, daughter of Will. Bartlett, of Dauntsey, and died 
1776, being buried at Tockenham. 

Ralph Broome, s. of Christopher and Elizabeth, baptised at Clyffe Pypard 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 193 

Aug. 1 6th, 1713, married Mary, d. of Christopher and Susanna Pinniger, and 
settled at Bushton where he built or restored the dwelling house (now, 1928, 
the property of Mr. Hutchinson) according to an inscription still existing, 
in 1743. His will, dated Dec. 30th, 1767, leaves the house and property to 
his three sons, Richard, Ralph, and Francis, each inheriting a portion of 
his landed property, Bushton being divided between Richard and Francis, 
and Nuthills and Tytherton going to Ralph. 

Of these sons " Richard Broome of Bushton, gent., was admitted to Gray's 
Inn June 16th, 1768," and " Francis Broome, brother of Richard Broome, 
fellow of this Inn," January 27th, 1770. Ralph was of the Bengal Civil Ser- 
vice, and died 1838. Richard left Bushton for Aldborough Hatch, Essex, 
but was buried at Clyflfe Pypard, 1803. 

Broomes and Finnigers for three generations consistently intermarried 
as first cousins. Francis Broome married Susanna Pinniger, their eldest 
son was Richard Pinniger Broome, born 1777. Another son, Jacob Pinniger 
Broome, died at Kington Langley in 1875. Their youngest son, Francis, 
was a butter, meat, and poultry salesman of Newgate St , London. 

Christopher Broome was admitted at Gray's Inn, 1804. He lived at 
Berkhampstead, married secondly Sarah Dorothea Seller, and was buried 
at Clyffe Pypard 1831. Their only child, Christopher Edmund Broome, 
born July 24th, 1812, married Charlotte Harman Rush 1836, lived for a 
time at Rudloe, Box, and settled at Elmhurst, Batheaston, 1848, and died 
November 12th, 1886. He owned Wood Hill Park Farm, in Clyflfe Pypard, 
and was well-known as a botanist, being spoken of by an authority of the 
botanical department of the British Museum as one whose name was 
" familiar to all workers in botany as (with one other) the highest authority 
in British Mycology (Fungi) and in the first rank of workers in this field 
throughout the world." 

A letter from C. B. Broome, Major H.A.C., in the Wiltshire Gazette oi 
October 13th, 1927, gives some further particulars as to Francis, son of 
Francis and Susannah, and their children and descendants. 

The Water supply of Wiltshire from Underground 
Sources. By W.Whitaker, F.R.S., and F. H. Edmunds. 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey England & Wales, 1925. 

9iin. X 6in., pp. 133 + xi. Price 4s. 6d. net. Folding sketch map 
showing sub-surface water-levels in the chalk of Wiltshire. Sketch map 
of the Geology of Wilts, and sections of the chalk escarpment at Broad 
Town ; across the Vale of Wardour ; along the Vale of Broad Chalk ; across 
the Vale of Pewsey ; and showing water-table near Cockroost Farm, Broad 
Hinton. 

Beginning with a general account of the geological structure of the 
county and of its various formations, with special reference to water-bearing 
beds, the report passes on to the conditions of water supply in each of the 
five districts of the county. A table of the formations which crop out in 
the county from surface alluvium down to Lower Lias Clay with their 
several thicknesses, is given, as well as those whose existence has been 
proved by deep borings. 
VOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLVIII. 



194 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

As regards Dew Ponds it is noticed that 65 of these have been either 
constructed or renovated within the last few years. The Waterworks of 
ail the towns in the county are described, and the sources of supply to most 
of the villages in the surrounding districts are indicated in' considerable detail. 

At Lydiard Millicent a well 15ft. deep (an old spring formerly called the 
Thumblewell, being deepened into Corallian Kocks)is mentioned as supply- 
ing the hamlet of Shaw. Of Pavenhill, at Purton, it is stated that the 
" entrenchment " marked on the six-inch map on the north-eastern side of 
the hill, is a feature of the ground due to natural causes ; in other words it 
is an old land-slip. The medicinal well at Salts Hole, at Purton, is also 
mentioned, and it is stated that the proprietor has recently erected a pump 
room round the well from which 120 gallons can be pumped daily. A list 
of the more important spring supplies in the county with their position on 
the Ordnance Maps and other details, occupies 8 pages, and these follow an 
alphabetical catalogue occupying 53 pages, of the most important wells, 
giving their exact locality, depth, height above O.D., and where it has been 
recorded, the sequence of rocks pierced. The deepest boring in the county 
is at Westbury, which reached 1651ft., and was a trial for coal. The G W.R. 
boring, at Swindon, went down to 786ft. and the well was dug to 736ft, 
The next deepest is that at Lucknam, in Colerne, probably a boring for 
coal, 773ft. One at Orcheston St. Mary is 558ft., and seven others range 
between 400ft. and 500ft. A list of the principal mineral springs ; analysis 
of spring and well waters filling 28 pages, and an index, complete this 
most valuable memoir. The lesson it conveys is that everyone who digs a 
well should communicate particulars to the Geological Survey whilst the 
work is being done. 

Kennet and Avon Canal, a most informing article in the 
Great Wester7i Railway Magazine, Nov., 1911, by F. C. Warren, was re- 
printed in Wiltshire Gazette^ Oct. 28th, 1926. From Hanham I.ock at 
Keynsham, on the Avon, near Bristol, to the Thames at Reading is a dis- 
tance of 86i miles. This forms a water way from the Bristol Channel to 
London, of which the artificial canal portion lies almost wholly in Wilts 
and Berks. The first step in its formation was the making navigable of 
the Avon under an Act of 1712, the next was the canalisation of the Kennet 
from Reading to Newbury under the Act of 1715. The wholly artificial canal 
connecting these two rivers was surveyed by John Rennie in 1793 and com- 
pleted and opened in 1810 under the Act of 1794. The rise from Hanham 
Lock to Savernake, the highest point on its course, is 430Jft., with a fall to 
the Thames at Reading of 325ft. There are in all 106 locks. At Devizes 
in 2^ miles the canal rises 235^ft. by 29 locks, of which the 17 at Caen Hill 
stand in close succession with an average rise of 8ft. each. To get through 
this series of locks takes a barge about 2j hours. The various bridges, 
aqueducts, tunnels, &c., on the course of the canal are described. A table 
showing the revenue earned from 1838 to 1898 shows a decrease from 
£52,910 to £5,265, consequent on the competition of the railways. The 
canal was bought by the Great Western Railway in 1852, and since 1900 
the average excess of expenditure over receipts has been ^4,805. 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 195 

Littlecote, the residence of Sir Ernest Wills, Bt., 

By H. Avray Tipping. Country Life, Nov. 5th, 1927, pp. 664 
— 671. The article begins with a useful disquisition on the real character 
of '* Wild" William Darrell, concluding against the truth of the traditional 
Littlecote legend, and other accusations brought against Barrel, for Sir 
John Popham was never a judge within William Darrell's lifetime. On 
coming into the estate on Darrell's death, Sir John Popham added much to 
the older house, the south front built of brick being of his time, whilst the 
earlier walls are of flint. The projecting wings at the ends, if built by him 
have been altered since. But the house was described and illustrated in 
detail in Country Life, September 27th, 1902, and the bulk of the present 
article and its excellent illustrations is taken up with the very remarkable gar- 
den largely formed by Mr. Bevan, and maintained by its present occupier 
in wonderful perfection. The illustrations are : — The South or entrance 
side of the House ; Two views of the North side ; Border running down 
from the house to the river ; the five hundred foot long border ; Wrought 
iron gates ; The paved way ; Garden house at the N.W. end of Canal ; The 
Canal running westwards ; and group of Phlox. 

Oare House, the property of Mr. Greoffrey Fry. By 

Christopher Hussey. Country Life, March 10th, 1928, pp. 334— 
341. Eighteen photos and ground plan. Over the Forecourt and down the 
Avenue ; Modern Wings flanking the W. Front ; The E. Front and Fore- 
court looking up the Lime Avenue ; From Drawing Room to Loggia in the 
S. Walled Garden ; The projecting Library Wing from the Loggia ; The 
Terrace looking N. towards the Downs ; The Lawn and the Vale of Pewsey, 
from the Terrace ; The Library Bow ; From Loggia to Drawing Room ; The 
Hall ; Modern Drawing Room ; Library ; Bedroom above Library ; Arm 
■chair and single chair, *' Egyptian " taste, c. 1805 ; Garden seats ; Modern 
;garden seat at end of Terrace. The old central block was built in brick by 
Henry Deacon in 1740, as " H. D., 1740" on a rainwater head shows. He 
was a London wine merchant who took a poor boy from Ireland, John 
Hiller, into his employ. Hiller married his widow, and so became 
possessed of Oare, which in 1799 he devised to his sister's son, John Good- 
man, who was succeeded by his son, the Rev. Maurice Hiller Goodman, 
Rector of Wilcot-cum-Oare, who died 1856. His nephew, Edward Good- 
man, succeeded him, and owned the property until it was split up and sold 
1887 or 1888. The Rev. M. H. Goodman added a drawing room to the N. 
end of the house. Mr. Geoflfrey Fry added two wings of these bays in 
1921, and a library wing at the S.E. angle in 1925. The walled garden was 
laid out in 1921. Mr. Williams Ellis was the architect. 

The Hertford or Somerset Monument in Salis- 
bury Cathedral. By Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, F.R. 

Hist. S. A lecture delivered in the Cathedral. Printed in full in the 
Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 24th, Dec. 1st and 8th, 1927. Reprinted as Svo. 
pamphlet, 16 pp., 1927. This gigantic monument which blocks up the en- 
tire east end of the south choir aisle is described at length in the first 

2 



196 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

section of the lecture. Incidentally in referring to Dodsworth's Account of 
Salisbury Cathedral, Canon Fletcher says " It seems to be certain that the 
verger whose name the book bears was not himself the author of it." The 
monument is of the style of the earlier part of the 17th century. The re- 
cumbent figures are the effigies of Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford, son 
of the Protector, and Katherine (Gray) his wife. She lies on his right hand 
side instead of as usual on the left. Canon Fletcher suggests that this was 
meant to emphasize her royal descent. The kneeling figures are those of 
their two sons, Edward, Lord Beauchamp, and Thomas Seymour. He 
thinks that the monument was erected by William, 2nd Duke of Somerset, 
about 1625, in memory of his father and grandfather, because the Edward, 
Baron Dudley, of the inscription, held the title from 1586 to 1643, so that it 
must have been erected in his lifetime and before 1643. The bodies of the 
following were interred here : — Edward, Earl of Hertford, died April 6th, 
1621 ; Lady Katherine Gray, his wife, died January 27th, 1563, at Yoxford^ 
Suffolk, and was buried there, but her body was removed afterwards to 
Salisbury; Edward, Lord Beauchamp, their eldest son, died July, 1612, 
was buried at Wick, but was removed afterwards to the Cathedral; John, 
4th Duke of Somerset, second son of Lord Will. Seymour, and great grand- 
son of Lord Edward, died April 29th, 1675 ; Lady Eliz. Seymour, daughter 
and heiress of Joscelin Percy, ilth Earl of Northumberland, and wife of 
Charles, 6th Duke of Somerset, died Nov. 23rd, 1722 ; Charles Seymour, 
6th Duke of Somerset, died December 2nd, 1748. 

Canon Fletcher notes that four of the Protector's sons were named 
Edward, of whom three were alive at the same time. The romantic story 
of the secret marriage of Edward Seymour and Lady Katherine Gray in 
1561, with the consequent committal of both of them to the Tower by 
Elizabeth, and the later births of two children, are described. Lady 
Katherine Gray was the second of the three daughters of Henry Gray^ 
Marquis of Dorset, and Frances Brandon, his wife, and great grand-daughter 
of Hen. VII. and was born August, 1540. Their home was Bradgate, near 
Leicester. She was bridesmaid at the wedding (at 2 a.m. !) of Bess of 
Hard wick to her second husband, Sir William Cavendish. In her 13tb 
year (1553) she was married to Henry Herbert, second son of the Earl of 
Pembroke, then 19 years old, but was divorced by her husband next year 
when her sister Lady Jane Gray and her father, the Duke of SuflFolk, were 
executed. She and her sister, however, continued to be treated with con- 
sideration at Court, both under Q. Mary and Q. Elizabeth, but she did not 
get on well with Elizabeth, and her secret marriage with Edward Seymour 
made the Queen furious, and she was never forgiven. After the birth of the 
second child in the Tower,husband and wife were never allowed to meet again. 
She died January 27th, 1568, whilst in the custody of Sir Owen Hopton, at 
Cockfield Hall, near Yoxford, Suffolk. The career of the two sons, Edward 
liOrd Beauchamp and Thomas Seymour, and their descendants are shortly 
traced. 

Trowbridge, Silver Street Chapel. The Wiltshire Timesy 

Dec. 17th, 1927, has a notice of the closing of this chapel after 230 years 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 197 

of use as a place of worship. It was used for public worship about 1695 
and is thought to have been a glove factory before this. Its origin as a 
chapel is uncertain, but it is probable that it arose in connection with the 
preaching of Andrew Gifford and that Southwick Old Baptist, Conigre 
Baptist, and Silver Street were originally under the same government, that 
the latter became a separate congregation about 1680 — 90, and that the 
chapel was built or adapted for worship cir. 1695. A clock on the front of 
the gallery is inscribed " The Gift of Peter Swift, 1705." There is also a 
silver christening bowl inscribed " Presented by Thomas Jeflferies, of London, 
1746." There have been many burials in the chapel and its precincts, the 
burial ground being closed in 1855 when the cemetery was opened. The first 
record of a settled pastor is that of Mr. James Foster, 1720—24. The last 
regular pastor was the Rev. Oliver Brand who resigned in 1891. At least 
three of the pastors were buried either in the chapel itself or in the burial 
ground. 

The Corallian Rocks of Oxford, Berks, and North 
Wilts. By W. J. Arkell, F.GS, 1925—27. Philo- 

sophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 216, pp. 67 — 
181, 4to. 

The Rocks described in this paper extend from Wheatley (Oxon.), to 
Wootton Bassett and Tockenham in Wilts, a distance of about 40 miles 
with an average breadth of 2^ miles, forming a conspicuous ridge parallel to 
the chalk escarpment. " These rocks are described, the various exposures 
are correlated, and an attempt is made to show the position which they 
occupy in the Corallian formation as a whole, both in other parts of England 
and on the Continent. It is endeavoured, by means of detailed analysis, 
to throw more light on the conditions under which the rocks were formed, 
and to account for the apparently meaningless variability which, to a 
casual visitor to only a few of the exposures seems to characterise the 
formation. . . . The paper concludes with a revision of the fauna, 
some new species being described, and with a geological map of an im- 
portant area (the country between Highworth and Stanton Fitzwarren) ia 
the centre of the district." Over the greater part of the area dealt with, 
nothing has been done in the way of exploration since 1877. The Lower 
Calcareous Grit (the lowest of the Corallian rocks dealt with) is 30ft. thick 
at Highworth, only 10ft. to 15ft. thick at Blunsdon, dwindling until it 
disappears entirely further on, with only two outlying patches, one consisting 
of the sands at Tockenham Wick and Grittenham Hill, the other forming 
Pavenhill at Furton, and the bluff of Ringsbury. This formation, however, 
re-appears prominently at Spirthill, Bremhill, and Calne. Round Pavenhill 
and Ringsbury Camp over an area four miles in diameter there is a curious 
bed of non-calcareous " Rhaxella Chert " (composed mainly of spicules of 
Rhaxella sponge) belonging to the Lower Calcareous Grit and analogous to 
the " Arngrove Stone" of the Wheatley neighbourhood. Mr. Arkell 
suggests that the sands and pebbles of the Lower Calcareous Grit were 
brought down from a large land surface by a river falling into the sea some- 
where S.E. of Marcham. They were then distributed along the coast as 



198 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

submarine sand banks by a long-shore current incorporating the remains 
of marine animals. 

The normal sequence of the Berkshire oolites in the Highworth district 
is described in detail. A section of the large old quarry S. of Highworth, 
now deserted, but described by many earlier geologists, is fully described 
by Mr. Arkell, whose interpretation of the beds differs somewhat from that 
of his predecessors, and full lists of the fossils occurring here are given. 

The N.E. quarry. Hangman's Elm quarry, the old quarries N.W. of West 
Mill beside the Highworth — Watchfield Hoad, Upper Farm quarry, lied 
Down quarry, Ked Down Bungalow quarry, are all dealt with in the same 
thorough fashion. 

The Western shell-cum-pebble bed from Blunsdon to Tockenham and 
Lyneham is next described. Kingsdown old brickyard and the quarries at 
Cold Harbour Inn, Tockenham Wick and Lyneham Folly are described. 

The Coral Rag, essentially a coastal formation was originally a belt of coral 
reef or islands from Oxford to Mid- Wilts. Mr. Arkell believes that the 
solid white limestone, such as the Wheatley limestone, formed chiefly of the 
ground-up debris of the reef on its seaward side is really contemporary with 
the ordinary ('oral Rag, which continued growing whilst the denundation of 
the reef was going on. Broad Bush, Cold Harbour, and the Sheepslaight 
quarries near Blunsdon are described with their lists of fossils. The quarry 
at Purton, S.E, of the Church, with its Wheatley limestone and rag ; the 
Lydiard Millicent quarry, and those of Moredon and Tockenham Wick, all 
have lists of fossils attached to them. At Hilmarton as at Littlemore, near 
Oxford, the Lower Calcareous Grit is succeeded by Corallian clays, alternate 
bands of blue-grey clays and argillaceous limestone or mudstone in layers 
a few inches thick. Mr. Arkell suggests that these clay beds were laid 
down by a river running through the coral reef. A full list of fossils 
from these clay beds at Hilmarton is given. Mr. Arkell proposes to call 
the Coral Rag and the thick white limestones into which it passes at Calne, 
by the name of " Osmington Oolite " from the rocks of the Dorset coast 
with which they are correlated. Pages 162 to 175 are filled with a complete 
list of all the known invertebrate fossils occurring in the district covered 
by the paper. Seven new species, of which two come from Highworth, and 
one, IWebratula Kingsdownensis, from the coral rag of Kingsdown, near 
Swindon, are fully described ; and together with some others are figured in 
two plates from photographs. This paper will doubtless be regarded in the 
future as the authoritative account of the formations with which it deals 
so admirably. 



199 



ADDITIONS TO MUSEUM AND LIBRAEY. 
Museum* 

Presented by Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.SA., Scot. : Staff of OflQce of 
Tithing Man of Atworth. ' 
„ „ Miss Pugh : Fragment of Bronze Bracelet of Halstatt Age 

found at Cold Kitchen Hill, 1927. 
„ „ Dr. R. 0. 0. Clay, F.'^A. : The very large and valuable col- 

lection of flint implements from Wiltshire formed by him- 
self, illustrating the technique of flint manufacture in 
different localities. This entire collection is given on 
condition that it is kept together, and that none of the 
specimens are parted with in the future. 

Library. 

Presented by Mrs. E. H. Goddard : "Secrets of some Wiltshire House- 
wives. A Book of Recipes by Edith Olivier." 

„ „ Mr. a. Shaw Mellor : " Antiquarian and Topographical 

Cabinet, 1807—11. [All the vols (6) that contain Wilt- 
shire items.] 

„ „ Mr. R. S. Newall, F.S.A. : Folio volume of copies and 

extracts from Wilts MSS. for Vol. I. Mere and Heytes- 
bury of Hoare's Modern Wilts. 

„ „ Capt. B. H. Cunnington : Eight Devizes Deeds. 

„ „ Miss Adams : Four Books on Heraldry, &c. 

„ „ Col. W. Hawley, F.SA. : Archaeologia, Vol. 76. 

„ „ Capt. A, E. A. Dunston : "The Wiltshire Legionaire." 

Special number. 

„ „ Rev. C. E. Hughes : MS. copies of Monumental Inscriptions 

in Luckington Church. 

„ „ Messrs. G. Simpson & Co. : Reprints (4to) of " The Wiltshire 

Broomes," and " The Monumental Inscriptions of Salis- 
bury Cathedral," from the Wiltshire Gazette. 

„ „ Rev. E. H. Goddard: "Salisbury Diocesan Gazette." 

"Sarum Almanack." "N. Wilts Church Magazine. (All 
for 1927). 

„ „ The Author, Mrs. M. E. Cunnington : " The Pottery from 

the Long Barrow at West Kennet, Wilts." 1927. 
„ Mr. a. W. Marks: Old Deed. Steeple Ashton, 1646. 
Walter Long and John Marks. 

„ „ Rev. W. S. TupHOLME, D.D. : MS. copies of the Registers of 

Steeple Langford, 1674— 1927. 

, „ The Author, Dr. R. C. C. Clay, F.S.A. : Typed copy of 

Notes on the History of Fovant. 



200 Additions to Museum and Library. 

Presented by The Author, Mr. W. J. Arkell, F.G.S. : " The Corallian 
Rocks of Oxford, Berks, and North Wilts." Reprint from 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 1927. 

„ „ The Author, Alderman Charles Haskins : "Salisbury 

Charters and History of St. Edmund's College." 1927. 

„ „ The Author, Mrs. J. L. Lovibond, of Salisbury: "Lovi- 

bond's Tintometer as a means to Paint Colour Standard- 
ization." Excerpt from Journal of the Oil and Colour 
Chemist's Association, Also four Wilts Pamphlets. 

„ „ Rev. J. W. S. Tomlin : " St. Boniface College at Home 

and Abroad " for 1926 and 1927. 
., The Author, Canon Fletcher: "The Hertford Monu- 
ment in Salisbury Cathedral." 1927. 

„ „ Mr. H. L. Oliver, F.S.A. : Small MS. Note Book with copies 
of inscriptions in Malmesbury Abbey Church and Church- 
yard. 

„ „ Miss Awdry : " Twilight Shadows," by R. M. and E. Ashe, 

of Langley. " Musings in verse," by Rev. R. F. Kilvert. 
" Csesar and the Britons," by the Rev. H. Barry. 

„ ,, CoL. J. Benett-Stanford : Set of Phillimore's Wilts Parish 

Registers, Marriages, 

„ „ The Author, Mr. T. D. Kendrick : "The Druids, a study 

in Keltic Prehistory." 1927. 

„ „ Mr. J. J. Slade: Nine Wilts Estate Sale Catalogues, Wilts 

Illustrations, &c. 

„ „ Mrs. Welby Everard : " The Letters of Maurice Hewlett." 

,, ,, The Author, Mr. Hey wood Sumner, F.S.A. : "Excavations 

in New Forest Roman Pottery Sites." 1927. 

„ „ Field-Marshall Lord Methuen : " A Wiltshire Lady," 

by Lord Olivier. (Fortnightly Review). 

„ „ The Author, Rev. A. J. Watson: '* Savernake Forest. 

ISome Notes for Ramblers." 1928. 

„ „ The Authors, J. A. Douglas and W. Arkell : " The 

Stratigraphical Distribution of the Cornbrash. I. — The 
South-Western Area." 1928. 



I 



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205 



[Any Af ember whose name or address is incorrectly printed in this List is 
requested to communicate with the Financial Secretary, Mr. D. Owen^ 
Bank Chambers, Devizes.] 

WILTSHIRE 

archaeological anti Natural ©istorg Societg. 



JUNE, 1928. 



Patron : 
The Most Hon. The Marquis of Lansdownb. 

President for 1927—28 : 
The Most Hon. The Maequis of Lansdowne. 

Vice-Presidents : 



The Right Rev. Bishop G. Forrest 

Browne, f.s.a. 
G. S. A. VVaylen, Esq. 



The Most Hon. the Marquis of 

Bath, K.G. 
Mrs. B. H. Cunnington 
C Penruddocke, Esq. 

IVustees : 
The Most Hon. The Marquis of Lansdowne. 
The Most Hon. The Marquis of Bath, k.g. 
B. Howard Cunnington, Esq., f s.a. (Scot.). 

Honorary General Secretary, Librarian, and Treasurer: 
Rev. E. H. Goddard, f.s.a., Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

Honorary Curator of Museum^ and Meeting Secretary : 
Capt. B. H. Cunnington, f.s.a. (Scot.), Devizes. 

Honorary Auditors : 
G. S. A. Waylen, Esq., Devizes. W. M. Hopkins, Esq., Devizes^ 

Financial Secretafy : 
Mr. David Owen, f.c.a., Bank Chambers, Devizes. 

Honorary Local Secretaries : 



Dr. R. C. C. Clay, f.s.a., Fovant 

Manor, Salisbury. 
R. S. Ferguson, Esq., Elm Grove, 

Galne. 
Sir F. H. Goldney, ^d.vt.,Beechfield, 

Cor sham. 
H. C. Brentnall, Esq., Granham 

West, Marlborough. 



A. Shaw Mellor, Esq., Box Manor, 

Box^ Wilts. 
Rev. Canon F. H. Manley, Great 

Somer ford Rectory, Chippenham. 
Frank Stevens, Esq., f.s.a.. The 

Museum, Salisbury. 
Basil H. A. Hankey, Esq., Stanton 

Manor, Chippenham. 



206 List of Members. 

Tht Committee consists of the following Members, in addition to the 
Honorary Officers of the Society : 



J. I. Bowes, Esq., Dormer Cottage, 

Devizes. 
Mrs. B. H. Cunnington, 33, Long 

Street, Devizes. 
O. G. S. Crawford, Esq., f.s.a., 

Ordnance Survey, Southampton. 
Canon E. P. Knubley, Steeple 

Ashton Vicarage, Trowbridge. 
A. D. Passmore, Esq., 20, Bath 

Road, Swindon. 
Rev. H. E. Ketchley, Biddestone 

Rectory, Chippenham. 



J. J. Slade, Esq., Trafalgar Placet 
Devizes. 

G. S. A. Waylen, Esq., Potterne 
Itoad, Devizes. 

J. D. Crosfield, Esq., 20, Castle 
Bar Road, Ealing, London, W.5. 

C. W. Pugh, Esq , Hadleigh Cot- 
tage, Devizes. 

H. M. Gimson, Esq., a.ri.ba., 
1, St. John Street, Devizes. 



List of Societies &c., in Union with the 
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society 

For ititerchange of Publications, Sfc. : 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 

British Archaeological Association 

Society of Antiquaries of London 

Societies of Antiquaries of Scotland 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 

Bristol and Gloucestershire Archoeological Society 

Carmarthenshire Antiquaries Society 

Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club 

Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club 

East Herts Archaeological Society 

East Riding Antiquarian Society, Yorks 

Essex Archaeological Society 

Essex Field Club 

Geologists' Association 

Hampshire Field Club 

Herts Natural History Society and Field Club 

Kent Archaeological Society 
Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society 

Powysland Club 

Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Society for Promotion of Roman Studies 

Somerset Archaeological Society 

Surrey Archaeological Society 

Sussex Archaeological Society 

Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

United States Geological Survey 



I 



List of Memhers. 



207 



Honorary Member : Kite, Edward, Longcroft Road, Devizes. 
Life Memhers. 



Bath, The Most Hon. The Marquis 

of, Longleat, Warminster 
Bouverie, K. O. P., f S.A., Hopecote. 

Combe Down, Bath 
Crewe, The Most Hon. The Marquis 

of, K.G., Crewe Hall, Crewe 
Fitzmaurice,The Right Hon. Lord, 

Leigh, Bradford-on-Avon 
Howitt, Dr. A. B., 15, Chesham 

Street, Belgrave Square, London 

S.W. 1 
Jones, Walter H., M.A., Morgan 

Hill, Fairford, Glos. 
Keiller, Alex, 4, Charles Street. 

London W. 1 
Keiller, Mrs., 4, Charles Street, 

London W. 1 
Kidston, G., 19, St. James Square, 

London, S.W. 1 
Maurice, Mrs. Thelwall, Burbage, 

Wilts 



Pembroke and Montgomery, 'i'he 
Right Hon. the Earl of, Wilton 
House, Salisbury 

Penruddocke, C, Compton Park, 
Salisbury 

Powell, A. Cecil, The Hermitage, 
Weston-Super-Mare 

Radnor, The Right Hon. the Earl 
of, C.I E., c B.E., Longford Castle, 
Salisbury 

Rule, Ivan T., Nunton, near Salis- 
bury 

Sainsbury, H. J , The Old Manor 
House, 13roughton Gifford,M elk- 
sham 

Spicer, Capt. Anthony, Spye Park, 
Chippenham 

Walmesley, John, Lucknam, Chip- 
penham 

Wordsworth, Rev. Chancellor, St. 
Nicholas Hospital, Salisbury 



Annual Subscribers. 



£^Court, Captain the Hon. Holmes, 

R.N., Bishopstrow, Warminster 
Adderley Library, Librarian of, 

The College, Marlborough 
Adeney, G. B , Dinton, Salisbury 
Ailesbury, The Most Hon. The 

Marquis of, Savernake Forest, 

Marlborough 
Antrobus, Sir Cosmo, Bart., Ames- 
bury Abbey, Amesbury,Salisbury 
Arkell, W. J., New College, Oxford 
Armin, F. G. H., 17, Market Place, 

Devizes 
Arrowsmith-Brown, J. A., d.s.o., 

11, Quay Street, Bristol 
Aston, Major-General Sir George, 

K.C.B., Court House, Woodford, 

Salisbury 
Avebury, The Rt. Hon. Lord, 15, 

Lombard Street, London E.C. 3 
Awdry, Colonel R. W., Little 

Cheverell, Devizes 
Awdry, E. M , The Elms, Chippen- 
ham 
Awdry, Mrs. C. L., Hitchambury, 

Taplow 
Baker, Kington, 11, Sheridan Road, 

Merton Park, London, S.W. 19 
Baker, Mrs. F. A. Alexander, 49, 

Wyndham Road, Salisbury 
Barrett, W.H.,76, MarshfieldRoad, 

Chippenham 



Bateson, Col. Frank, Manor House, 

Great Cheverell, Devizes 
Bateson, Mrs., Manor House, Great 

Cheverell, Devizes 
Bath Corporation Library, Bath 
Bayliflfe, Chas. M., Rose Dale, 

Woodland Road, Clevedon,Som. 
Bell, Lt.-C^ol. W. C. Heward, 

Cleeve House, Melksham, Wilts 
Benson, The Rev. Edmund, Fid- 

dington House, Market Laving- 

ton, Devizes 
Bingham, Lt.-Col. D. A., Ormond 

Villa, London Road, Devizes 
Bird, Herbert, Trowle Cottage, 

Trowbridge 
Bird, W. Hobart, New Club, 

Cheltenham 
Bird, W. R., 125, Goddard Avenue, 

Swindon 
Birmingham Public Libraries, 

Birmingham 
Bishop, H2., Westlecott Road, Swin- 
don 
Blease, H. F., Snellbrook, Staver- 

ton, Trowbridge 
Bodington, Ven. Archdeacon, 20, 

The Close, Salisbury 
Booth, Mrs., Ebbesbourne Wake, 

Salisbury 
Borough, R. J. M., Market Laving- 

ton, Devizes 



208 



List of Members 



Bouverie, Miss A Pleydell, The 

Old House, Market Lavington, 

Devizes 
Bowes, J. I., Dormer Cottage, 

Devizes 
Bown, W. L., Enderley, Clarendon, 

Trowbridge 
Bradford, Miss M. M., St. Amands, 

Adderbury, Banbury, Oxon 
Brakspear, H., F.s a , Pickwick 

Manor, Corsham 
Brassey, Lt.-Col. Edgar, Dauntsey 

Park, Chippenham 
Brentnall, H. C, Granham West, 

Marlborough 
Briggs, Admiral Sir C. J., k.c.b., 

Biddestone, Chippenham 
Bristol Municipal Public Libraries, 

Bristol 
Brooke, W. de Leighton, Sandfield, 

Potterne, Devizes 
Buchanan, Walter,20,Moore Street, 

Cadogan Square, London, S. W.3 
Bucknili, Mrs. L. M.,Bryn Cottage, 

Cricklade, Wilts 
Burgess, Rev. C. F., Easton Grey 

Vicarage, Malmesbury 
Burgoyne, Major G. A., Blagdon 

House, Keevil, Trowbridge 
Burmester, Capt. A. C, Newtown 

Lodge, Hungerford 
Burrow, E. J., Wayside, London 

Road, Cheltenham 
Bush, J. E., 442, Uxbridge Road, 

Shepherds Bush, London, W. 12 
Butler, Sir Reginald, Bart , Won- 

ham Manor, Betch worth, Surrey 
Buxton, Gerald J , Tockenham 

Manor, Swindon 

Caillard, Sir Vincent H. P., Wing- 
field House, Trowbridge 

Calderwood, J. I^., The Hermitage, 
Swindon 

Calley, Major-Gen. T. C. P., C.B., 
M.v.o , Burderop Park, Swindon 

Calne Public Library, Calne, Wilts 

Canning, Col. A., Restrop House, 
Purton, Wilts 

Carter, Lady Violet Bonham, 24, 
Hyde ParkGardens, London, W. 2 

Cary, Lt.-Com. Henry, en., New- 
ton House, Rowde, Devizes 

ChicagoUniversityGeneralLibrary 
Chicago, U.S.A. 

Chubb, Sir C. H. E., Bart., The 
Old Manor, Salisbury 



Clapham, Capt. J. T., 3, Homefield 

Road, Wimbledon Common, 

London, S.W. 19 
Clarke, Mrs. H. G., South Farm, 

Overton, Marlborough 
Clarke. Rev. C. P. S., Donhead St. 

Andrew Rectory, Shaftesbury 
Clark-Maxwell, Ven. Preb. W. J., 

F.S.A., Mackworth Vicarage, 

Derby 
Clay, Dr. R. C. C, f.s.a., Manor 

House, Fovant, Salisbury 
Clifton, The Rev. E. J., o.b.e., 

M.R.A.s, Heddington Rectory, 

Calne 
Codrington, Commander C.A.,R N., 

Wroughton House, Swindon 
Cole, Clem, Calne, Wilts 
Cole, Dr. S. J., Campfield, Devizes 
Collett, The Rev. S., Bratton 

Vicarage, Westbury, Wilts 
Collum, Miss V. C. C, 4, Milton 

Chambers, 128, Cbeyne Walk, 

Chelsea, S.W. 10 
Combes, I)., Dinton, Salisbury 
Congress, Library of, Washington, 

U.S.A. 
Cook, The Rev. W. H., Stratford- 

sub-Castle Vicarage, Salisbury 
Copeland, G. W., 13, Milton Road, 

Swindon 
Coulter, The Ven. Archdeacon, 

The Vicarage, Calne, Wilts 
Courthope, Miss K J , Brookfields, 

Wadhurst, Sussex 
Coward, Ed ward,Southgate House, 

Devizes 
Coward, Mrs., Southgate House, 

Devizes 
Cox, Alfred, 429, Strand, London, 

W.C. 2 
Cox, Stafford, P., Stradbroke Cot- 
tage, Coombe Bissett, Salisbury 
Crawford, O. G. S., f.s. a., Ordnance 

Survey, Southampton 
Crosfield, John D., 20, Castle Bar 

Road, Ealing, London, W. 5 
Cunnington, Capt. B. H., f.s.a. 

(Scot.), 33, Long Street, Devizes 
Cunnington, Mrs. B. H., 33, Long 

Street, Devizes 
Cunnington, Col. R. H., r e., Siam 

House, Dorchester Road, Wey- 
mouth 
Currie, Lady, Upham House, Aid- 
bourne, Wilts 



List of Memhers. 



209 



Curtis, Miss E. J., Coombe End 

House, Marlborough 
d'Almaine, H.G.W., f.s.a., Abing- 
don, Berks 
Dartnell, H. W., " Abbotsfield," 

Park Lane, Salisbury 
Davies, Mrs. Myles,Winsley House, 

Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts 
Day, H , 130, Croft Road, Swindon 
Deans,Mrs ,ll,CroftRoad,Swindon 
Devenish, H. Noel, Little Durn- 

ford, Salisbury 
Dixon, Robert, Fewsey, Marl- 
borough 
Dobson, Mrs., 11, Cambridge Park, 

Redland, Bristol 
Duff, Miss H. M.A., The Manor 

House, Chilmark, Wilts 
Dunkin, The Rev. H., Bemerton 

Rectory, Salisbury 
Dunne, A. M., K.c, Denford 

House, Hungerford 
Dunning, Gerald C, " Chelonia," 

Castle Road, Ventnor, LO.W. 
Dunsterville, Col. K.S., c.B.,United 

ServiceClub,116,PallMal],S.W.l 
Earle, Col. Maxwell, c.b , c.m.g., 

D.S.O., Hilmarton Manor, Calne, 

Wilts 
Edwards, H. S. W., Armsley, 

Godshill Wood, Fordingbridge, 

Hants 
Edwards, W. C, 3, Victoria Road, 

ClaphamCommon,LondonS.W.4 
Elderston, Major R. H. S., The 

Comedy, Christian Malford, 

Chippenham 
Elderston, Mrs., The Comedy, 

Christian Malford, Chippenham 
Elworthy, Percy, Forbury, Kint- 

bury, Berks 
Engleheart, Rev. G. H., f.s.a., 

Dinton, Salisbury 
Everett, C. R, Lyonsdown, Vic- 
toria Road, Salisbury 
Everett, Major-Gen. Sir H. J., 

AvoMturn, Alderbury, Salisbury 
Ewart,W. H. L., Broadleas, Devizes 
Farquharson, Mrs.,Tilshead Lodge, 

Devizes 
Farrer, Percy, f.s.a., Westfield, 

Mullens Pond, Andover 
Fawcett, Mrs. Foyle, Manor House, 

Somerford Keynes, Cricklade, 

Wilts 
I Ferguson, R. S., m.b., cm., Elm 

Grove, Calne 



Finlay, The Hon. Sir Wm., k.b.e., 
Fairway, Great Bedwyn, Hun- 
gerford 

Fletcher, Rev. Canon J. M. J., 21, 
The Close, Salisbury 

Flower, C. T., f s.a , 2, Lammas 
Park Gardens, Ealing, London, 
W. 5 

Fowle, Rev. J. S., Hardenhuish 
Rectory, Chippenham 

Fox, Miss E., The Old Rectory, 
Aldbourne, Hungerford 

Frankel, Alfred, The Priory, Brad- 
ford-on-Avon, Wilts 

Freeman, G. H., 9, Alexandra 
Road, Kingston Hill, Surrey 

French, Col. C. N., 19, Knights- 
bridge, London, S.W. 1 

Fry, Claude B., Hannington Hall, 
Highworth, Wilts 

Fry, Geofifrey, Oare House, Marl- 
borough 

Fuller, R. F., Great Chalfield, 
M elk sham 

Fuller, Rev. Wilfred, 1, Lansdowne 
Grove, Devizes 

Gamble, Sir David, Bart,, White 

Lodge, Purton, Wilts 
Gamble, Lady, White Lodge, 

Purton, Wilts 
Gardner, E. C/., Lloyds Bank Ltd., 

Cheltenham 
Gardner, Eric, f.s.a , Patmore 

House, Weybridge 
Gatacre, Lady, Tau Cross, West 

Lavington, Devizes 
Gee, Miss Wilda, Homecroft, Holt, 

Wilts 
George, Reuben, 132, Goddard 

Avenue, Swindon 
Gething,T. T., Chilmark, Salisbury 
Gilbert, J. C, High Street,Swindon 
Gimson, H. M., a.r.ib.a., 1, Saint 

John Street, Devizes 
Gipps, Miss, The Porch House, 

Lacock, Chippenham 
Gladstone, Sir John E., Bart, 

Bowden Park, Chippenham 
Glanely, The Rt. Hon. Lord, New- 
market 
Glanfield, Rev. Edgar,The Rectory. 

Limington, Ilchester, Som. 
Goddard, Dr. C. E , Weathertrees, 

South Hill Avenue, Harrow 
Goddard, Rev. E. H., f.s.a., Clyflfe 

Vicarage, Swindon 



210 



List of Memhers. 



Goddard, Mrs. E. H., Clyffe Vicar- 

age, Swindon 
Goldney, Sir Frederick H., Bart., 

Beechfield, Corsham, Wilts 
Goldsbrough, Rev. Albert,Royston, 

Station Road, Ilfracombe 
Goodchild, Rev. W., Berwick St. 

John Rectory, Shaftesbury 
Gore, C. H., f.g.s., 69, Kastcott 

Hill, Swindon 
Gott, The Rev. C. R., Lacock 

Vicarage, Chippenham 
Gott, Mrs., Lacock Vicarage, Chip- 
penham 
Gough, W., Nore Marsh, Wootton 

Bassett, Wilts 
Gowring, The Rev. E. A., Grittle- 

ton Rectory, Chippenham 
Grant-Meek, Miss M., The Hold, 

ManningfordBruce,Marlborough 
Grayson, Mrs., 93, Bedford Gar- 
dens, Kensington, London, W. 8 
Greenstreet, Rev. L. W., Compton 

Bassett Rectory, Calne 
Greenwood, H. H., 34, Victoria 

Road, Swindon 
Greville, The Hon. Louis, Heale 

House, Woodford, Salisbury 
Gundry, W. L. D., Hillworth, 

Devizes 
Gwatkin, R. G., Manor House, 

Potterne, Devizes, Wilts 
Gwillim, Miss A. G. N., Common 

Edge, Marlborough 
G. VV.R. Mechanics' Institution, 

Swindon 

Hamilton & Brandon, His Grace 

the Duke of, Feme, Donhead, 

Shaftesbury 
Hamilton, A. D., Bridge Cottage, 

Lacock, Chippenham 
Hammond, J. J., Bishop's Walk, 

The Close, Salisbury 
Hammond, L. O., Cricklade, Wilts 
Hankey, Basil H.A.,StantonManor, 

Chippenham 
Hankey, Mrs. Basil H. A., Stanton 

Manor, Chippenham 
Harding, A., Little Chalfield House, 

M elksham 
Hardinge-Tyler,G D.,F.s A.,Ashton 
House, SteepleAshton, Trowbridge 
Harring, R. M., 22, Roundstone 

Street, Trowbridge 
Harrison, Rev. A. H., Lydiard 

Tregoze Rectory, Swindon 



Harrison, Mrs, I^ydiard Tregoze 

Rectory, Swindon 
Harrison, Rev. D. P., Lydiard 

Millicent Rectory, Swindon 
Haskins, Chas., Brownie Brae, 

Salisbury 
Hawley, Lt -Col. Wm., r.e., f.s.a., 

Figheldean, Salisbury 
Heneage, Claud W., ^7, Harrington 

Gardens, South Kensington, 

S.W. 7 
Heneage, Miss, 44, Lower Belgrave 

Street, London, S. W. 1 
Herbert, Major The Hon. George, 

Knoyle House, Salisbury 
Heytesbury, Col. Lord, The Green 

House, Crockerton, Warminster 
Hoare, Sir Henry H. A., Bart., 

Stourhead, Zeals, Wilts 
Hobhouse, Rt, Hon. Sir C. E. H., 

Bart., Monkton Farleigh, Brad- 

ford-on-Avon 
Hockmeyer, Mrs. A. M., Acmead, 

Holt, Wilts 
Hockmeyer, Miss V. G., Acmead, 

Holt, Wilts 
Hopkins, W. M., Lloyds Bank Ltd., 

Devizes 
Hornby, C. H. St. John, Porch 

House, Potterne, Devizes 
Howlden, H. Tjnley, Old Manor 

House, Freshford, Somerset 
Hubbard, Hesketh, e.o.i., r.ba., 

Woodgreen Common, Salisbury 
Hughes, Dr., Amesbury, Wilts 
Hughes, Rev. C. E., Luckington 

Rectory, Chippenham 
Hughes, George H., Kingsbury 

Croft, Marlborough 
Hunt, Rev. R. C, The Vicarage, 

Corsham 
Hussey, W., Trinity Villa, Trow- 
bridge 
Hutchinson, A. S. M., Bushton 

Manor, Swindon 
Impey, Edward, Sheldon Manor, 

Chippenham 
Jackson, J. T., Eastcroft House, 

Devizes 
James, Warwick f.k.c.s., o.b.e , 2, 

Park Crescent, Portland Place, 

London W. 1 
Jeffcoat, Rev. R.,5,Berkeley Square, 

Clifton, Bristol 
Jenner, Lieut.-Col. L. C. D., c.m.g., 
D.S.O., The Manor House, Ave- 
bury, Marlborough 



List of Members. 



211 



John Ry lands Library, Manchester 
Johnson, Walter, 28, High Street, 

Swindon 
Jones, Rev. F. Meyrick, Mere 
Jupe, Miss, The Old House, Mere 
Jupp, A. O., The Quarry House, 

Swindon 
Jupp, Mrs., The Quarry House, 

Swindon 

Keir, W. Ingram, f.e.c.s.e., Combe 
Down, Bath 

Kelham, H. V. L., Wye House, 
Marlborough 

Kelham, Mrs., Wye House, Marl- 
borough 

Kelly, Colonel C. R., Army & Navy 
Club, Pall Mall, London S.W. 1. 

Ketchley, Rev. H. E., Biddestone 
Rectory, Chippenham 

Kirby, S. H., Cathedral Hotel, 
Salisbury 

Klein, W. G., f.s.a., 7, Eldon Road, 
London N.W. 3 

Knubley, Rev. Canon E. P., The 
Vicarage, Steeple Ashton, Trow- 
bridge 

Lake, Richard, Kestrels, Easterton 

Lambert, Uvedale, f.r. hist, s , 
South Park Farm, Bletchingley, 
Surrey 

Lansdown, C. M., Glenleigh, Trow- 
bridge 

Lansdown, George, " Sholebroke," 
Wingfield Road, Trowbridge 

Lansdowne, The Most Hon. the 
Marquis of, Bowood, Calne 

Lawrence E. T., 24, Parade, Barry, 
Glam. 

Lawrence, W. F., Cowesfield, Salis- 
bury 

Lee-Pilkington, Mrs., Ashton Ho., 
Ashton Keynes, Swindon 

Lister, E. C, Westwood Manor, 
Bradford-on-Avon 

Locket, J. Wood, New Holme, 
Bratton, Westbury, Wilts 

Lott, Herbert C, 10, Carlisle Parade, 
Hastings 

Lovat, Miss, Worton, Devizes 

Lovibond, Mrs. J. L., Windover 
House, St. Ann's St., Salisbury 

Mackay, Major Eric A., Hilperton 
House, Hilperton, Wilts 



Mackirdy, Major E. M. S., The 
Abbey House, Malmesbury 

Manley, Rev. Canon F. H., Somer- 
ford Magna Rectory,Chippenham 

Mann, W. J., Highfield,Trowbridge 

Marlborough College Natural His- 
tory Society, President of. The 
College, Marlborough 

Marsden-Jones,Mrs.E, The Church 
House, Potterne, Devizes 

Maskelyne, A. St. J. S., 13, Tiver- 
ton Mansions, 140, Gray's Inn 
Road, London, W.C.I 

Maskelyne, Miss M. S., Cloon Cot- 
tage, Purton, Swindon 

Mason, J. M., The Old Rectory, 
Beckington, Bath 

Masters, VV. A. H., 8, High Street, 
Swindon 

Matcham, G. Eyre, Newhouse, 
Salisbury 

Mather, Miss L. J., Kingston Dev- 
erill, Bath 

Maton, Leonard, St. Edith's, Bath- 
hampton, Bath 

Maurice, Dr. Walter, Lloran House, 
Marlborough 

Mayo, The Rev. H. R., Yatton 
Keynell Rectory, Chippenham 

McNiven, C. F., Pucksbipton, 
Marlborough 

Mellin, V. G., Church House, 
Shrewton, Wilts 

Mellor, A. Shaw, Box House, Box, 
Wilts 

Messenger, H., The Close Gate- 
house, Salisbury 

Metcalfe, Mrs., Elcombe Hall, 
Wroughton, Wilts 

Methuen, Field- Marshal Lord, 
G.C.B., G.c.v.o , G.C.M.G., Corsham 
Court, Corsham 

Methuen, The Hon. Anthony, Ivy 
House, Corsham 

Methuen, The Hon. Mrs. Paul, 
Beanacre Manor Farm, M elk- 
sham 

Miles, Miss C. F., 59, Egerton Gar- 
dens, London, S.W. 3 

Milling, Rev. M. J. T., The Vicar- 
age, Ashton Keynes, Cricklade 

Milman, Miss, Brownston House, 
Devizes 

Milman, Miss B. M., Brownston 
House, Devizes 

Mitchell, Miss E. C, The Square, 
Wilton, Salisbury 



212 



List of Members, 



Money-Kyrle, Mrs, 25, Pelham 

Crescent, London, S.W. 7 
Morrice, The Rev. J. U, d.d., 

Longbridge Deverill Vicarage, 

Warminster 
Morrison, Hugh,M.P.,9, Halkin St., 

Belgrave Square, London, S W. 1 
Morse, W. E., The Croft, Swindon 
Myers. Rev. Canon, The Close, 

Salisbury 

Nan Kivell, R. de C, Overton 
House, Codford, Wilts 

National Library of Wales, Aber- 
ystwyth 

National Museum of Wales, Cardiff 

Neale, John Alex, d.cl., 125, 
Powis House, St. James Court, 
London, S.W. 1 

Neeld, Lt.-Col. Sir Audley D., 
Bart., C.B., Grittleton House, 
Chippenham 

Nelson, The Rt. Hon. Earl, Tra- 
falgar, Salisbury 

Newall, R. S., f.s. A.,Fisherton de la 
Mere House, Wylye, Wilts 

Newberry Library, Chicago,U.S.A. 

Newbolt, Sir H. J., Netherhampton 
House, Salisbury 

New England Historic Genea- 
logical Society, 9, Ashburton 
Place, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

New York Public Library, New 
York, U.S.A. 

Noakes, Miss Jessie, The Wilder- 
ness, Salisbury 

Noel,Hev.Wyndham,ChristChurch 
Vicarage, Bradford-on Avon 

Norton, M rs., Whitehill, Chilmark, 
Salisbury 

Noyes, Miss Ella, Sutton Veny, 
Warminster 

Olive, G. W., Uauntsey School, 
West Lavington, Devizes 

Olivier, Miss E. M., The Daye 
House, Quidhampton, Salisbury 

Ordnance Survey, Director- 
General of, Southampton 

Osborne, Mrs., Little Inglemere, 
Malmesbury 

Osborn, J. Lee, Northgate House, 
Brinkworth, Chippenham 

Owen, D., Richmond House, 
Weston Park, Bath 

Oxford Architectural & Historical 
Society, Ashmolean Museum, 
Beaumont Street, Oxford 



Palmer,Brig-GeneralG.Ll.,Bexley, 

Kent 
Parker, Vice- Admiral E. Hyde, 

Bodorgan House, Ramsbury 
Parsons, Miss Marie, Witcombe, 

Melksham 
Parsons, R., Hunt's Mill Farm, 

Wootton Bassett 
Passmore, A. D., 20, Bath Road, 

Swindon 
Payne, E. H., Wyndcross, West- 
bourne Boad, Trowbridge 
Peabody Institute, Baltimore, 

U.S.A. 
Peake, Dr. A. E., Arnold House, 

Corsham 
Peake, H. J. PI, Westbrook House, 

Newbury 
Pearson, Miss Edith A., Budbury 

Farm, Bradford-on-Avon 
Pearson, J. R., Atherfield House, 

Bradford Road, Trowbridge 
Penrose, Rev. J., Elmhurst, Chip- 
penham 
Perkins, Rev. Chas. E., Little 

Hinton Rectory, Swindon 
Phillpps, Bertram, Dinton House, 

Salisbury 
Phillips, A. J., Victoria House, 

Pewsey, Wilts 
Pincott, Mrs. Frank, North Holme, 

Bratton, Westbury, Wilts 
Pole, Sir F. J. C, Calcot Place, 

Reading 
Ponting, C. E,, F.S.A., Lockeridge, 

Upper Parkstone, Dorset 
Powell, John U , 38, Norham Road, 

Oxford 
Pritchard, J. K., f.s. A., 22, St. John's 

Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Protheroe, J. S., 150, Victoria 

Road, Swindon 
Public Record OflSce, Chancery 

Lane, W.C. 2 
Pugh, C. W., Hadleigh Cottage, 

Devizes 
Pugh, Miss, Hadleigh Cottage, 

Devizes 
Pullen, W., Broome Manor,Swindon 

Rawlence, E. A., f.s.a ,St.Andrews, 

Churchfields, Salisbury 
Reading Public Library, Reading 
Redfern, Rev. J. Lemon, Ashley 

Rectory, Tetbury, Glos. 
Reed, F. B., 50, Breakspears Road, 

Brockley, S.E. 4 



List of Memhers. 



213 



Renton, Jas. Hall, p.s.a., Rowfold 

Grange, Billingliurst, Sussex 
Rice, Godfrey, Shaw Farm, Tocken- 

ham, Wootton Bassett 
Richardson, A. P., Purton House, 

Purton, Wilts 
Richardson, Rev. A. T., m.b.e., The 

Rectory, Brixton Deverill, Bath 
Richardson-Uox, E,, f.s.a.., South 

Wraxali Manor, Bradford-on- 

Avon 
Rickards, E., Diana Lodge, Purton, 

Swindon 
Rickards, Mrs., Diana Lodge, Pur- 
ton, Swindon 
Ripley, Mrs., Salthrop House, 

Wroughton, Wilts 
Rison, K. E., Fair View, 47, Styve- 

chale Avenue, Earlsdon, Coventry 
Robinson, Major H. N., Monks 

Park, Corsham 
Roemer, Major de, Lime Park, 

Hurstmonceux, Sussex 
Rogers, J., Smith, 23, Catherine 

Street, Salisbury 
Rogers, Mrs. Newman, Easton 

House, Corsham, Wilts 
Roundway, Bosalind, Lady,Round- 

way Park, Devizes 
Rum boll, Miss, Coppice Lodge, 

Bradford- on- A von 
Russell, Samuel, Newstead, Mead= 

liurst Road, Western Park, 

Rutter, Mrs. Campbell," Highfield," 
Great Cheverell, Devizes 

Sainsbury, E. A., Wingfield Road, 

Trowbridge 
Sainsbury, Herbert, Greystone 

House, Devizes 
Sainsbury, Mrs. Herbert,Grey stone 

House, Devizes 
Sainsbury, Herbert J., The Close, 

Littleton Panell, Devizes 
Salisbury Clerical Library, Church 

House, Salisbury 
Salisbury Public Library, Endless 

Street, Salisbury 
Salisbury,The Right Rev. The Lord 

Bishop of, The Palace, Salisbury 
Sanders, Rev. Harry, 39, Avenue 

Road, Trowbridge 
Scott, G. H. Firth, Winterbourne 

Monkton, Swindon 
Scott, Miss E. C.,The Old Rectory, 

North Bradley, Wilts 



Selman, Mrs. H. E., Kington 

Langley, Chippenham 
Shaw, Col. F. Kennedy, Tefifont 

Magna, Salisbury 
Simpson, A. B., West Close, 

Lockeridge, Nr. Marlborough 
Simpson, Cecil, Cliftonville, The 

Common, Sutton, Surrey 
Simpson, George,Quorndon, Forest 

Row, Sussex 
Simpson, J. J., 51, Downs Park 

West, Bristol 
Skurray, E. C, West Lodge, Swin- 
don 
Slade, J. J., Gazette Office, Devizes 
Slade, Miss Mary E., m.b e., 63, 

Avenue Road, Swindon 
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ham 
Smith, A. F., 397, Ferndale Road, 

Swindon 
Smith, A. R. Stoney, " Waylands," 

Warminster Road, Bathampton, 

Somerset 
Snailum, W. W., Wingfield Road, 

Trowbridge 
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Rectory, Marlborough 
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Lodge, Devizes 
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Museum, Salisbury 
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Devizes 
Stone, W. J. E. Warry, 72, Elm 

Park Gardens, London, S. W. 10 
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xVlalmesbury 
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Wimborne 
Sturton, Rev. J. A., Market Laving- 

ton Vicarage, Devizes 
Sumner, Hey wood, f.s.a.. Cuckoo's 

Hill, Gorley, Fordingbridge, 

Hants 

Talbot, Miss, Lacock Abbey, 

Chippenham 
Talbot, The Very Rev. R. T., The 

Deanery, Rochester 



214 



List of Members, 



Tayler, Mrs. M. C, The Abbey ( 

House, Bradford-on-Avon 
Thomas, iVlrs., Rowdeford House, 

Devizes 
Thomas, Mrs. L. H., 10, Gloucester 

Square, N.W. 2 
Thompson, G. Malcolm, Kington 

Manor, Kington St. Michael, 

Chippenham 
Thompson, Mrs. Malcolm, Kington 

Manor, Kington St. Michael, 

Chippenham 
Thompson, Mrs.jEastbourneHouse, 

Devizes 
Thornely, T. H., The Elms, 

Nursteed, Devizes 
Thorney croft, Mrs. H. D., The 

Paddocks, Chippenham 
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Chippenham 
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ford-on-Avon 
Trotter, A. P., Greystone, Teffont, 

Salisbury 
Tuck, E. N., 2, Greenway Gardens, 

Chippenham 
Tupholme, Rev. W. S., Steeple 

Langford Rectory, Salisbury 

Uppsala University Library, Upp- 
sala, Sweden 
Usher, T. C, Seend, Melksham 

Vigors, Mrs., East Kennett Manor, 
Marlborough 

Viney, Herbert, Maplecroft, Melk- 
sham 

Walker, H. Seeker, Fairfield, Brad- 
ford-on-Avon 

Walker, Rev. F. G., Upton Lovell 
Rectory, Wilts 

Walker, Rev. H. M lines, Lea 
House, Malmesbury 

Walrond, R. D., Aldbourne, Bram- 
cote Road, Putney, S.W. 15 

Walsh, Arthur H., The Manor 
House, Purton, Wilts 

Warrington of Clyffe, The Right 
Hon. Lord, Market Lavington, 
Devizes 

Wasey, Mrs. G. K., Leigh Hill 
House, Savernake Forest, Marl- 
borough 

Watson, Rev. A. J., Upavon Vicar- 
age, Marlborough 

Watson -Taylor, G., Stert Cottage, 
Stert, Devizes 



Waylen, G. S. A., Potterne Road, 

Devizes 
Waylen, W. A., Littledean, Newn- 

ham, Glos. 
Weallens, Rev. R. S., Berwick 

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Webb, J. R., Fovant, Salisbury 
Webb, Mrs. Naesmyth, Bibury, 

Branksome Park, Bournemouth 
Webb, W. A., 8.3, Argyle Road, 

West Ealing, London, W. 13 
Wells, Chas., p.j.i., 134, Cromwell 

Road, Bristol 
Westlake, Rev. Canon, Sutton 

Benger Rectory, Chippenham 
Weston, Lt. Col. R. S., Elmsgate, 

Steeple Ashton, Trowbridge 
Weston, Miss Gertrude, Elmsgate, 

Steeple Ashton, Trowbridge 
Weston, Miss Ellen, The Home 

Farm,Stockton,CodfordSt. Mary 
Whatton, Mrs., Rockley Manor, 

Marlborough 
Whitbread, Miss J., Norton Bavant 

Manor, Warminster 
Whitehead, Arthur, 35, Canal, 

Salisbury 
White, Mrs. N., 24, High Street, 

Chippenham 
Williams, A. F., 57, Sheldon Road, 

Chippenham 
Williams- Freeman, Dr., Weyhill, 

Andover 
Williams, Philip, Speen, Newbury 
Wilson, Miss Maud, Norton Manor, 

Malmesbury 
Wood, J. Crewe, Bramerton, Swin- 
don 
Woodward, C. H., Exchange 

Buildings, Devizes 
Wrangham, Rev. Canon F., Burton 

Agnes Rectory, East Yorkshire 
Wright, Sir Robert, Durley House, 

Savernake, Wilts 
Wynne-Jones, Mrs., Windwhistle 

House, MarnhuU, Sturminster 

Newton, Dorset 



Yale University Library, New 

Haven, Conn., U.S.A. 
Yeatman- Biggs, Mrs., Long Hall, 

Stockton, Codford, Wilts 
Young, E. F., 67, Wells Road, 

Bristol 
Young, Wm. E. V., Gawens, Ebbes- 

bourne Wake, Salisbury 



Printed and Published by C. H, Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 



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No. OXLIX, DECEMI'.EK, 1928. Vol. XLIV. 



THE 

WILTSHIRE 

Archaeological & Natural History 

MAGAZINE, 

Published under the Dikeotion of the 

SOCIETY FORMED IN THAT COUNTY 
A. D. 1 8 5 3, 



EDITED Br 

REV. E. H. GODDARD, F.S.A , Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

[The authors of the papers printed in this " Magazine" are alone responsible for all 
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WILTSHIRE 
Archaeological & Natural History 

AGAZINE. 



No. CXLIX. DECEMBER 1928, Vol. XLIV. 



Contents, 



PAGE. 



The Society's MSS. Grittleton Manoe Deeds : By the 

Rev. Canon F. H. Manley 215—235 

A Hoard of British Coins found at Chute : By Capt. B. 

Howard Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot 236—239 

FiELDWORK in N. Wilts, 1926—28 : By A. D. Passmore 240—245 

Notes on Stone Implements of Material Foreign to Wilt- 
shire IN the Collection of Mr. A. D. Passmore : By H. 
H. Thomas, F.R.S., and A. D. Passmore 246—247 

The Seventy-Fifth General Meeting of the Wiltshire 
Arch^ological and Natural History Society, held 
AT Shaftesbury, July 24th, 25th, and 26th, 1928 248—256 

Heytesbury Almshouse Accounts, 1592 : Copied by J. J. 

Hammond 257—259 

Notes — Crouched Burial at Winterslow. A Pillow Mound at 
Wardour. Stonehenge Avenue. Sarsen Stones at Kingston 
Deverill. Saxon Jewelry from Roundway. Books bought 
from family of Col, Will. Long. Mound at Whetham 
opened. Pottery Pings at East Kennett. Stone Celt found 
at Box. Circular Earthwork at Ratfyn, Amesbury. Roman 
Coins at liittle Somerford. Roman Road in Conholt Park. 
Chapel on the Bridge, Bradford-on-Avon. Sir John Falstaff 
and Steeple Langford. Roman building at Draycot, near 
Huish 260—270 

Wilts Obituary 271—276 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 277—302 

Additions to Museum and Library 303—304 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The Chute Money Box 238 

British Gold Coins found at Chute 238 

Plan and View of Stone Circle on Overton Down 244 

Perforated Axe-Hammer of Dolerite from Ogbourne St. George 245 

Stone Celt found at Box 264 

Circular ditch with burials in it at Ratfyn, Amesbury 266 

Suggested Course of Roman Road at Conholt 267 

Devizes :— C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 



&'^% 




THE 



WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE. 



MULTORUM MA.NIBUS GRANDE LEVATUR Ol^USJ'—Ovid. 



No. CXLIX. December, 1928. Vol. xliv. 



THE SOCIETY'S MSS. GKITTLETON MANOR DEEDS. 
By THE Rev Canon F. H. Manley. 

The principal estate in Grittleton was at the time of the Conquest held 
by the Abbot of Glastonbury, and the right of the monks to the Manor was 
confirmed by various Popes early in the 12th century. They retained pos- 
session until the general dissolution of the monasteries in 1537, when the 
Manor was seized for the King. By patent dated 7th July, 36 Hen. VIIT. 
(1544), the King granted the Manor and Advowson of the parish Church of 
Grittleton to Giles Gore, of Surrendel, in consideration of the sum of 
£591 15s. 7d. and they remained with this family for 58 years. In 1601 the 
Manor and Advowson were sold by Edward Gore to Henry White, of 
Langley Burrell, whose fourth son, Walter White, on the death of his 
father in 1605 succeeded to the estate, On the death of the great grand- 
son of this Walter White, unmarried, in 1705, his estates, which included 
the Manor of Easton Peyrse and property in the counties of Worcester and 
Essex, were divided between his two sisters, Priscilla and Elizabeth, as co- 
heiresses. The Manor of Grittleton fell to the share of Priscilla, who in 1707 
married as his second wife Joseph Holton, eldest son and heir of Joseph 
Houlton, of Trowbridge and Farleigh Hungerford. The Manor of Grittle- 
ton thus came into the hands of the Houlton family and remained in their 
possession until 1828 when it was sold to Joseph Neeld, Esq., M.P., of 
Chippenham, ancestor of the present owner. 

When Canon Jackson wrote his History of Grittleton he seems to have had 
access to a large and complete series of ancient deeds relating to the Manor. 
He states in particular that the Court Rolls giving details of the proceed- 
ings at the annual Court Baron and Court Leet from 1533 " are preserved 
with regularity," containing lists of the homagers, the king's jury, the hay 
wards and tithing men, as well as the surrender and granting of leases to- 
gether with a record of the other business transacted by the courts. Pre- 
sumably at that time all these ancient deeds were in safe custody but, like 
many similar collections, this one became dispersed and the Wilts Arch. 
Society has only a fragmentary and incomplete set of documents giving us 
VOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLIX. P 



216 The Society's MSS. 

an imperfect record of the various changes during the last 300 years in the 
ownership and occupation of the manorial estate in Grittleton. Some of 
the missing deeds can be traced from the schedule of deeds handed over to 
the mortgagee attached to a mortgage deed of 1743 but these are not early 
deeds. 

The Society now has in its possession 75 deeds relating to the Manor of 
Grittleton, one of these dating from the Gore ownership, twenty-lSve during 
the ownership of the White family, the remainder being Houlton deeds. 
It has also the original Court Rolls from 1614 to 1647. 

Abstracts of the deeds are given in this issue of the Magazine and ab- 
stracts of the Court Rolls made by the late Rev. C. W. Shickle, F.S.A., will 
be printed later. 

Leases. 
A 1. 1589. Indenture made 20th July, 31 Eliz., between Edward Gore,^ 
of Surrenden, co. Wilts., Esq., and Richard Gawen, of Gryttleton, co. Wilts, 
yeoman, being a lease by the former to the latter of one fourth part of the 
Farm of Gryttleton and of the Barn belonging to the same and of lands 
appertaining now in the tenure of said Richard Gawen^ also of one pasture 
ground called Thornegrove containing 20 ac to be held for full term of 
fourscore years, subject to the lives of his sons John and Robert Gawen 
and of Prudence, daughter of John Kylberye, of Grittleton, dec, on sur- 
render of previous lease granted to Richard Gawen for his life by Copy of 
Court Roll at yearly rent of 30s. 4d. and payment of 20s. on decease of John 
and Robert Gawen and of Prudence Kylberye if tenants at time of their 
decease. 

Mention of " Elizabeth nowe wife of said Edward Gore." 
Signature of parties and seal missing but endorsed with attestation of 
witnesses, 

A 2. 1 622. Indenture made 4th Oct., 20 Jas. I., between Walter White,^ 
of Grittleton, gent., and (ii.) Edwd. Smart, of Grittleton, husbandman, by 
which for divers good causes (i.) lets to (ii.) the close, called Culver Hay, 
situate in Grittleton, for lives of Joane Smart, his wife, his son Roger and 
daughter Joane, at annual rent of 2s. 6d. with usual conditions as to upkeep 
of hedges, &c. 

Signed, Edward Smart. Seal missing. Witnesses, Edw. Gore, John Galfe. 

A 3. 1623. Indenture dated 19th Jan., 20 James I,, made between (i ) 
Walter White, of Grittleton, gent., and (ii.) John Jones the younger, of 
Foscott, in Grittleton, yeoman, being a lease by the former to the latter of 



* Grandson of Giles Gore, succeeded to the estate on death of his father, 
Richard, in 1582, and sold it in 1601 (see Visitation of WiltSt 1623). 

2 In 1540 the widow of John Gawen and Edward Bristowe held three 
parts of the farm of the demesne lands. 

' The first owner of these names, died in 1626, set. 43, buried at Grittleton* 
His widow, Hester, nSe Conham, was buried at Grittleton 1644. 






By the Bev, Canon F. H, Manley. 217 

5^ ac. of land lately enclosed, lying in the Southfielde, commonly called 
Sandpitts, late in tenure of John Tucker, on payment of ^27 and yearly 
rent of *2s. 6d., subject to the lives of said John Jones, Jacob Woodman, 
and Sarah Knight, who must when duly summoned appear at the Court 
Baron of the said Walter White and must not assign any part of the premises 
to any person without his consent . . . the lives of any children of 
John Jones born within the next four years may be inserted in the lease. 

Signed John Jones his mark. Seal missing. Witnesses, Elias Woodroffe.i 
John Kilbury, John Storke. 

A 4. 1628. Indenture made 30th April, 1628, between (i.) John Nayle, 
of the city of London, woolcomber, and (ii.) Hester Conham,'' of Durrington, 
<jo. Wilts, widow. Robert, brother of John Nayle, has an estate in a Copy- 
hold Tenement in Grittleton for life with remainder to John Nayle for his 
life. On payment of £20 by (ii.) to (i.) the latter agrees to demise to the 
former two closes of ground, called Beryes Crofte, parcel of the said Copy- 
hold Tenement 12 ac. now in the tenure of Hester White, widow, with two 
years to run, at termination of existing lease, for life of John Nayle, should 
Robert Nayle be living at date of this Indenture. But should Robert 
Nayle be now dead then for £10 paid (i.) assigns to (ii.) the said two closes 
for two years only on expiration of said lease — this with the consent of the 
Committee of the said Manor of Grittleton during the minoritie of Walter 
White,^ son and heir of Walter White, gent., dec, his AJajestie's Warde. 

Signed, John Naile. Seal missing. Witnesses, Jo. Shuter, Christopher 
Croddard, and others. 

A 5. 1647. Indenture made 14th June, 23 Chas. I. between (i.) Eliz. 
White,'' widdow, of Grittleton, and Walter White,^ her son and heir apparent, 
and (ii.) Geo. Seale, the elder, of Grittleton, weaver, and his sons, George 
j and Edward, by which on payment of £14 10s. Od. by (ii.) to (i.) the latter 
lease to the former a Tenement with backsided garden in Grittleton 
now in tenure of George Seale, the elder, for the term of 99 years subject to 
the lives of the parties (ii.) at annual rent of lOs. with usual conditions of 
upkeep of premises by tenant &c. 

Signatures and seal and witnesses' names missing. 



* Rector of Grittleton, 1619—42. 

' Widow of Abraham Conham, Canon of Salisbury, Rector of Bishop- 
«tone, 1595 — 1612. Her daughter Hester marr. Walter White. Buried at 
Durrington, 1647. A tablet in the Church to her memory, with arms 
■Conham impaling Badby. 

3 Born in 1617, killed at battle of Newbury 3rd June, 1643. Lieut.-Col. 
in Parliamentary Army and Governor of Bristol. Buried at Grittleton. 

* Daughter of John Walwyn, of Lulham. She had manors of Newlands 
fand Woodfields, co. Wore. She marr., secondly, as his 3rd wife, her brother- 
in-law Nich. Greene, of Foscote. Buried at Grittleton. 

* Born in 1643, died 1678, buried at Grittleton, third owner of these names. 

P 2 



2L8 The Society's MSS. 

A 6. 1657. Copy of Court Roll. In view of Franc Plege with the 
Court of the Manor of Nicholas Greene, Esq., and Eliz. his wife, Committee 
and guardian of the body and lands of Walter White, gent., son and heir 
apparent of Walter White, dec, held l7th April, 1657, before me, Thos. 
Neate, gent., Steward to this Courte came Thos. Lawes and taketh out of 
the hands of the Ladye of the Manor the Revercion of one Messuage and 
one yard lands in Foscott and Grittleton now in tenure of sd. Thos. to have 
and to hold the Revercion of sd. Messuage and one yard lands to sd. Thos. 
Lawes and John Gawen, of Grittleton, yeoman, for the terme of their lives 
according to custome of the said Manor, immediately after the death, &c.,. 
of Jane Gawen the now wife of sd. John, at yearely payment of 16s and a» 
Herriott when it shall happen, &c., and sd. Thos. and John gave to the sd. 
Lady for a Fine for the same graunte £30 and aforesd Thos. Lawes hath 
done his Fealty and is admitted Tenant as in Revercion, &c. 

Signed, Nich. Greene, Elizabeth Greene. Examd. by me Thos. Neate,, 
Steward there. 

Examd. 12th April, 1689, by Wm. Sainsbury, Steward there. 

A 7. 1657. Copy of Court Roll, a duplicate of the former one but with 
the following endorsement : — 

5th May, 1696. The within-named John and Jane Gawen came to this^ 
Courte and surrendered all their estate in the within written premises. 
And at the same Courte came the sd. John and re-took the same premises 
to him and his wife Jane and their son Thos. Gawen for the terme of their 
lives on same conditions as before, paying for same a Fine of £40 and said 
John was admitted tenant and took the oath of Fealty. 

A 8. 1659. Copy of Court Roll. At the view of Franck Pledge, with 
the Court Baron of the Manor in time of Nichs. Greene, Esq., and Eliz.,his^ 
wife. Committee, &c., during the minoritie of sd. Walter White, holden 8th 
April, 1659, before Richard Thorner, gent., Steward at this Court, the sd. 
Committee have granted to Walter and Nicholas, sons of the sd. Nichs. 
Greene,^ the Revercion of one Tenement and one yard land in Foscott with 
appurtenances now in tenure of Rich. Holdborough, 3i ac. arable near house 
of Walter White, and part of the Ground Leaze for the terme of their lives I 
according to the Custome of the Manor, immediately on death, &c., of sd. 
Rich. Holdborough and at ancient rent, &c. Walter and Nich. Greene are 
admitted tenants but their Fealtie is respited and there is the further con- 
dition that should the Committee or sd. Walter White any time hereafter 
pay to the Rector of the Parish or to the Steward of the Manor or sd. 
Walter and Nicholas Greene the sum of Twelve pence to make this graunte 
voide, it will become void. 

Signed, Rich Greene, Elizabeth Greene. Exd. and agreeth with Cort 
Roll of the Manor by me, Richard Thorner, Steward there. 



By his first wife Hester White. 



By the Rev, Canon F. H, Manley. 219 

A 9. 1664. Indenture made 14th April, 16 Chas. II., between (i.) Wal- 
ter White, of Grittleton, gent., and (ii.) Roger Huckings, of Grittleton, 
ijlothier, by which on payment of £60 by (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets to the 
former Messuage and Close 1 ac. adjoining, Grove Leaze 2 a., 1 ac. parcel of 
Rickmore Ackmore, 28 ac. arable in South and North fields called Clapcotts 
fields ... all these late in tenure of Mary, mother of sd. Roger Huck- 
ings, by virtue of a former lease granted to her husband Roger, dec, on 
lives of himself, his mother Mary dec. and sd. wife Mary by Walter White 
dec, grandfather of sd. Walter White by deed dated 20th April, 2 Chas. I. 
. . . on death of sd. Mary, mother of sd. Roger Huckings for 99 years 
subject to lives of sd. Roger and Benjamin his brother, at annual rent of 
20s. and 5s. herriott at death of either, &c. . . . Usual covenant for 
tenant to repair premisses &c. 

Signed, Roger Huckings. Seal missing. Witnesses, Thos. Neate, Jos. 
Beames, Rich Browne. 

A 10. 1666. Indenture made 4th April, 18 Chas. II., between (i.) 
Walter White, of Grittleton, gent., and (ii.) Thos. Brockenborough, of Grittle- 
ton, tailor, by which on payment of ^627 by (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets to the 
former a close called Adrills, 4 ac. pasture, now in tenure of (ii.) for 99 
years subject to the lives of Joane, wife of (ii,), and their children Simon 
and Eliz. at payment of heriot of 5s. at their deaths and annual rent Is. 6d. 
. . . the tenant to keep the premises sufficiently repaired, &c., and upon 
seasonable notice to appear and doe suite, &c., at the Courtes of the Manor 
of Grittleton, &c. 

Signed, Thomas Brokenboro, his mark. Seal missing. Witnesses, Rich, 
and Thos. Browne, &c. 

Endorsed with note 3rd May, 1697, Fine ^26, Rents and Heriot as usual. 
A new lease with Thos. Brokenboro on lives of his dr. Jone Brokenborough, 
and John and Mary, children of John Lea, of Charlton. 

All. 1668. Indenturemade20th Jan., 20 Chas L, between (i.) Walter 
White, of Grittleton, gent., and (ii.) Mary Smart, of Grittleton, wid., by 
which on surrender by (ii.) to (i.) of all her estate in premisses mentioned 
below and payment of £5, the latter lets to the former a new-erected barn 
with garden and close of pasture called Culverhay, 1 farrendeale now in 
tenure of (ii.) for 99 years on lives of her sons Roger and Nathan at annual 
rent 23. with usual condition for tenant to do repairs, &c. 

Signed, Walter White. Seal missing. Witnesses, Thos. Neate, Walter 
Brokenborough, &c. 

Endorsed. Walter White, Esq., in considn. of £12 demised to Edwd. 
Smart, of Grittleton, yeo., the within-named premisses late in possn. of 
Mary Smart, wid., to hold for 99 yrs. on lives of his sons, Edw., Jo., and 
Isaac . . . same rents and covenants but an additional covenant for 
suite of Courte. 

A 12. 1673. Indenture made 21 Dec, 25 Chas. II. between (i.) Walter 
White, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) Rich. Browne, of Grittleton, yeo., by 
which on payment of £8 by (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets to the former arable 



220 . The Society's MSS, 

ground called Townesend Close IJ ac. for 99 years on lives of (ii.), his wife 
Hester and son Joseph at annual rent of 2d. , . . tenant to repair 
hedges, etc. 

Signed, Richard Browne. Seal missing. Witnesses, Thos. Browne and 
Margery Minerd. 

A 13. 1674. Indenture made 6th Aug., 26 Chas. II. between (i.) 
Walter White, of Grittleton, gent, and (ii.) Rich. Browne, taylor, by which 
on consideration of surrender of a former lease and payment by (ii.) to (i.) 
of £3 the latter lets to the former a messuage with shop, backside and 
gardens adjoining commonly called Shells House and 2 lugge of ground 
taken out of Serjeants close, now in tenure of (ii.) for 99 years on lives of 
(ii.) and his wife Hester at annual rent of 10s. . . . tenant to keep the 
premises in repair, etc. 

Signed, Richard Brown. Seal missing. Witnesses, Walter Greene, Eliz. 
Packer. 

A 14. 1689. Indenture made 3 April, 1 Wm. and Mary, between (i.) 
Walter White,' of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) Joseph Beames, of Grittleton, 
tailor, by which on surrender of lease, see p. 8, and payment of j640 by (ii.) 
to (i.), a fresh lease of the premises is granted by the latter to the former 
on same conditions for 99 years on lives of Joseph Beames, his wife Mary 
and Isaac Bristowe, yeo. 

Signed, Joseph Beames. Seal missing. Witnesses, Wm. Sainsbury, jn.> 
Thos. Browne. 

A 15. 1696. Indenture made the 5th May, 8 Wm. Ill, between (i.) 
Walter White, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) John Jones, of Foscott in Grittle- 
ton, yeo., by which on payment of £50 (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets to the former 
All that messuage and one yard or hide of land in Foscott now in tenure of 
Richard, father of sd. John Jones and by him held by virtue of a copy of 
Court Roll of the Manor (except Grove Leaze 3 ac, Acton Hill 1 J ac, 
Sandpitts 5»ac., Stonehill furlong 1 J ac, Acton Hill furlong 1 ac, a Lott of 
Meadow in Acmore 1 ac, one farndale adjoining Park Gate, \ ac. in Sand 
furlong, etc, all lying in Lower Foscott and lately surrendered by Rich, 
Jones to Lord of the Manor and granted by him to Isaac Bristowe) for 99 
yrs. subject to lives of sd. John Jones and Isaac his brother to commence 
from death, etc, of their father and determination of his widow's estate at 
annual rent of 10s. 6d. and heriot of best living beast or 60s. at election of 
Walter White on deaths of John and Isaac . . . usual covenant for 
tenant to do repairs and also upon reasonable summons to do suit at Court 
Baron of sd. Walter White, etc. 

Signed Walter White. Seal, an annulet within a bordure charged with 
estoiles, WHITE. Witnesses, Saml. Workman, Elizth. Ayliflfe. 

A 16. 1696. Counterpart of above Lease. Signed, John Joanes. Seal 
missing. Witnesses, Saml. Workman, Elizth. Ayliffe. 

^ Succeeded to the estate on death of his father, Walter, in 1678. Died 
unm. 1705, Oct. 38th., buried at Grittleton. M.P. of Chippenham. 



1 



By the Rev. Canon F. H, Mauley, 221 

A 17. 1696. Indenture made 5th Aug., 8 Wm. III. between (i.) Walter 
White, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) Rich. Sergeant, of Grittleton, yeo., by 
which in consideration of surrender of an Assigraent of the estate men- 
tioned below, dated 5th May last, made between Rich. Browne, of Grittleton, 
yeo., of one part, and sd. Rich. Sergeant* of the other part and of payment 
of £30 by (ii.) to (i.), the latter lets to the former closes of arable land called 
Holden Leaze 7 ac. New Pool Leaze V^ ac, 3 ac. in Ox furlong in West 
field, also \ ac. and 1 ac. in same furlong, 1 ac. in Pease furlong late in 
tenure of sd. Rich Browne and now in tenure of sd. Rich. Sergeant for 
99 years on lives of Daniel, Isaac, and Rachael, children of sd. Rich. Sergeant, 
at annual rent of 3s. 8d. . . . tenant to repair hedges, etc., and on 
reasonable summons to do suit at Court Baron of sd. Walter White, etc. 

Signed, Walter White. Seal missing. Witnesses, Thomas Uhappel, 
Elizth. Ayliffe. 

Endorsed with memorandum dated 10th May, 1704, of Richard Sergeant's 
right of ploughway to New Pool Leaze through Rich. Brokenborow's Close 
called Forrest. 

A 18. 1696. Counterpart of above Lease. Signed, The mark of Rich. 
Sergeant. Seal missing. Witnesses, Thos. Chappell, Elizth. Aylifife. 

A 19. 1697. Indenture made 3rd May, 9 Wm. III., between (i.) Walter 
White, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) John Sergeant the elder, of Grittleton, 
yeo., by which on payment of £20 by (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets to the former 
a messuage with appurs. late in tenure of John May, dec, and 6 lugg of 
land adjoining taken out of Court close for 99 years on lives of John, son 
of Wm. Scott, of Grittleton, and Deborah and Mary, daughters of sd. John 
Sergeant at annual rent of Is. 6d. . . . tenant to keep premises in 
repair and at reasonable summons to do suite at Court Baron of sd. Walter 
White, etc. 

Signed, The mark of John Sergeant. Seal, armorial. Witnesses, Joseph 
Packer, Elizth. Aylifife. 

A 20. 1697. Indenture made 26th Oct., 9 Wm. III., between (i) Walter 
White, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) Jos. Beames, senr., of Grittleton, by 
which on payment of ^12 by (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets to the former the 
close of pasture called Grove Leaze late in tenure of John Sergent, senr., 
lately dec, 2 ac. for 99 years on lives of his sons Joseph, Isaac, and Roger 
Beames, at annual rent of Is. . . . tenant to repair hedges, etc., and 
doing suite from time to time at the Courts of the Manor, etc. 

Signed, Joseph Beams. Seal missing. Witnesses, Thos. Tattersall, 
Saml. Workman. 

A 21. 170L Indenture made 14th Nov., 13 Wm. III. between (i.) 
Walter White, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) Thos. Brown, of Yate, co. 
Glouc, yeo,, by which on payment of £120 paid by (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets 
to the former a House with Barn and Stable, etc., and one close called 
Fishlands, Broadmead 3 ac, Shortlands 8 ac, 5 ac. and 3 farthingdeales in 

^ In 1540 John Sargeant, one of the principal tenants of the Manor. 



222 The Society's MSS. 

West towne field, the premises late in the tenure of John Sergeant, senr., 
, . . for 99 years subject to the lives of sd. Thos. and his children John 
and Mary Brown, at annual rent 8s. , . . tenant to keep the premises 
sufficiently repaired and upon reasonable summons to do suite at the Court 
of the Manor. 

Signed, Walter White. Seal missing. Witnesses, J. Mordaunt, Will. 
Stephens. 

Endorsed with note " Determined by death of Mary Drinkwater, July 
26th, 1756." 

A 22. 1701. Counterpart of above Lease. Signed, Thomas Browne, 
Seal missing. Witnesses, J. Mordaunt, Will. Stephens. 

A 23. 1704. Indenture made 26th July, 3 Anne, between (i.) Walter 
White, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) Thos. Brokenborough, senr., Innholder, 
by which in consideration of the surrender of a former lease dated 3rd May, 
1697, made between sd. Walter White and Thos. Brokenborough, yeo., 
lately dec. uncle of the sd. Thos. Brokenborough, and of payment of £8 by 
(ii.) to (i.) the latter lets to the former the close of pasture called Adrells on 
same terms, as in lease on page 221, for 99 years subject to the lives of Thos., 
Walter, and Nich. Brokenborough, sons of (ii.). 

Signed, Walter White. Seal not armorial. Witnesses, Mary Adye, 
John Joanes. 

A 24. 1704. Counterpart of above Lease. Signed, Thomas Broken- 
borough. Seal not armorial. Witnesses, Mary Adye, John Joanes. 

Endorsed with note " Surrendered 20th March, 1741, and premisses 
granted to James Bristow." 

A 25. 1708. Indenture made 2nd Oct., 7 Anne, between (i.) Joseph 
Holton, of Trowbridge, Esq., and Priscilla,^ his wife, and (ii.) Thos. Broken- 
borow, yeo., by which in consideration of surrender of a former lease dated 
8th April, 1692, made of the premises mentioned below by Walter White, 
Esq., to Mary Farr, widow, and of payment of ^10 by (ii.) to (i.) the latter 
lets to the former two tenements with barn and garden adjoining and two 
closes " Groves-ends " 4 ac, late in tenure of Simeon Farr and since of 
Mary Farr' and now of (ii.) for 92 years subject to the lives of sd. Thos. 
Brokenborow's children, Thos., Rebecca, and Mary, at annual rent of Is. 
. . . tenant to keep the premises in repair and upon summons from 
time to time to do his suite at the Manor Courts. 

Signed, Joseph Houlton, Priscilla Houlton. Seal on a bend 3 mullets. 
Witnesses, Elizabeth Hillier, Mary Wigmore. 

A 26. 1711. Indenture made 28th Feb., 10 Anne, between (i.) Rich. 
Smyth, of Grittleton, tailor, and (ii.) Daniell Sargeant, of Grittleton, hus- 
bandman, on payment of £29 15s. Od. by (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets to the 
former closes " Shortlands " 4 acres, " Etherford " 4 ac, and also 2 ac. 3 far- 
rundeles dispersed in Townefield, late in possession of Rich. Browne, dec, 

^ Nee White, marr. in 1707. 
' A member of this family, a tenant of the Manor in 1540. 



By the Rev, Canon F. H, Manley. 223 

and now of (i.) and was by Jos. Houlton and Priscilla, his wife, leased by- 
Indenture dated 1st March, 6 Anne, to (i) for 99 years upon death of sd. 
Richard Browne subject to lives of (i) and his son Robert, for 95 yrs. on 
same lives at annual rent of Is. 4d. . . . Rich. Smith to pay to Jos. 
Houlton and Priscilla his wife Cheif Rent &c. payable under above-mentioned 
Indenture. 

Signed, Rich. Smith. Seals not armonial. Witnesses, Jo. Nickoll, St. 
Jo, Fabian, &c. 

Endorsed with receipt of payment of £29 15s. Od. to (i.). 

A 27. 1713. Indenture made 19th May, 13 Anne, between (i.) Jos. 
Holton, of Grittleton, gent., and (ii.) Thos. Browne, of Yate, co. Glouc.,yeo., 
by which on payment of ^20 and surrender of a former lease by (ii.) to (i.) 
the latter lets to the former a Tenement in Upper Foscott now in possn. of 
(ii.) with closes 1 ac. adjoining, 6 ac. " Holden Leaze," 2 ac. " Knavescraft," 
for 99 years subject to lives of (ii.) and his daughter Mary at annual rent 
of 4s. . . . the tenant to keep the premisses in repair and upon reason- 
able summons to do his suite at the Manor Courts. 

Signed, Joseph Holton, senr. Seal missing. Witnesses, Rich. Salwey, 
Jos. Jaques. 

A 28. 1713. Counterpart of above Lease. 

Signed, Thomas Browne. Seal, I. H. with tree between. Witnesses as 
above. 

Endorsed, Determined by death of Mary Drinkwater, widow, 26th July. 
. . . " Now Drinkwater's." 

A 29. 1718. Indenture made 16th Oct. 4 Geo. I. between (i.) Jos. 
Houlton, of Grittleton, Esq., and Priscilla, his wife, and (ii.) Rich. White, 
of Chippenham, glover, and Sarah, his wife, by which in consideration of 
surrender of a former lease dated 16th June, ult., between (i.) and sd. 
Sarah by name of Sarah Beames, sp. and payment of Is. by (ii.) to (i.) the 
latter lets to the former a Messuage with close adjoining lac. Grove Leaze 
Sac, in Rickmore Ackmore lac, in South East and North fields called 
Clapcotts 28ac, viz., Southen 2ac, Sandpitts 2ac., Clover Leaze 7ac., Bull 
Furlong 2ac., Berry Croft Ijac, in Common fields 9^ac., all late in tenure 
of Roger Beames for 99 years subject to lives of (ii.) and Isaac Bristow at 
annual rent of 20s., tenant to keep premises in repair. 

Signed Jos. Houlton, Jnr., Priscilla Houlton. Sealed, not armorial. 
Witnesses Rob. Wiltshire,' Walter Wiltshire. Endorsed ' Surrendered 20th 
June, 1732.' 

A. 30. 1718. Counterpart of above Lease. 

Signed Rich. White, Sarah White. Seal not armorial. Witnesses Rob. 
Wiltshire, Walter Wiltshire. 



* Of Foscote. He marr. Rebecca, only daughter of Nicholas Green and 
f'lElizabeth, widow of Walter White. 



224 The Society's MSS. 

A 31. 1 722, Indenture made 22nd Octr., 9 Geo. II., between (i.) Jos. 
Houlton, of Grittleton, Esq., (ii.) Wm. Newman, husbandman, by which 
on surrender of a former lease of the property mentioned below dated 23rd 
June, 1692, granted by Walter White, late of Grittleton, Esq., dec. to John 
Bennett als Ware, blacksmith, for 99 years subject to lives of his wife Mary 
and daughters Mary and Jane and on payment of £5 by (ii.) to (i.) the 
latter lets to the former a Cottage with apps. in Grittleton, now in posan. 
of (ii.) for 99 years subject to lives of (ii.) his wife Mary and son John at 
annual rent Is. 6d. . . usual covenants as to repairs, doing suite, &c. 

Signed Wm. Numen. Seal not armorial. Witnesses Christopher Marven, 
Rich. Bigges, &c. Endorsed ' Surrendered 10th Oct., 1738.' 

A 32. Indenture made 20th Dec, 12 Geo. I, between (i.) Joseph 
Houlton, senr., of Grittleton, Esq , and (ii.) Daniel Sargent, yeo., by which 
on surrender of a lease of part of the land mentioned below dated 5th 
August, 1696, and of another lease of the other part of this land dated 28th 
February, 1711, and on payment of J£3& paid by (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets to 
the former ' Holden Leaze ' 7ac., Newpoole Leaze 7iac., 4iac. in Townfield, 
* Shortlands ' 4ac., * Etherford ' 4ac , ' Clay Corner ' 3 ac. . . . rights of 
quarrying for stone, &c., reserved . . for 99 years subject to the lives of 
(ii.), his wife Edith and son Daniel at annual rent of 5s. and heriot of 10s. 
on death of either . . usual covenants as to repairs, doing suite, &c. 

Signed Daniel Sargent. Sealed I. H. with tree between. Witnesses 
Christopher Marven, Joshua Freem. 

A 33. 1725. Counterpart of above Lease. 

Signed Jos. Houlton. Same seal and Witnesses. Endorsed* Surrendered 
14th June, 1748.' 

A 34. 1729. Indenture made 18th Dec, 3 Geo. II., between (i.) 
Walter Wilshur,' of Grittleton, gent, and (ii.)Thos. Lester, Taylor, by which 
on payment of £4 by (ii.) to (i.) the latter assigns to the former the 
remainder of the term of a Lease dated 14th Aug , 1705, granted by Priscilla 
and Elizth. White, both of Grittleton, sps., to Robert Wilshur, gent, father 
of sd. Walter, since dec, in respect of a Cottage with garden and orchard 
|ac., adjoining John Lester's copyhold tenement parcel of Hjac in West- 
field, of Foscott, for 99 yrs. subject to lives of sd. Robert Wilshur, his son 
Walter and daughter Rebecca^ . . covenant to produce original Lease as 
other lands are recited in it not affected by this Indenture. 

No signature . . seal not armorial . . no witnesses. 

A 35. 1732. Indenture made 31st July, 6 Geo. II, between (i.) Joseph 
Houlton, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) James Freem, of Foscutt, joyner, by 
which on payment of £6 by (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets to the former a Tene- 
ment in Foscutt with garden and court on south side of the house, part of 
a tenement formerly belonging to John Smart for 99 years subject to lives 
of (i.) and his daughter Mary, aged 2 yrs., and wife Ruth at annual rent of 
Is. 6d. . . . tenant to keep the premisses in repair. 

' Buried at Grittleton, 1766. ' Buried at Grittleton, 1789. 



By the Bev, Canon F. H. Manley. 225 

Signature cut out. Seal, on a fesse wavy between 3 talbots heads as many 
bezants, HOULTON. Witnesses Robert Houlton, James Bristow. En- 
dorsed * Surrendered and new one granted by Robert Houlton, Esq , 7th 
June, 1771.' 

A 36. 1733. Indenture made 1 1th Dec, 7 Geo. II., between (i.) Joseph 
Houlton, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) James Bristow of same, yeo., by which 
on surrender of Lease of premisses mentioned below granted 10th May, 
1704, by Walter White, of Grittleton, Esq , to Isaac, father of (ii.), and of 
payment of £20 by (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets to the former Grove Lease 3ac., 
Little Park Lease Ijac , 8andpitts 5ac., Downhedge Tyning 5ac. and 3 
farthingdells, 2ac. in Acmer, all lying in Foscutt, for 99 years subject to 
lives of sd. Isaac, brother {sic.) of sd. James Bristow, sd. James Bristow, 
and Daniel, son of Daniel Sargent sister's son of sd. James, aged about 20 
yrs., at annual rent of 8s. and heriot of 30s. on above lives . . tenant to 
keep hedges, &c., in repair and do suite at the Courts of the Manor upon 
reasonable warning and in default of attendance to pay Is., &c. 

Signed James Bristow. Seal HOULTON. Witnesses Robt. Houlton, 
Eben. Burges. 

A 37. 1733. Counterpart of above Lease. 

Signed Joseph Houlton. Seal and witnesses same as above. 

A 38. 1733. Indenture made 20th Dec , 7 Geo. II., between (i.) Joseph 
Houlton, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) James Freem, of Foscutt, joyner, by 
which on payment of £10 by (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets to the former a Tene- 
ment or Barn in Lower Foscutt with garden adjoining and Court between 
sd. Barn and dwelling house of (ii.) for 99 years subject to lives of (ii.), Ruth 
his wife, and Mary his daughter, aged 4 years, at annual rent of 4s. . . . 
tenant to keep premisses in repair and do suite at the Courts of the Manor 
upon reasonable warning and in default of attendance to pay Is., &c. 

Signature cut out. Seal HOULTON. Witnesses Robert Houlton, 
Christopher Marven. Endorsed 'Surrendered and a new one granted by 
Robt. Houlton, Esq., 7th June, 1771.' 

A 39. 1734. Indenture made 9th May, 7 Geo. II , between (i.) Joseph 
Houlton, of Farleigh Hungerford, Esq., and Thos. Barker, clerk,^ Rector of 
Grittleton, and (ii.) John Sargent, blacksmith, by which Joseph Houlton, 
with consent of Thos. Barker, lets to John Sargent all Tythes and Glebe 
Land of the Rectory of Grittleton, also the great stable, two barns, &c., 
with close called Greenhayand yard belonging to dwelling house in occupa- 
tion of sd. Thos. Barker (except dwelling house belonging to sd. Rectory 
and garden, &c., and close called " the Glebe " and pasturage of churchyard, 
&c.)for term of 3 years at annual rent of ^g 124 . . . tenant to find 
straw for repair of the buildings he occupies and to supply to Thos. Barker 
straw for the litter for his horses and manure for his garden . . . general 
repairs of the premises to be done by (i.) . . . tenant to have such 
grains as shall be "left by the sd. Thos. Barker after the Brewing of his 
Ale Beer," &c. 

Signed, John Sargent. Seal not armorial. 

' Rector 1719—49, M.A. of Lincoln Coll., Oxford, 1718. 



226 The Society's MSS. 

Endorsed with statement that the exceptions in the above Lease were for 
the sole use and benefit of sd. Thomas Barker. 
Witnesses, Robert Houlton, Christopher Harden, 

A 40. 1734. Indenture made 10th May, 7 Geo. II., between (i.) Joseph 
Houlton, of Farleigh Hungerford, Esq. and (ii.) Ann Wiltshire,^ of Lower 
Foscott, spinster, by which on payment of £28 by (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets 
to the former Two Tenements in Lower Foscott late in possession of Jane 
Jones, widow, dec, and now of Elizth. Jones, her under tenant, with Home 
Close 3 ac. with outhouse, gardens, and appurtenences, held by sd. Elizth. 
Jones under a lease dated 5th April, 1715 for her life, for 99 years on ter- 
mination of Elizth. Jones' estate subject to lives of (ii.) and her brother 
Walter at annual rent of 4s. 6d. and a heriot of 20s. on these lives . . . 
tenant to do repairs and not break up any grass land without consent of 
(i.) also on reasonable summons to do suite at the Manor Courts. 

Signed, Ann Wilshur. Seal not armorial. Witnesses, Rebekah Willshur, 
Christopher Mawen. 

Endorsed " Fell into hand on death of Mr. Wilshur and exchanged with 
lands belonging to farm rented by Danl. Sargent, 30th Jan., 1767." 

A 41. 1738. Copy of Court Roll. Manor of Grittleton. At a Court 
Baron of Joseph Houlton, Esq., Lord of the Manor aforesaid held 9th Sept., 
12 Geo. II., 1738, before Chas. Aland, gent., steward, it is enrolled as 
followeth. ... To the Court cometh Daniel Sargent and took of the 
Lord of the sd. Manor here in the open court by the delivery of the Steward 
of the Rod according to the custom of the sd. Manor All that Messuage 
and one farrendale of land, etc., late in tenure of Isaac, brother of sd. Daniel 
Sargent To have and to hold the same unto sd. Daniel and his sons Daniel 
and Isaac for their lives successively at the will of the Lord, etc., paying 
yearly the Rent of 5s., and all other services therefore due, etc., and 10s 
for a heriot, etc.. And for this sd. Daniel and his son Daniel give to the 
Lord a fine of ^9, and so sd. Daniel Sargent, the father, is admitted tenant 
and doth his fealty but the fealty of the sons is respited, etc. Joseph 
Houlton. Ex. by Cha. Aland, Steward. 

22 Ap., 1748, Edith Sargent, wid. of Daniel, is admitted Tenant for her 
widowhood and did her fealty. Cha. Aland, Steward. 

Endorsed 30 Ap., 1750, Surrendered by Edith, wid. . . . new copy 
granted . . . purchaser with remainder to his son Daniel, aged 3 . . . 
Fine ^30, Heriot. 

A 42. 1748. Indenture made 14th June, 22 Geo. II., between (i) 
Joseph Houlton, of Farleigh Hungerford, Esq., and (ii.) Edith, wid. and 
execx. of Daniel Sargent, dec, by which on payment of £20 by (ii.) to (i.) 
and surrender of the Lease page 25 the latter lets to the former the pre- 
misses recited in this on same terms for 99 years, subject to the lives of 
sd. Edith, Daniel her son, aged 34 years, and his wife Jane, aged 29 years. 

Signed, Edith Sargent. Seal, Houlton. Witnesses, Sarah White, Joseph 
Bradley. Endorsed, "Surrendered 17th May, 1753." 

* Buried at Grittleton, 1742. 



By the Rev. Canon F. H. Manley, 227 

A 43. 1759. Indenture made 6th Nov., 33 Geo. II., between (i.) Robert 
Houlton, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) Philip Edwards, of Chippenham, 
Cardmaker, by which on payment by (ii.) to (i.) of £36 and surrender of a 
Lease dated 20th June, 1732, of the premises recited in the Lease on page 8 
held for 99 years on lives of Richard White, his wife Sarah, now dead, and 
son John, (i.) now lets to (ii.) the same premisses on determination of Lease 
dated 20th June, 1732, for 99 years subject to life of Ann, wife of sd. Philip 
Edwards, aged 38 years at annual rent of 20s. and heriot of 5s. . . . 
tenant to do repairs and do suite at the Manor Courts, etc. 

Signed, Robert Houlton. Seal, HOULTON quartering WHITE. Wit- 
nesses, John Houlton, Joseph Bradley. 

A 44. 1759. Counterpart of above Lease. Signed, Philip Edwards. 
Same seal and witnesses. 

A 45a. 1764. Indenture made 10th April, 4 Geo. III., between (i ) 
Robert Houlton, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) Philip Edwards, of Chippen- 
ham, Cardmaker, by which on payment of £38 by (ii.) to (i.) and surrender 
of second lease on page 32, and determination of second lease on page 17, 
the latter lets to the former the premisses recited in these two leases for 99 
years subject to lives of Ann, wife of sd. Philip Edwards and Richard their 
son, at annual rent of 21s. and heriot 5s. . . . usual covenants for 
repairs and attendance at Manor Courts, etc. 

Signature and seal cut out. Witnesses, Jos. Bradley, Jos. Ayliffe. 

Endorsed with receipt of payment of £38. Signed, Robt. Houlton. 

Note.—" Surrendered 25th March, 1788, by Mrs. Ann Edwards to Capt. 
Houlton for an Annuity of £20." 

A 45b. 1788. Indenture made 25th March, 28 Geo. III., between (i.) 
Ann Edwards, of Chippenham, widow, (ii.) John Houlton, of Grittleton, 
Esq., whereby, in consideration of an Annuity granted to her of £20, the 
former surrenders to the latter the above Lease. 

Signed Ann Edwards. Seal ' a griffin.' Witnesses R. H. Gaby, Ralph 
Gaby. 

A 46. 1783. Indenture made 25th Aug., 23 Geo. Ill , between (i.) 
Robert Houlton, of Bristol, Esq , and (ii.) Laurence Chandler, of Clapcott, 
in Grittleton, yeo., by which (i) lets to (ii.) for fourteen years from 25th 
March next at annual rent of £315, the Great Farm consisting of Messuage 
and appurtenances with 603 acres of land, viz,. West Close, the Meads, Old 
Mead, 3 Meads in the Field, Long Grove, Shortlands, Grove Mead, Cow 
Leaze, Tucker's Leaze, Shady Leaze, Great and New Leaze, Smartson's and 
Lower Leaze, Ox and Burn Leaze, 3 Sour Leazes, Bennet Leaze, Great 
Groves, Courtfield, Townsends and Middle Field, Bucklands Tynings, Town 
Field, Upper Tyning and Cold Harbour, the Drung, Little Shortlands, 
Courtiers Netherford, Daisy Mead, Little Holdings, Cow Leaze Mead, 
Wiltshire Holdings, Askers Leaze, Great Holding, New Leaze, Windbury 
Close, Fishlands, Short Hedge, Marvens Close ... all these late in 
occupation of Daniel Sargent, and now of sd. Laurence Chandler . . . 
Conditions as to cultivation, repairs, etc. 

Signature and seal cut away. Witnesses, John Houlton, James Hewett- 



228 The Society's MSS, 

A 47. 1787. Indenture made 29th Sept., 27 Geo. III., between (i.) 
Simon Collett, gent., and Isaac Bristow, baker, both of Bath, and (ii.) John 
Houlton, of Seagry, Esq., by which (i.) lets to (ii.) a Messuage in Grittleton, 
and closes adjoining 2| ac , Adder Hill 3 ac, Hill Mead 3 ac, 2 Lotts in 
Ackmore, Park Lease 4^ ac, Lanes End 7 ac, Dry Leaze 4 ac, Grove Leaze 
3 ac, Sandy Piece 8 ac, in Polden Hill 4^ ac, in Town Field 1^ ac, all 
these by lease dated 16th June, 1756, demised by Robert Houlton, dec, to 
Isaac Bristowe, dec, for 99 years subject to life of sd. Isaac Bristow, party 
hereto, who is now entitled to I of this estate, and Simon Collett to | of 
same. . . . Rents and conditions given in full. 

Signed by the three parties and sealed (not armorial) and duly witnessed, 

A 48. 1790. Indenture made 9th July, 30 Geo. IIL, between (i.) John 
Houlton, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) John Sealy, of Foscotges, by which 
(i.) lets to (ii.) for 7 yrs. from 25th March last a Messuage and lands called 
Mays, also land thereto belonging called Great Hill Mead, Little Hill Mead, 
Upper Hill xMead, Great and Little Acmoor, late Gowen's, Parsonage 
Acmoor, Dikes and Middle Adderhills, Serjeant's and Home Adderhills, 
Little Upper and Great Furlong Crab Ground, Bristow's and Lower Close, 
Sandpits, Park Leaze, Lapwell, Great and Long Grove, containing in all 
123ac 3r. 12p., also another Messuage called Bristow's with lands thereto 
belonging called Longcroft, Poland Hill, Bush Tyning, Downhedge, Sandy- 
piece, Dry and Quar Leaze, Lapwell, Croomwall, Lark Leaze, and Townfield, 
containing in all 78ac. Ir. 13p. . . both lying in Foscot . . at annual 
rent of £124 . . . tenant to repair hedges, &c, being supplied by Land- 
lord with materials and Landlord to repair buildings . . other usual 
covenants. 

Signed John Sealy. Seal not armorial. Witnesses, John Houlton, jn., 
Jos. Smith, 

A 49. 1802. Indenture made 24th June, 42 Geo. III., between (i.) 
John Houlton, of Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) James Smith, of same, yeo., by 
which (i.) lets to (ii.) for 7 yrs. from 25th March last at annual rent of £40 
a Messuage with appurtenances, a Cottage now in occupation of John Oram, 
and 43ac 11 perches of land, viz., Drylgate, Little Ground, Town Field, 
Grove-ends, Little Grove, Fish-land, Broadmead, New Leaze, Knave Croft, 
Swallow Pitt, Short Lands ... all now in occupation of (ii.) . . , 
usual conditions for satisfactory farming, &c 

Signed and sealed with mark of James Smith. Witness, Thos. Hosier 
Saunders. 

A 50. 1802. Indenture made 24th June, 42 Geo. Ill, between (i.) 
John Houlton, Grittleton, Esq., and (ii.) Isaac Turk, of same, yeo., by which 
(i.) lets to (ii.) for 7 yrs. from 25th March last at annual rent of ^50 a 
Messuage with appurtenances and 48ac. 3r. 26p. of land, viz., Little Close, 
Little Quare Leaze, Great Quare Leaze, Lapwell, Bristow's Pack Leaze, 
Upper Butts Leaze, Lower Butts Leaze, Home Close, Orchards, Grove 
. . all now in occupation of (ii.) . . . usual conditions for satisfactory 
farming, &c. 

Signed and sealed, Isaac Turk. Witness, Thos. Hosier Saunders. 



By the Rev. Canon F. H. Manley. 229 

A 51. 1806. Indenture made 11th Aug., 1806, between (i.) John 
Houlton, of Hungerford Farleigh, Esq., Lord of the Manor of Grittleton, 
and (ii.) James Hewitt, of Grittleton, shopkeeper, by which on payment of 
£10 by (ii.) to (i.) the latter lets to the former at annual rent of 10/- the 
Messuage with shop, stable, &c., called Shell's House, and for many years 
past the King's Arms, formerly in occupation of Ann Jaques, widow, and 
now of (ii.), the Lease to commence on determination of a Lease dated 13th 
Jan., 1766, granted by Robert Houlton, of Grittleton, dec, to Daniel 
Grinman, of Castle Combe, mason, for 99 years on lives of sd. Daniel 
Grinman and his nephews, Daniel Woodward and William Grinman, now 
determinable on these last two lives . . the present Lease for 99 years 
subject to life of Elizabeth Hewitt, daughter of (ii.) aged 18 . . . the 
tenant to do suite at the Manor Courts, keep premises in repair, &c. 

Signed, John Houlton . . seal not armorial. Witnesses, Thos. Hosier 
Saunders. 

A. 52. 1809. Copy of Court Roll. Manor of Grittleton. At the 
special Court Baron of John Houlton, Esq., Lord of the sd. Manor, held on 
Friday, 8th Deer., 1809, before Daniel Clutterbuck, gent., steward there. 
The Homage James Gale, John Smart, sworn. At this Court came Isaac 
Sargent, one of the Customary Tenants, and in consideration of £84 paid 
him by John Hewitt, of Grittleton, Tayler, did by the Steward by the Rod 
according to the Custom of the Manor surrender into the hands of the 
Lord Two copyhold Tenements, &c., late in occupation of Anthony Cook 
and Thos. Snell but now One Tenement in occupation of John Hewitt, and 
these the Lord granted to sd. John Hewitt for his life and the lives of 
Daniel and Isaac, sons of sd. Isaac Sargent, yielding therefore the yearly 
rent of Is. and for an heriot 2s. The sd. John Hewitt paying as Fine to 
the Lord £9 was admitted Tenant and did fealty. The above Tenements are 
part of the premises granted to sd. Isaac Sargent by a copy of Court Roll 
dated 29th Oct. 1802, for his own life and the lives of his sons, Daniel and 
Isaac. 
j Examined by Danl. Clutterbuck, Steward. 

A 53. 1810. Indenture made 4th May, 1810, between (i.) John 
Houlton, of Farleigh Castle, Esq., and (ii.) Geo. Toghill, of Batheaston, 
yeo., by which (i.) lets to (ii.) for 7 years from 25th March last at anunal 
rent of ^1,100, now in occupation of Anthony Allen as tenant to (i.) the 
Messuage and lands in Grittleton, comprising 61 lac. 2r. 30p., called the 
Great Farm . . for names of fields see page 227 . . usual conditions 
for satisfactory farming, &c. 

Signed and sealed (not armorial), George Toghill. Witness, J. H. 
Saunders. 

Deeds kela.ting to the Manor and Mansion House. 

B 1. 1695. Thomas Tattersall,^ Minister, and Thomas Brokenbrow, 

* Presented to the Rectory of Grittleton by the King, 10th March, 1695, 
after a dispute lasting four years in respect of the Patronage. M.A. of St. 
Albans Hall, Oxford ; Rector of Biddestone St. Peter, 1683 ; Rector of 
Monkton Farleigh, 1695. This document seems to have something to do 
with Mr. Tattersall taking up his ministerial duties at Grittleton. 



230 The Society's MSS. 

junr., Churchwarden, of Grittleton, certifie that Walter White, on Easter 
Sunday, 24th March, 1695, did immediately after Divine Service receive 
the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper according to the usage of the Church 
of England, 25th March, 1695. Samuel Workman, yeo., and Joseph Beames, 
yeo., both of Grittleton, certify that they saw Walter White, Esq., receive 
as stated above, 1st April, 1695. 

Declaration by Walter White as to his disbelief in Transubstantiation and 
that adoration of the Virgin Mary, &c., and the Sacrifice of the Masse as 
used in the Church of Rome are superstitions, &c. 

I doe declare that I doe believe that there is not any Transubstantiation 
in the Sacramt. of the Lord's Supper, or in the Elemts. of Bread and Wine 
att or after the consomation thereof by any persons whatsoever. 

Walter White. 

B 2. 1706. Indenture made 20th Nov., 1706, between (i.) Priscilla 
White, sp., and Elizth. White, sp., both of Grittleton, daughters and co- 
heirs of Walter White the elder, Esq., late of Grittleton, dec, and sisters 
and coheirs of Walter White the younger, Esq., dec. (ii.) Thomas Prime, of 
London, gent., and Wm. Allington, of London, gent., by which on payment 
of 5s. the former grant to the latter all that the Manor of Grittleton and the 
Tenement called Foscott Farm with all messuages, lands, &c., belonging to 
the said Manor and Farm, and also all that the Manor of Easton Pearse' 
and the Farm called Easton Pearse Farm situate in Easton Pearse, King- 
ton St. Michael,, and Yatton Keynell, and the Capital Messuage situate in 
the same with appurtenances, also Home Close 7 ac, Lower Wood Leaze 
8 ac, Lower Bottom Mead 6ac., Upper Bottom Mead 8ac., Coles 
Leaze 6 ac. Upper Wood Leaze 11 ac, Grubbens 4 ac, Chappell Hayes 
4 ac. Cow Leaze also Little Enocks 22 ac. Upper and Lower Enocks 
11 ac, New Leaze 9 ac, Upper Cow Leaze, also Upper and Lower Broad 
Leaze 26 ac, Upper and Lower Sleights 30 ac, Great Sleight 32 ac. Little 
Sleight 20 ac, also Wood 7 ac, all these late in possession of Robert Lang- 
ton, and also Land lying in Essex, parcel of the Manor of Asheldam als 
Asheldamhall, that is to say, Castlehill, Castlefield, Oaken Coppice, one 
Tenement late in tenure of Henry Skelton, the moiety of meadow called 
Thirrolds in the parish of Dengay, Coat Marsh, the Salt Marshes and all 
the Outmarshes with royalties of fishing, &c., belonging to the said Manor, 
and also the Manors of Newland and Woodfield with appurtenances in 
County of Worcester and farm called White's Farm and all messuages, <fcc, 
to the manors belonging, also Tythes in the parishes of Woodfield, Malvern, 
and Powich in County of Worcester and in Cusop in County of Hereford, 
To Have and to Hold said Manors, &c., unto the said Thos. Prime and 
Wm. Allington their executors, &c., for the term of one year paying rent of 
one pepper corn that they may be in actual possession and thus enabled to 
take a Grant and Release of the Reversion and inheritance intended to be 
made to them by Indenture Quadripartite to bear date 21st Nov., 1706. 



1 Purchased by Walter White in 1704 from Rob. Langton and Anna, his 
wife, for £3325 ( Wilts Arch. Mag., vol, iv., p. 77). 



By the Rev. Canon F. H. Manley, 231 

Signed,- Priscilla White, Elizabeth White. Seal, a galloping horse. Wit- 
nesses, Jos. Eyles, Phi. Hodgkinson. 

Endorsed, " Lease for a year of the Partition." 

B 3. 1715. Indenture Tripartite made Vth Nov., 1715, between (i.) 
Joseph Houlton, the younger of Trowbridge, gent., and Priscilla his wife 
(ii.) Thos. Horsnell, of the Inner Temple, London, gent, (iii.) Robert 
Houlton, of Trowbridge, gent., whereby in consideration of 10s. paid by 
Thos. Horsnell to Joseph Houlton the latter grants to the former All that 
the Mannor of Gritleton with appurtenances and Forscott Farm with 
appurtenances and all messuages, lands, etc, to him belonging in Grittleton 
to have and to hold so that a common Recovery may be had, etc., for the 
purpose of making a settlement of the property to the use of Joseph 
Houlton for his life and also of his wife Priscilla for life and of their 
children. 

Signed, Joseph Houlton, Priscilla Houlton, Robt. Houlton. Seal 
HOULTON. Witnesses, John Davisson, Joseph Cooke, Harman King, 
Nathl. Houlton. 

B 4. 1715. A Recovery of the Manor of Grittleton, Hil. Term, 1715, 
Mr. Robert Houlton, Demand., Mr. Thos. Horsnell, Tent. Mr. Joseph 
Houlton, junr., and Priscilla his wife Vouchees 23 messuages, 4 tofts, 2 
dovecotes, 12 gardens, 86 ac. land, 120 ac. meadow, 300 ac. pasture, 9 ac. 
wood, 26s. 8d. rents, in Grittleton, Thickwood, Cullerne, Stanton Quinton, 
Sevington, Castle Combe, Alderton, and Hullavington. 

B 5. 1743. An Indenture dated 16th Jan., 1743, between (i.) Joseph 
Houlton, of Farley Hungerford, Esq., admr. of the goods, etc., of Robt. 
Houlton, late of Trowbridge, Esq., dec. (ii.) Wm. Logan, M.D., of Bristol, 
being a Mortgage of the Manor of Grittleton for the life of (i). By the 
terms of the Will of Joseph Houlton the elder, late of Grittleton, Esq., 
£2,000 had to be raised on the Manor of Grittleton to discharge certain 
trusts and this money was supplied by Dr. Logan at 5% per ann, Robt. 
Houlton, the last surviving trustee under the Will had died intestate. 

The following schedule of Deeds handed over to Dr. Logan is given. 

No. 1, 17th Jan., 1665. Indenture Tripartite between (i.) Walter White 
and Priscilla' his wife (ii.) Nicholas Greene and Elizth. his wife (iii.) Mary 
Eyles and Thos. Neate being a deed of settlement by Walter White on his 
wife. 

Nos. 2 and 3. Indentures of Lease and Release 20th and 21st Nov., 1706, 
the latter being Quadripartite between (i.) Priscilla White and Elizth. White, 

(ii.) Francis Eyles, (iii.) Joseph Houlton, jun., and Richd. Salwey,^ (iv.) Thos. 

' In the Partition Priscilla White took Grittleton Manor as her portion, 
and the younger sister, Elizabeth White, the rest of the estate. 

' Daughter of John Eyles, of Devizes, and sister of Sir John and Francis 
Eyles. Died 1714, buried at Grittleton. 

' Of the Moor, co. Salop. He married immediately after this Elizabeth 
White, who died in 1710. 
VOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLIX. Q 



232 The Society s MSS. 

Prime and Wm. Allington, being a deed of portion of the lands mentioned. 

No. 4. Chirograph of a Fine of Hillary Term, 5 Queen Anne, between 
Thos. Prime and Wm. Allington, pi., and Priscilla White and Richd. Salwey 
and Elizth. his wife, def. 

Nos. 5 and 6. Indentures of Lease and Release 11th and 12th Feb., 1706, 
the Release being Quadripartite between (i.) Joseph Houlton, senr., and 
Joseph his son, (ii.) Priscilla White, senr., and Priscilla White, juu., (iii.) 
Lister Tigh and John Tidcombe (iv.) Wm. Trenchard, Saml. Watts, Benjn. 
Haskins Stiles/ and Francis Eyles, jun., being a settlement made on marr. 
of Jos. Houlton, jun., with Priscilla White, jun. 

No. 7. Indenture Tripartite 7th Nov., 1715, between (i.) Joseph Houlton, 
jun., and Priscilla his wife, (ii.) Thos. Horsnell, (iii.) Robt. Houlton, being 
a deed to lead to the uses of a Recovery. 

No. 8. Exemplification of a recovery, Hillary Term, 2 Geo., suflfered 
pursuant to the last deed Robt. Houlton, demandt., Thos. Horswell, tenant, 
and Jos. Houlton, jun., and Priscilla his wife Vouchees. 

No. 9. Attested copy of last Will of Jos. Houlton, sen., dated 5th Dec, 
1729.2 

Signed, Joseph Houlton. Seal, HOULTON. Witnesses, Mary Radford, 
Will. Greene. 

B 6. 1743. Indenture made 16th Jan., 1743, between (i.) Joseph 
Houlton, of Farley Hungerford, Esq., (ii.) Wm. Logan, M.D., of Bristol, 
being a Mortgage of the Manor of Grittleton for 100 years to commence 
from the death of Mr. Houlton, to secure £2000 advanced by Dr. Logan 
and interest. 

Signed, Joseph Houlton. Seal, HOULTON. Witnesses, Mary Radford, 
Will. Greene. 

B 7 and 8. 1758. Indentures of Lease and Release of the Manor of 
Grittleton, dated 21st and 22nd June, 1758, the Release being Quadripartite 
between (i ) Joseph Houlton, of Trowbridge, clothier, (ii.) John By thesea, 
of Staverton Wick, in Trowbridge, Esq., Eleanor Elkins, of Westbury Leigh, 
sp., Wm. Gaisford, of Westbury, clothier, John Dowding, of Trowbridge, 
clothier, and other persons whose names are set down in a schedule annexed, 
being creditors of said Joseph Houlton, (iii.) Wm. Whitaker, John Wereat, 
and James Coles, all of Trowbridge, and including the handing over for 
the benefit of the creditors to (iii.) as trustees of all the real and personal 
Estate of the said Joseph Houlton, for the settlement of claims of creditors 
in respect of his business at Trowbridge. 

Signatures of Joseph Houlton and other parties of the deed, some forty. 
The seals not armorial. Endorsed with names of witnesses to signing and 
sealing. 

B 9. 1758. Indenture Tripartite made 18th Nov., 1758, between (i.) 
Giles Bailey, Esq., and Archibald Drummond, M.D., of Bristol, joint 
executors of Will of late Wm. Logan, M.D., of Bristol, dec, (ii.) James 

' See Wilts N. & Q., vol. viii., p. 150. 
2 P.C.C. 86 Price, proved 5th March, 1732—3. 



By the Rev. Canon F. H. Manley. 233 

Frampton, of Moreton, co. Dorset, Esq., only surviving executor of Will of 
Joseph Houlton, late of Hungerford Farley, Esq., dec, (iii.) Isaac Burges, 
of Bristol, woollen draper, whereby the mortgage for £2,000 on the Manor 
of Grittleton is transferred to (iii.) 

Signed Giles Bailey, Archd. Drummond, James Frampton. Seals 
^irmorial. Endorsed with names of witnesses to signing and sealing and a 
list of the deeds as given before handed over to Isaac Burgess. 

B 10. 1758. A Counterpart of this Deed. 

Signed Isaac Burgess, Seal armorial. Witnesses Thos. Ludlow, Saml. 
Stokes. 

B 11. 1768. Indenture of four parts made 20th Oct., 1768, between 
(i.) Harry Dorsey Gough, of Bristol, Esq., sole executor of Will of Isaac 
Burges, late of Bristol, Woollen Draper, dec, (ii.) James Frampton, of 
Moreton, co. Dorset, Esq., only surviving executor of Will of Joseph Hulton, 
late of Farley Hungerford, Esq., dec, (iii.) Robert Houlton, of Grittleton, 
Esq., (iv.) Jeremiah Ames, of Bristol, Esq , Alderman, whereby the Mort- 
gage for i£2,000 and interest on the Manor of Grittleton is transferred to 

<iv.). 

Signed by first three parties. Seals not armorial. Endorsed with names 
of witnesses and schedule of deeds. 

B 12, 1768. A counterpart of this deed. 

Signed Jerem. Ames. Seal not armorial. Witnesses Levi Ames, John 
Houlton. 

B 13. 1770. Indenture Tripartite made 28th March, 1770, between 
(i.) Jeremiah Ames, of Bristol, Esq., Alderman, (ii.) Robert Houlton, of 
Grittleton, Esq., (iii.) Joseph Smith, of Bradford, gentn., whereby the 
Mortgage for £2,000 with interest on Grittleton Manor is transferred to 
<iii.). 

Signed, Jere. Ames, Robert Houlton, Jos. Smith. Seals not armorial. 
Endorsed with names of witnesses and schedule of deeds. 

B 14. 1770. Indenture made 28th March, 1770, between (i.) Joseph 
Smith, of Bradford, gent., (ii.) John Houlton, of Grittleton, Esq., being a 
declaration of Trust, stating that the £2,000 paid to Jer. Ames as mentioned 
in previous was the proper money of John Houlton and that Joseph Smith 
holds the Manor of Grittleton in Trust for John Houlton. 

Signed, John Smith. Seal not armorial. Witnesses Lawrence Chandler, 
John Hewett. 

B 15. 1770. A counterpart of this deed. 

Signed, John Houlton. Seal not armorial. Same witnesses. 

B 16. 1772. Indenture made 25th March, 1772, between (i.) Robert 
Houlton, of Bristol, Esq , (ii.) Charles Long, of Draycot, by which (i.) leases 
to (ii ) at rent of £42 per ann. for 21 years with option of terminating the 
tenancy at end of 7 oi 14 years the Mansion House of Grittleton with gar- 
den, &c., Berry Croft and Berry Croft Meadow 12jac., Sparks lac, and the 
appurtenances of the Mansion House . . usual condition, but in particular 
the Double Dove house standing on the premises is to be divided and one 
<half retained by Robert Houlton for his use. 

Q 2 



234 The Society's MSS. 

Signed, Chas. Long. Seal not armorial. Witnesses, Elis, French, Joha 
Houlton. 

B 17 & 18. 1785. Indentures of Lease and Release dated 8th and 
9th July, 1785, the latter being of three parts made between (i.) Joseph 
Houlton, of Bristol, gentn., only son and heir-at-law of Robert Houlton, late 
of Bristol, gent., dec, (ii.) John Houlton, of Seagry, Esq., brother of said 
Robert Houlton, dec, (iii.) Susanna Houlton, of Bristol, widow of same and 
mother of said Joseph Houlton, by which (i.) confirms his father's will and 
conveys to (ii.) the Manor of Grittleton, including the Mansion House^ 
Foscott Farm 132ac , and Chandler's or late Sarjeant's Farm 650ac., with 
appurtenances, in accordance with the directions of his father's will under 
which also John Houlton is made guardian of the children of Joseph 
Houlton and required to treat them as if they were his own children. There 
is a further assignment of the personal property of Robert Houlton, dec, 
to his widow also in accordance with the terms of his will. 

Signed, Joseph Houlton. Seal not armorial. Witnesses, James Hughes^ 
Robt. Payne. 

B 19. 1789. Indenture made 7th May, 1789, between (i.) the Rt. Hon. 
Henry Thomas Fox Strangways, Earl of Ilehester and Baron of Redlynch, 
CO. Somerset, (ii.) Henry Hoare, of Fleet Str., London, Banker, to whom 
the Annual or Fee Farm Rent mentioned hereafter was with others con- 
veyed for securing by way of mortgage ^19000 with interest, (iii.) John 
Houlton of Grittleton, Esq., by which (i.) with consent of (ii.) convey to 
(iii.) for the sum of ^76 Is, Od. the Fee Farm Rent of Jt2 18s. 6d. per ann. 
issuing out of the Manor of Grittleton. 

Signed, Ilehester, Henry Hoare. Seals not armorial. 

Endorsed with names of witnesses and receipt. 

B 20. 1791. Indenture made 1st August, 1791, between (i.) Sir James 
Tylney Long and others, the executors of Will of John Houlton, late of 
Grittleton, Esq., dec, (ii.) James Mackenzie, of Bath, Esq., by which (i.) 
leases to (ii.), with certain reservations for six years at rent of £63 the 
Manor House of Grittleton, with appurtenances also at rent of £27 6s. Od., 
Little Berry Croft and Great Berry Croft 13 ac, with usual conditions, the 
lease being terminable at end of three years. 

Signed, Jas, Tylney Long, Jas. Montague, Jos. Smith. Seals not armorial. 
Endorsed with signatures of witnesses. 

B 21. 1791. Probate of Will of John Houlton, Esq., dec, of Grittleton, 
Rear-Admiral of the Blue, with two Codicils, 27th March, 1791. The will 
is dated 12th Jan., 1791, and by it the Manor of Grittleton is devised in 
trust unto Sir James Tylney Long, of Draycott House, James Montague, of 
Lackham, Esq., Henry James Arnold, D. L., and Joseph Smith, of Bradford,, 
gent., but for the use of the testator's great nephew John Houlton, eldest 
son of his nephew Joseph Houlton, on his attaining the age of twenty-five 
years and for his male issue. Failing this male issue, the estate passes in 
sequence to the other sons of Joseph Houlton and their male issue in male 
tail. Provisions are made for the younger sons of Joseph Houlton. Similar 
arrangements are made respecting the testator's property at Tellisford and 



I 



By the Rev. Canon F. H, Manley. 235 

near Trowbridge. Certain messuages and premises in Trowbridge are 
devised to his niece Sarah Drinkwater, for life and after her decease to 
her son Joseph Houlton Drinkwater. The china, pictures, etc., in Grittle- 
ton Manor House to continue and remain as heirlooms in the Mansion. 
A large number of bequests to relatives and friends. 

Two Codicils dated 15th and 19th Jan., 1791, are attached to the Will 
and contain full directions for the testator's burial " as calmly, quietly, and 
with as little funeral pomp as possible in the Houlton family Aisle in 
Grittleton Church." " His nephew, Joseph Houlton, Esq., his great nephew 
Joseph Houlton Drinkwater, the four executors, Mr. Ludlow, the Rev. Dr. 
Pollock, Rector of Grittleton, and the Rev. Mr. Mosely, the Baptist Minister, 
only to be invited to the funeral." 

The Will proved and administration granted to the executors in P.C.G. 
27th March, 1791. [132 Bevor]. 



236 



A HOAED OF BRITISH COINS FOUND AT CHUTK 
By Capt. B. Howard Cunnington, F.SA., Scot.^ 

On September 10th, 1927, a boy named Victor Smith, thirteen years of 
age, and living at The Forge, Chute, was taking part in a beat for a shoot- 
ing party over some ploughed land in what is known as " Chute Forest." 
Whilst walking across one of the fields he picked up a round flint, and 
threw it against another stone lying on the ground, when to his surprise the 
flint broke to pieces and out flew a number of coins. He picked up 25 of 
them and then rejoined the shooting party. Later on he returned and 
found 38 more, and on the following Sunday picked up two others, thus 
making 65 in all. On the advice of his father to took them to the Police 
Station on September 24th, and later on the Deputy Coroner for the dis- 
trict held an inquest on the find. The inquest was held at the Divisional 
Headquarters of the Wilts Constabulary at Amesbury, After the Coroner 
had explained the law of " Treasure Trove," and witnesses had given their 
evidence, the jury brought in a verdict that " the Treasure was found in a 
field concealed in a flint receptacle and that the treasure found, was in 
ancient times, deposited, hidden and concealed, and that owing to the fact 
that the owner could not be found, it was therefore ' Treasure Trove ' to be 
handed over to His Majesty's Treasury." 

The coins and the flint that contained them were accordingly forwarded 
to the Treasury from whence they were sent to the British Museum for 
identification and valuation. 

The British Museum retained 29 specimens, and the authorities at the 
Mint kept 4, making 33 in all, for the National Collections, and the remain- 
ing 32 were offered to the Wilts Archaeological Society by the Lords of the 
Treasury at the official valuation of £32, This offer was accepted by the 
committee at the meeting held in January, 1928, and the flint that origin- 
ally held the coins has since been purchased by our society from the finder^ 
Victor Smith. 

As, however, the hoard had already been broken up the committee have 
thought it advisable to retain only nine examples, and with the concur- 
rence of the Lords of the Treasury have disposed of 19 to the following 
museums at cost price, viz. : — Salisbury Museum (5), National Museum of 
Wales (4), Swindon Museum (5), Winchester Museum (2), Cyfarthfa 
Castle Museum (1), Newbury Museum (2), and by special request of the 
Treasury four have been sold to Lord John Joicey-Cecil, the Lord of the 
Manor where the find was made. 

Globular flints are almost always formed round a fossil sponge and ia 
many cases where the end of the sponge reaches to the outer crust of the 
flint it has decayed away and disappeared leaving the centre of the flint 

^ The Society is indebted to Capt. B. H. Cunnington for the gift of the 
two plates illustrating this paper. 



By Capt. B. Howard Cunnington, F,S.A,, Scot. 237 

hollow and with a hole on one side. Such flints make excellent money 
boxes, indeed earthenware boxes on precisely the same lines have been in 
use in recent days, and the Late Celtic people seemed to have not uncom- 
monly used them for this purpose. The hollow flint containing 14 gold 
coins of the latter part of the 2nd century B.C. (12 British and two North 
Gaulish) found at Hosey Common, near Westerham, Kent, on June 15th, 
1927, and now in the British Museum, is illustrated with the coins, and de- 
scribed, in an article by G. C, Brooke in 2^he Numismatic Chroiiicle, 5th 
series, vol. vii., pp. 374 — 377, and also in Antiquity^ March, 1918, p. 89. It 
is exactly like the Chute example here illustrated. A similar flint contain- 
ing 11 Gaulish staters was found near Rochester in 1912. In 1839 a hollow 
sandstone containing 150 pennies of Hen. II. was dug up at Ampthill, Beds. 
The Rev. G. H. Engleheart, F.S.A., remembers hearing from his uncle of a 
similar find of coins in a large flint on the Downs above Warminster, made 
by a shepherd 60 or 70 years ago, but in this case nothing as to the number 
or age of the coins is known. 

The Chute flint now at Devizes was carefully repaired by the British 
Museum authorities before being returned to the finder. The hole measures 
one inch in length and 1 l/16ths of an inch in its widest part. It appears to 
have been chipped at its sides, possibly with the view to taking off the 
rough edges. Just above the hole, but not shown in the illustration, is a 
small crater-like excrescence which does not perforate the flint. The 
diameter of the flint is on an average 3|in. 

It may not be generally known that the Lords of the Treasury adopt a 
very generous policy when dealing with matters of " Treasure Trove." The 
total value of the find, less 20 per cent., which is retained for administrative 
purposes, such as Coroner's inquest, etc., is paid over to the finder. This is 
done to encourage "honest finders" and thus prevent irreparable loss of 
valuable historic relics that have so often in the past been disposed of to 
private individuals, or found their way into the melting pot, such as occurred 
in the *' Mountfield Case " in the last century.' 



' The famous " Mountfield Case " of treasure trove is as follows : — A 
discovery was made in 1863 by a labourer named Butchers while ploughing 
near the scene of Harold's death at Senlac, of golden ornaments, believed 
to be the actual regalia of the King lost at the Battle of Hastings. Un- 
fortunately Butchers being ignorant or unmindful of the historic traditions 
of his field of local operations, and believing the said ornaments to 
be brass, sold them for 5/6 to Silas Thomas. Thomas took counsel on 
bis purchase with a man named Stephen Willett, his brother-in-law, a cab 
driver recently returned from the goldfields of Australia, who pronounced 
the ornaments to be gold and not brass, so the two disposed of them for 
over £500 to certain refiners who melted them down and resold the pro- 
ceeds with promptitude. Thus did the presumed remnants of King Harold's 
regalia untimely disappear in a mid- Victorian melting pot. The treasury, 
law officers, and coroner were hard on the heels of the miscreants who 
apparently failed to realise that the fraudulent concealment of treasure 



238 A Hoard of British Coins found at Chute. 

The lucky finder, Victor Smith, has consequently been paid ^50 for the 
coins as well as the proceeds of the sale of the flint in which they were found, 
this latter, of course, not being treasure trove. 

As the question " What is Treasure Trove ? " is frequently raised, the 
following extract from a report of the South-Eastern Union of Scientific 
Societies (1911) may be of interest : — 

"Treasure Trove consists of gold or silver advertently deposited 
anywhere without abandonment, the owner being unknown. Sir Edward 
Coke, the well-known legal authority of the 16th and 17th centuries, 
states : — ' Treasure Trove is when any gold or silver in coin, plate, or 
bullion, that hath been of ancient time hidden wheresoever it may be 
found, whereof no person can prove any property, it doth belong to the 
King, or to some Lord or other by the King's grant or prescription." 

" A copper hoard therefore is not Treasure Trove. The intention to 

retain ownership and to retake the property into physical possession 

when the depositor chooses is of the essence of Treasure Trove. Thus 

if the property has been ' advertently deposited in the place where it is 

found it could not have been lost unwittingly or abandoned willingly.' " 

The following description of the coins is extracted from the Numismatic 

Chronicle, Series 5, Vol. vii., with the kind permission of the author, Mr. 

George C. Brooke, of the Coins and Medals Department of the British 

Musum. 

" The coins are ancient British, of the type figured in Evans' Ancient 
British Coins, B 5. They are struck from seven obverse and twenty- 
eight reverse dies. The highest weight is 97'4 grains, the lowest 9\'6. 
. . . This suggests a standard weight of about 95 grains. . . . 
The metal is pale ; the specific gravity of eight coins is between 11 '42 
and 12'31. One coin has been analysed by Mr. E. C, Padgham and is 
found to contain : — 

Gold 37-92 

Silver 4006 
Copper 2202 



lOO'OO 



In design there is a slight diflference between these coins and those of 
the Westerham hoard (see above). The obverses of the two groups 

trove was an act of so great oflfence as to be punishable with death. An in- 
quest was held at the John's Cross Inn, Mountfield, before Mr. Knell, the 
coroner for the district. Thomas and Willett were eventually tried before 
Baron Bramwell for '• concealment of treasure trove " and found guilty, but 
were bound over to come up for judgment if necessary. But by a further 
reference of the matter to what was then the " Court of Criminal Appeal," 
i.e. The Court for Crown Cases Reserved, they each were fined ^£265 (half 
the cash value of the find) and failing to pay they were sent to Lewes Gaol 
where they were imprisoned for over a year until released by warrant of a 
forgiving Treasury on the recommendation of the then Home Secretary. 



.<:*. 



-jr .■ 




^--i\r./'*'Lr>.^^>£ 






''!• 3 '„*■ 











The Chute Money Box. About actual size. 




British Gold Coins found at Chute. 

Now in Devizes Museum. Five obverse, four reverse, \ 



By Capt, B. Howard Gunnington, F.S.A., Scot, 239 

have no distinguishing feature so far as I am aware, both have the 
curious bulge representing the face. On the reverse the Chute group 
has the following diflferences : — the crescent or oval-shaped mark im- 
mediately above the horse's back is set at a slope towards the withers 
and has sprouted *' whiskers " at either end of it (Evans described it as 
having the shape of " a sort of three beaked head which appears to be 
pecking at the horse's shoulder.") These " whiskers " at one end attach 
it to the horse's withers and at the other end look like a pair of thin 
curved horns. The pellet below the crescent which forms the horse's 
belly has four members fiung out from it in irregular fashion, usually 
with a left-handed curve suggestive of rotatory movement, counter- 
clockwise. Below the horse's snout an ornament is added in the field, 
four curved limbs united in a small central pellett, which may perhaps 
be a more adequate rendering of the sort of four-limbed whirligig which 
the artist was trying, in the cramped space at his disposal, to make of 
the large pellet below the horse's belly. The exergual line and the 
meander pattern below it are curved.^ 
The same writer writing in Antiquity of the coins of the Westerham find, 
which were of the same character as those of the Chute find, says "such 
coins were struck off by Celtic tribes either in the North of Gaul or in the 
south of Britain. The famous gold staters of Philip of Macedon, of which 
an enormous number were coined were the prototype of a large native coinage 
in central and northern Gaul and Britain in the 2nd century (B.C.). 

In the north, where the coins were distant descendants of the original 
staters, the design (a laureate head of Philip, and a two-horse chariot) is 
scarcely discernible. In many cases the laurel wreath and possibly a little 
of the hair alone remains of the head, and the horse consists of four legs 
*' like dumb-bells," with a couple of curves for the body, and a sort of beaked 
head." 



^ In the above-mentioned article exact particulars as to weight and the 
combinations of the various obverse and reverse dies in the several coins 
are given. 



240 

riELDWOKK IN K WILTS, 1926—28. 
By A. D. Passmore.^ 

The Longstones, Avebury, and the Beckhamptou Avenue. 

In Stukeley, Plate 24, there is a view of the course of the Beckhampton 
Avenue and immediately to the N. of this line he places the two large 
upright " Longstones " ; the student who has walked the French Avenues 
and who also has studied Avebury and other Megalithic works will recognize 
that the best and broadest side of a stone is always put inside or towards 
the place from which it will be seen, as in the Kennett Avenue where all the 
stones face inwards. Now the Longstones have their edge towards the so- 
called Beckhampton Avenue and therefore could not have formed part of it 
in any way. Stukeley himself draws them as being in that position ; the 
history of the supposed existence of the latter avenue seems to be as 
follows:— Stukeley came to Avebury and as he mentions in his common-place 
book saw only one entrance to Avebury, later he saw the Egyptian winged 
disc (Ur-Uatchti) and immediately manufactured another avenue to match 
that of Kennett, dragging in a few odd natural sarsens and the two Long- 
stones ; it is time all serious archaeologists dismissed this fiction and 
restored Avebury to its proper plan, a circle with one avenue. To the S.E. 
of the two stones in question there is a ploughed long hdirrow {W. A.M., 
xlii. 52) which had in Stukeley's day a line of stones along its sides, these 
lines continued a little way would include the Longstones which are placed 
symmetrically for the purpose, we see, then, that on this evidence they are 
not part of a problematical avenue but menhirs standing in connection 
with a long barrow, the normal position of many such stones. 

Pit and Causeway Work on Horton Down, Bishops Cannings. 

O.M. xxxiv. N.E. In the right-hand top corner of this map are two 
earthen circles. S. of these is Barrow 68 (Goddard) Bishops Cannings. Be- 
tween this point and the Wansdyke are a lot of very curious pits, marked 
on the map and between B.M. 685.4 and spot level 686. They are mostly 
of one size, 36ft. by 12ft , and rectangular. They appear to form an earth- 
work of the Windmill Hill type. I hope to survey this spot and report 
thereon in a future number, meanwhile an air photograph would be a great 
help. There are other pits of the same general character some distance 
further off. 

Ogbourne St. Andrew. Barrow 12 (Goddard). 

This small round barrow (bowl-shaped) is 44ft. in diameter and 3ft. high. 
This showed the marks of former excavations and so was excavated (the 
writer will never touch a virgin barrow under any circumstances). How- 
ever, the hole was only.lSin. deep and the ground below untouched. A 
trench was carried in from the south across the small ditch, which was 
filled up by flints, into the centre where a large area was cleared out down 

^ The Society is indebted to Mr. Passmore for half the cost of the blocks 
illustrating his paper. 



By A. D. Passmore. 241 

to the solid chalk. Nothing whatever was found except a curious orange 
and green lizard who lived in a hole on the side of the mound and stayed 
in spite of the wreck of his abode. 

Ogbourne St. George. Barrow No. 1 (Goddard). 

This very large round barrow has been ploughed down very low and is at 
present over 180ft. in diameter. Originally built on a rise it seems much 
higher than it actually is, the present centre is only 2ft. above the old 
ground level. 

A long trench was dug in from the S E. and passed right across and 
beyond the apparent centre. No trace of a ditch was noticed. N. of the 
trench, and probably in the original centre, was a patch of charcoal lOft. by 
6ft., in the middle of which was a small quantity of burnt bones of a small 
person. Immediately above them was the leg bone of a pig. It seems ex- 
traordinary that such a huge barrow should have been erected to a small 
person with no associated relics. 

A few yards N.W. of this is a very large bowl-shaped barrow, Chiseldon 
2 (Goddard) 15ft. high, of which some very interesting tales are told. Dur- 
ing the above excavation many people came from miles around in the hope 
that I was opening it, because deep in the bowels thereof there is said to be 
a huge golden coffin, also the tree growing on the top is such a tree that the 
like has never been seen by mortal man (to me it is merely an ordinary one 
like those growing near); furthermore in years gone by, so their grandfathers 
said, men had dug therein and either their tools broke or something hap- 
pened to prevent the digging or finally " government " stopped them. One 
very old lady implored me not to commence digging or " summat would 
appen." 

Lammy Down, Bishopstone, N. Wilts. 

On the S. end of this isolated hill is a large mutilated long barrow stand- 
ing roughly N. and S. Just S. of this and W. of a track leading from 
Bishopstone to Baydon are two round barrows, these and the long barrow 
were cut down some years ago and the earth spread over the land by a Mr. 
. Dore, who formerly rented the land. They are not on O.M. 1913. 

The round barrow to the north has been cut in two and only the eastern 
half remains, but is still 78ft. in longest diameter and 12ft. high. This was 
opened and at the old centre was a simple interment of burnt bones above 
which was the broken leg bone of a pig and a lump of iron pyrites. 

The next barrow to the south has been dug away, the whole of the centre 
has been dug out through a gangway on the east side, leaving a round 
crater. At the centre on the old ground level was a simple interment of 
burnt bones; the body had been burnt elsewhere and a saucer-shaped hollow 
9in, deep and 3ft. across had been prepared for the bones. The south half 
of this hollow was coated with wood charcoal 2in. thick, but not the N. half 
except where a line (curving across and to the west) of charcoal had been 
drawn. The bones were in the centre of this hollow and covered by a small 
rough sarsen. No relics were found in contact with the interment, but 



242 Fieldwork in N. Wilts, 1926—28. 

one piece of pottery with thumb nail marking was found in the body of the 
barrow. The bones from the first barrow were not determined, but those 
from the second were certainly female, 

Chiseldon. Barrow I. 

This very large disc barrow is 245ft. in diameter from N. to S. The 
ditch inside the bank is 4ft. deep, has a flat bottom 4ft. wide, and is 12ft. 
wide at the type. There is no central tump but the barrow is probably 
unique in having a small long mound to the west of the centre and in a N. 
and S. direction, nearly 100ft. long by about 30ft. wide and from 1ft. to 
18in. high. Some unknown relic hunter has dug a trench the whole length 
of this mound and also cut four cross trenches at intervals along it. This 
old trench was re-opened from the south end to the centre. This proved 
that the former excavator had found and smashed, and left in the trench, 
in small fragments, an urn containing burnt bones, the latter in much larger 
pieces than usual. It could not be ascertained exactly where the inter- 
ment had originally been. East of the centre of this long mound was a 
curious cylindrical hole beautifully and accurately cut in the hard chalk below 
the old surface, this contained tightly packed wood ashes. Opposite to this 
and to the west of the estimated centre was a similar hole with similar con- 
tents but damaged by the former digging, 12in. in diameter and lOin. deep. 
The bone of a large bird occurred in the first hole. 

A section of the ditch on the south side was excavated. Here immed- 
iately above the chalk silting Iron Age people had camped and had left their 
fires and many bones slit longitudinally for the extraction of marrow. 
Much broken pottery remained, but had been trodden into small fragments 
too small for restoration. 

Finally a narrow trench was cut across the disc barrow itself, from E. to 
W. across the centre and over the long mound ; the centre was merely hard 
chalk as elsewhere, but on the west side of the long mound was a shallow 
pit containing animal bones of doubtful age. 

Silk Hill, Milstou. 

Here Uoddard lists 21 barrows, 15 on the hill and 6 below the 400ft. con- 
tour ; O.M. shows 19. 

This group has been carefully examined and found to consist of 28 bar- 
rows, 22 above and 6 below the 400ft. contour. There are 20 bowl, 6 disc, 
1 bell, and a flat ring showing in the turf, doubtless the remains of a bar- 
row. 

The three barrows on the N, slope, 2 disc and 1 bowl, are an interesting 
and important group as they prove the prior existence of the bowl barrow 
as the mounds of the two discs are carried over it on either side, thus sup- 
porting the usually accepted view that the bowl shape was earlier than the 
disc. 

To the west of these is a fine disc half ploughed away, not on O.M. 

Early Gaulish Coin from Swindon. 

In this Magazine, vol. xxxiv., p. 311, a gold Gaulish coin of the 1st cent. 
B.C. is illustrated and described as having been found " a few miles east of 



By A. D. Passmore. 243 

Swindon." Proof is now forthcoming that the coin was found on land 
immediately in front of Old Swindon Parish Church in Cricklade Street. 

Barrows at Savernake. 

O.M. xxxvi., S.W. At the N.E. corner of this sheet is Square Copse. 

In this on the west side is a group of huge barrows, some of which are 

120ft. in diameter and 12ft. high, there is another ploughed down very low 

in the ploughed field to the west. These barrows are not shown on O.M. 1900. 

Mound at Rushey Flatt, Swindon. 

O.M. sheet xv., N.E. Between Rushey Piatt Junction Station and the 
Running Horse public house, just S. of B.M. 327'9, by the side of a foot- 
path. Here is a round mound 39ft. in diameter, and with all the appear- 
ance of a barrow except that it is on low ground liable to be flooded after 
heavy rains. A trench was carried into this from the west side where a 
hole had already been made at some former time ; at the centre was a 
large flat stone 4ft. by 2ift., and 5in. thick, placed on the old ground level, 
below this was a hole about 3ft. deep in clay ; it contained two flint flakes 
and a worked lump, and at the bottom was a layer of fine gravel stones like 
peas about 2in. thick. 

I am by no means satisfied that the possibilities of this mound are ex- 
hausted. 

Just to the south of this place and over the canal there is a very curious 
circle of large local stones in front of a barn, they are possibly connected 
with the great Norman house which stood a little to the east. 

Large Rectangular Camp at Burderop. 

In 1904 I noticed a large oblong earthwork in Burderop Park. O.M. 
Sheet XV., S.E. At the top of Ladder Hill the road from Wroughton 
suddenly turns south, at this spot is spot level 579. This point is on the 
N.W. angle of a large camp, only two sides of which can be now traced on 
the surface. 

The N. side is 510 feet long, the Eastern one 695 feet long, while the 
South side has completely silted up in low ground. The West side is 
probably represented by the boundary ditch of the Park alongside the 
modern road. The whole area has at sometime been under the plough and 
is therefore hard to trace, but there can be no doubt about the two sides of 
which measurements are given. The earthwork consists of a single large 
bank with a deep ditch, the latter can be well seen in a chalk pit in Kennel 
Firs, which cuts through the S.E. angle of the Camp ; here the ditch is 
nine feet deep and has its inner bank lined with small sarsen stones. The 
width cannot be at present ascertained as the pit cuts across the angle of 
the earthwork. 

Dr. Grundy, without knowledge of this camp, states that the name 
Burderop means " The Village in the Camp," an illustration of the value of 
place names in the hands of an expert. 



244 Fieldwork in N. Wilts, 1926—28. 

Roman House at Bishopstoue, N. Wilts. 

O.M. xvi., S.E., and W.A.M., vol. xli., 390. 

Small trial holes were made here and walls of chalk rock were traced 
over a large area but no trace of the pavement described as above were 
found ; the search could not be continued because the land was about to be 
planted. The exact site is 350 feet N.N. West of B.M. 674"8 and in the 
corner of a ploughed field, W. of the track Bishopstone to Kussley Park. 

Roman House at Swindon. 

Described in this Magazine, vol. xxx., 218. 
. During trenching for the foundation of a new house in 1927, further 
Roman walls were found and have been included in the new building ; they 
were only fragments and could not be fitted on to the plan published in 
the Magazine^ being slightly too far to the S.VV. 

Saxon Interment at Wanborough. 

O.M. Sheet xvi, S.W. In the N.E. corner of this map is Callas Hill 
at a point where the Roman Road crosses the one from Hinton to Wan- 
borough. On the south of the cross roads and immediately north of the 
letter "A" in Callas, and on the edge of the road, men found in 1927 a 
skeleton of a young Saxon with a long 14-inch iron spearhead and a broken 
knife. I arrived too late to see how the body was deposited, but the grave 
was four feet deep in chalk and covered by another four feet of rainwash 
from the hillside. The bones belonged to a young man apparently under 
thirty years of age. The weapons were presented to our museum, but are 
wrongly described in the acknowledgment^ the gouge therein mentioned is 
merely the socket of the spearhead broken away. 

Soon after the above find was made a trench was carried across the head 
of a lane leading to the road from Callas Hill to Upper Wanborough at a 
spot covered by the figure 6 in the acreage of Wanborough ; here the ground 
was full of skeletons, apparently of no great age ; they were re-buried on 
the spot. 

Saxon Interment at Marlborough. 

Men digging at the top of the hill on the London Road near the hospital 
found a skeleton with which was an iron spearhead of Saxon type, with 
the socket broken away. Beyond seeing the weapon I could gather no 
further exact details. 

Stone Circle and Stone Cairn on Overton Down. 

N. of Overton and West of Avebury is Down Barn O.M. xxviii., S.E., 
6-incli (just south of which are the two standing stones described in 
W.A.M., vol. xlii., 50) ; 377 yards N.N.E. of this building is a stone circle 
64 feet in diameter {see plan), it consists of 15 stones placed somewhat 
irregularly round the periphery with one at the centre. They are com- 
paratively small, the largest being just under six feet long. One stone on 
the S.W. edge has a smaller one lying in front of it, making 17 in all ; on 
the S.E. edge what appears to be a small round barrow has been constructed 

' W,A.M. xliv., 91. 



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ill 

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Plan and View of Stone Circle on Overton Down. 





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Perforated Axe-Hammer of Dolerite from Ogbourne St. George. 
{See No. 5, p. 247). About i- 



By A. D. Passmore. 245 

at a later time than the circle. This has been deeply excavated in the 
centre. It is not on O.M. 

It is very rare to find on the downs any area with the remains of one age 
superimposed on another, but here apparently we have a late Stone Age 
circle becoming disused and afterwards doing duty as a Bronze Age burial 
place. Although the barrow has been dug into, probably by relic hunters, 
the site should be thoroughly excavated again. It is, however, only right 
to say that these stones lie among many other natural sarsens scattered 
over the down though it seems desirable to record them as a possible circle 
here. 

N. of the above and on the next sheet, O.M. xxviii., N.E., is Parson's 
Tenning, E. of this and at the triangulation mark 762 is a cairn built of 
sarsen stones and hitherto unnoticed because it is covered by a tangle of 
bush and rough herbage, it stands on an apparently artificial platform 60 
leet in diameter, the cairn is now about five feet high, there is one large 
horizontal slab on the N.W. edge which stood upright at no distant date 
but now leans over to the south. There is a hole in the centre of the cairn 
marking the site of former excavation. 

A small silted up trench approaches the cairn from the S.E. and apparently 
continues under it but does not appear on the other side. 

An air photograph of this down is given in Wessex from the Air, 1928. 

New Barrows at CoUingbourne Ducis. 
O.M. xlviii., N.E., 1901. Near cross roads at Leckford Bridge is Cowdown 
l^arn, in front of this and immediately south of it are four round barrows 
c ose to the road from CoUingbourne to Tidworth, south of this again and 
alongside the same road in the same field is a long barrow and several 
round ones, an air photo of this spot would show a large group. Across 
the road and south of Barrow Plantation and nearly on the edge of the map 
IS a low grass round barrow ; N.W. of this and N. of a track leading from 
bnail Down to spot level 394 near Leckford Cross Roads and near the west 
-edge of the map are two low grass barrows. 

The site of the Long Barrow is 600 yards south of Cowdown barn, and 
tang on ground just below the four hundred foot contour is itself just 
above that level and is shown as a contoured mound on the six inch Ordnance 
burvey map, but is not noted as an antiquity. It lies N.E. and S W the 
tormer point seems to be higher and wider. Although ploughed the mound 
as still very plain and about 200 feet long. 



246 



NOTES ON STONE IMPLEMENTS OF MATERIAL FOREIGN 

TO WILTSHIRE IN THE COLLECTION OF 

MR A. D. PASSMORE. 

By H. H. Thomas, F.R.S., and A. D. Fassmoke. 

Amongst thousands of stone implements in my own collection from N. 
Wilts and the adjoining part of Berks are twenty-one specimens made from 
imported blue or green stone probably obtained in prehistoric times by 
barter for flint ; thirteen of these are from N. Wilts and consist of 
polished axes or parts thereof, four with circular cutting edges, pointed 
butts and nearly round sections are of an early pre-dolmen type ; three with 
straighter cutting edges, flattened oval sections, and thin butts are later. 
One fine axe has a slightly curved cutting edge, flattened oval section, thin 
butt with the side edges ground square, and is the latest of all. The re- 
mainder are fragments or lower halves of axes with flattened oval sections. 
The large perforated hammer axe herein illustrated has a peculiar history. 
Found in 1840 alongside the Roman road, south of Ogbourne St. George, 
towards Bytham Farm, it was placed on a mantel shelf and kept in the 
finder's family till acquired by the writer in 1923. Its length is 6^in., its 
greatest breadth 2^in., and its height 2jin (^'.e., length of perforation). The 
hole measures 32^ mm. in diameter in one direction and 29 mm. in the other. 
Traces of the original polish may be seen inside. Outside the whole sur- 
face is much decayed and pitted by weathering. It weighs 2 lbs. 13 ozs. The 
hammer end is round in section ; at the centre in the region of the perfor- 
ation it is square ; while near the cutttng edge it is oblong. The hammer 
end is slightly lower than the other. 

All these implements are surface finds, and in no way connected with 
barrows or earthworks. As a whole they afford valuable evidence of 
origin, and in this respect were most kindly examined by Dr. H. H. Thomas, 
F.B.S., whose remarks are as follows. A. D. P. 



The implements are of a variety of stone and include dolerites, rhyolite, 
quartzite and silicified shale and sandstone. 

The dolerite implements, of which there are a good many, are easily 
grouped under three separate heads : — 

(L). — A moderately coarse olivine dolerite in which decomposed olivine 
is conspicuous as red and yellow ochreous spots, and which 
weathers with a pitted surface. 
(II ).— A similarly textured dolerite without conspicuous olivine. 
(III.). — A finer grained grey speckled dolerite also with no obvious 
olivine. 



I 



By H. H. Thomas, F.E,S., and A. B, Passmore, 247 

DoLEEiTES (Group I.). 

1. Half of axefrom Liddington, a moderately compact blue grey dolerite 
with ocherous pseudomorphs after olivine and weathering with a pitted 
surface. 

2. Axe from Avebury, blue grey compact dolerite with abundant 
ocherous pseudomorphs after olivine. 

3. Cutting edge of an axe from Medbourne. of flattened oval section. 
This is of olivine dolerite with a cavernous surface. 

4. Pointed butt of axe from Medbourne, blue grey dolerite with abun- 
dant pseudomorphs after olivine. 

Group II. 

5. Large axe hammer from Ogbourne ; this is a coarse grained even 
textured non-porphyritic greenish-grey dolerite fairly rich in ilmenite and 
weathered in a rough surface. 

6. Axe from Aldbourne, with pointed butt, four inches long, made from 
dolerite without conspicuous olivine, no obvious ilmenite but the similarity 
to the stone of the above axe hammer is close. 

7. Pointed butt of an axe from Liddington Castle, dolerite without 
conspicuous olivine, rather fine grained but appears to be similar to Nos. 6 
and 22 (a Berks specimen not here described). 

8. Half of axe, thin-butted and of flat oval section, from line of Kennett 
Avenue, Avebury, moderately coarse greenish grey ophitic dolerite similar 
to the axe hammer and No. 6. 

9. Top half of axe, long narrow shape with flattened oval section from 
Liddington, cavernous surface but appears to be dolerite of the kind without 
conspicuous olivine. 

Group III. 

10. A small thin-butted axe with very flattened section, 3;^ inches long 
by two inches wide and only | inch thick, from Aldbourne. A very fine 
grained grey speckled dolerite or diabase ; it is unlike any included in the 
other groups and appears to be olivine free. 

Sandstones. 

11. A small fragment from Liddington Castle, is a fine grained dark 
grey sandstone not of local derivation. 

Indurated Shale. 

12. A thin scraper-like implement (probably part of axe) of black 
silicified shale. At first I thought it was felsite but the material is too soft 
and it seems to contain flakes of mica. From Liddington, 

Rhyolites and Rhyolitic Ashes. 

13. Axe from bed of stream south of Lechlade in the parish of Inglesham, 
is of this group, its red colour is due to accidental firing. 

All the implements are imported and made of stone brought from some 
area of palaeozoic rocks, the types are such as could be procured from N. 
Wales and the Welsh borders, but other areas of similar rocks are potential 
sources and our accumulated facts are not yet sufficient to indicate with 
certainty one region rather than another ; personally, I am inclined to 
regard Wales as the most likely source. H, H. T. 

VOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLIX. R 



248 



THE SEVENTY-FIFTH GENERAL MEETING 

OF 

THE WILTSHIRE ARCH^OLOGICAL AND NATURAL 
HISTORY SOCIETY HELD AT SHAFTESBURY, 

July 24th, 25th, and 26th,. 1928. 

For the fourth time in its history the Society held its annual meeting at 
Shaftesbury in 1928 — the previous meetings there having been in 1861, 
1884, 1914, just before the outbreak of the Great War. It had been in- 
tended to meet there in 1927 but the burning of the Grosvenor Arms Hotel 
made that impossible, and the meeting was put off till 1928 in consequence. 
The head-quarters of the Society were at this hotel, now largely re-built. 
The immense and most elaborately carved sideboard, said to be of the end 
of the 18th century, which came from Pythouse, was not injured in the fire 
and still stands in the dining room. 

TUESDAY, JULY 24th.» 
According to the programme, proceedings were to have begun with a visit 
to Castle Rings Camp, but it was found that this was not feasible for the 
long string of motor cars present, and members went straight to Wincomb 
Park, the residence of Mr. and Mrs. Hastings, where Mrs. Hastings received 
the party with every kindness and showed them round the beautiful gar- 
den and grounds, including the shady walks round the fish ponds, most 
gratefully cool on an exceedingly hot day. Tea in the garden under the 
trees looking down on the water and the woods of the beautiful combe on 
the side of which the house stands, finished a singularly pleasant afternoon, 
and the party left at 5 p.m. for Shaftesbury, where they were due at 5.15 
for the annual business meeting in the Town Hall, most kindly placed at 
their disposal by the Mayor and Corporation. Here the Patron and Presi- 
dent of the Society, the Marquis of Lansdowne, was in the chair, and some 
35 members were present. Proceedings began with the reading of the 
Annual Report by the Hon. Secretary. 

ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1927—28. 
Members. — The number of members on July 12th was 19 life members 
and 420 annual subscribers, with one honorary member, a total of 440 as 
against 446 at the same period last year. This does not mean, however, a 
diminution of effective members, but only that the printing of a new list of 
members in the June Magazine has caused the removal of a considerable 
number of names of [members who had ceased to pay their annual sub- 
scriptions. 

^ A full account of the proceedings throughout the meeting was given in 
The Wiltshire Gazette, July 26th, August 2nd, 9th, 16th, 23rd, and 30th, 1928. 



The Seventy-fifth General Meeting. 249 

Finance. — The accounts for the year 1927 were printed in the June (1928) 
Magazine. During the year the General Fund, which provides for the 
printing of the Magazine, the salary of the Museum caretaker, and the 
general expenses of the Society's organisation, increased its balance from 
JB250 17s. 5d. to ^6310 9s. 9d. On the other hand, the Museum Maintenance 
Fund showed a decreased balance, £33 18s. 9d. against ^38 13s. lOd. at the 
€nd of the preceding year. The Museum Enlargement Fund increased 
from £20 9s. to i;33 9s. 9d. and the Museum Purchases Fund from 
£88 2s. 2d. to £95 Us. The Life Membership Fund also showed an 
increase from £104 3s. 7d. to £110 9s. lis., and the Bradford Barn Account, 
which began the year with a balance of £61 17s Ud., ended it with one of 
£69 5s. 7d. Exclusive of the three funds earmarked for special objects, 
the Wansdyke Fund, the Bradford Barn Fund, and the fund for printing 
the Register of Bishop Simon of Ghent, the funds of the Society showed 
an increase during 1927 of £85 12s., from £498 10s. 2d. to £584 2s. 2d. 

The Museum. — The Society has been deeply indebted for many years past 
for successive gifts by Dr. R. C. C. Clay, F.SA., of large numbers of objects 
found during his excavations in South Wilts. To these he has recently 
added the whole of the very large and valuable collection of worked flints, 
from Wiltshire sites, formed by himself, illustrating the technique of flint 
manufacture in different localities. This collection is given to the Society 
on the express understanding that it shall be kept together, and that none 
of the specimens shall be parted with. From the scientific character of the 
collection it is very desirable that this condition should be observed. 
Amongst other gifts received during the year that of the portion of a bronze 
armlet of Hallstatt age from Cold Kitchen Hill, found by Miss Pugh, may 
foe mentioned. An important addition, made possible by the existence of 
the Museum Purchases Fund, has been that of the flint money box found 
at Chute together with nine of the British gold coins it contained. An 
account of this find will be given in the December number of the Magazine. 
The collection of the Wiltshire tokens of the 18th and 19th centuries, 
ohiefly presented by General Palmer in the preceding year, has been put on 
-view in a separate case in the Library. 

The Library. — During the year the work of binding up Wiltshire MSS., 
pamphlets, etc., has been continued, and a large number of volumes have 
been bound, and the additions to the catalogues of books and prints have 
been typed and brought up to date. In this connection the Librarian would 
record his indebtedness to Mr. G. W. Pugh for much assistance rendered 
in necessary work entailing considerable drudgery. Amongst the gifts may 
foe mentioned a MS. volume of notes and extracts from Wiltshire manu- 
scripts for the Mere and Heytesbury Hundreds of Hoare's " Modern Wilts," 
given by Mr. R. S. Newall, Colonel W. Hawley's gift of the last volume of 
■*' Archseologia," Mrs. Cunningtou's gift of "The Pottery from the Long 
Barrow at West Kennet," and MS. copies of the monumental inscriptions 
in Luckington Church by the Rev. C. E. Hughes, and of the Registers of 
Steeple Langford by Rev. W. S. Tupholme, D.D. As in previous years we 
are indebted to Mr. J. J. Slade for a large number of Wiltshire pamphlets, 
estate sale catalogues, etc., as well as for reprints of notes on the Wiltshire 

R 2 



250 The Seventy -fifth General Meeting. 

Broome family, and of the long series of monumental inscriptions in Salis- 
bury Cathedral which appeared serially in The Wiltshire Gazette. The 
Society is also indebted to Mr. A. F. Smith, of Swindon, for three MS, 
Note Books containing an account of the Heraldry in some 250 churches in 
the county, copied by himself during the last five years. 

Magazine. During the year the Nos. 147 and 148 of the Magazine have 
been issued containing 214 pages, and in addition there was issued with the 
December (1927) number the first part of " The Church Bells of Wiltshire^ 
Their Inscriptions and History," by H. B. Walters, F.S.A., containing the 
parishes from Aldbourne to Buttermere in 44 pages. It is hoped to issue 
a very much larger part of this work with the December (1928) Magazine. 

The Register of Bishop Simon of Ghent. — The Canterbury and York 
Society has just issued a Fourth Part of this work, which has been so many 
years in hand. Members who have subscribed for it have received their 
copies from the Hon. Secretary. 

Excavations. — The excavation of the site of " Woodhenge" at Durrington 
by Captain and Mrs. Cunnington was practically completed in the autumn 
of 1927. The various sections and pits were filled in, and the whole area 
has been fenced round. Further excavations in the neighbourhood of the 
site are, however, contemplated this autumn, and the results of the whole 
work will be published in the future. At Windmill Hill, Avebury, Mr. 
Alex Keiller, F.S.A., and Mrs. Keiller have continued their excavations this 
spring in the series of concentric interrupted ditches on this remarkable 
Neolithic (?) site, and the work will probably be continued for some years 
to come. The objects found are preserved in Mr. Keiller's private museum 
in London. Dr. R. C. C. Clay excavated in 1925 a rectangular earthwork 
on Knighton Hill in Broad Chalke, and an account of his work is given for 
the first time in the recently issued volume " Wessex from the Air." At 
Ogbourne, Bishopstone, Chiseldon, and Kushey Plat, near Swindon, Mr» 
A. D. Passmore has re-opened barrows or mounds which have been previously 
opened or damaged. An account of this work will appear in the next 
number of the Magazine. At Landford, on the extreme southern border of 
the county, a number of urns, apparently of the late Bronze Age, were found 
in or near a barrow. It is understood that these urns are now in the 
Archaeological Museum at Cambridge, but with the exception of a short 
account in the newspapers no details of the find are available. 

Archaeological Excursion. Following the precedent set in 1927, a single 
day's excursion, devoted more especially to Prehistoric Archaeology, was 
arranged on June 5th, having Avebury as its principal attraction. Sixty- 
eight members attended and proceedings at Avebury began at Windmill 
Hill, where Mr. Alex. Keiller had most kindly kept this year's excavations 
specially open for the occasion, and himself showed the party round and 
explained the diggings. After a picnic lunch on the spot, the cars and 
char-a-bancs returned to Avebury, where the circles were visited and after- 
wards the Church, under the guidance of the Rev. E. H. Goddard. After 
tea the main body of the members returned to Devizes via the Kennet 
Avenue and Silbury Hill, where Mrs. B. H. Cunnington acted as guide. 
All the arrangements were made by Mr. C. W, Pugh, who organised the 



The Seventy 'fifth General Meeting. 251 

proceedings as he had done in the previous year, with the result that every- 
one was pleased, and the day was a great success. The balance on the 
day's proceedings was £3 14s. 3d. 

Stonehenge. The most important archaeological event of the year, however, 
as far as this county is concerned, has not been in the realm of excavation. 
As an effect to some extent of letters in the papers, the public conscience 
was at last awakened to the imminent danger of the land immediately 
surrounding Stonehenge passing into the hands of speculative builders and 
being covered with bungalows and other buildings. An influential com- 
mittee was formed in London, and an appeal signed by the Prime Minister, 
Lord Grey of Fallodon, and other eminent men, was issued and very widely 
circulated, asking for £32,000 to buy the land within a radius of about one 
mile from the monument on all sides, in order that it might be handed over 
to the National Trust and so preserved from building or other defacement 
for ever. On behalf of our Society, Captain B. H. Cunnington took the 
matter up and carried through an appeal not only to members of our own 
Society but to many thousands of members of County Societies throughout 
England. So far as Wiltshire is concerned, this appeal met with a very 
general and generous response, not the least interesting item in which is the 
purchase of some 75 acres of the land for £1,500 by the family of Mr. W. 
Heward Bell, our late president, as a memorial to him, which it was felt he 
would himself have greatly approved of. Altogether, up to the present, 
£20,158 has been contributed out of the £32,000 asked for. It is not too 
much to say that the success of the scheme, so far as it has gone, has been 
very largely due to the energy and enthusiasm of Captain Cunnington, 
whilst the Rev. G. H. Engleheart also rendered valuable service at the 
beginning of the appeal. In connection with Stonehenge it is gratifying to 
learn that the various objects found during Colonel Hawley's excavations, 
and preserved in the huts on the spot, are now being carefully catalogued 
by Mr. H. S. Newall. 

l''he Marking of Earthworks, etc.^ Scheduled under the Ancient Monuments 
Act. It will be remembered that a resolution urging the marking of all 
barrows and other earthworks which have been scheduled for preservation, 
more especially those on the War Oflace lands on the Plain, was brought 
forward by Captain Cunnington and was passed at the annual meeting of 
the Society two years ago. This resolution was brought to the notice of 
the authorities, and it is most satisfactory to be able to report that the work 
of marking each barrow, etc., as suggested, is now actually being carried 
out. A concrete block is being placed on each earthwork warning all con- 
: cerned that it is a protected ancient monument. Our committee would 
' wish to express their deep appreciation of the courteous acceptance by the 
War Office authorities of the suggestions made to them. 

The Preservation of Rural England, It will be within the knowledge of 
many of our members that a " Central Council for the Preservation of 
Ptural England" has been formed in London and that in some counties 
ibranches of this Society have been set on foot. The object of such Societies 
lis to prevent the destruction of interesting old houses, cottages, bridges, 
!and other buildings, as well as of rare flowers, birds, and natural objects ; 



252 The Seventy -fifth General Meeting. 

and to guard against the disfigurement of beautiful scenery or sites of 
historic or archaeological interest by the erection of advertisements, petrol 
stations, and unsightly or incongruous buildings of any kind. The Com- 
mittee would suggest that our members in all parts of the county can do 
much to help on this good work by keeping a watchful eye on their own 
locality, and calling attention whilst there is yet time to any scheme which 
threatens the amenities of the neighbourhood. An instance in point of 
what may be done by reasonable remonstrance and good will on both side& 
was the recent proposal to erect a petrol station at the foot of Silbury Hill. 
Your Hon. Secretary represented to the firm concerned, Messrs. Herd & 
Leader, of Marlborough, the objections of the Society from an archseological 
point of view, and these gentlemen, although a considerable sum of money 
had already been expended on the station, and a licence had been already 
granted, most generously agreed to abandon the scheme altogether. 

The Committee have decided that our Society shall become affiliated to 
the Central Council mentioned above. 

Personal. The Committee desire to express their appreciation of the 
work done by the Rev. E. H. Goddard, who as General Secretary, Editor of 
the Magazine, and Librarian, continues to render invaluable service to the 
cause of Wiltshire archaeology. 



The report having been adopted, the next business was the election of a 
president for 1928—29 to succeed Lord Lansdowne. Following the recom- 
mendation of the committee Dr. G. S. A. Waylen proposed that Captain 
B. Howard Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot., hon. curator and meeting secretary, 
be elected president for the ensuing year. Dr. Waylen dwelt on the great 
debt of gratitude that the Society owed to Captain Cunnington for so many 
years of strenuous work in many ways on its behalf. The Rev. E. H. 
Goddard seconded the proposal, recalling how for three generations the 
Cunnington family had been the mainstay of the Society, and laying stress 
on the fact that in electing Captain Cunnington the Society would be 
acknowledging together with his own work the equally important work of 
Mrs. Cunnington in the field of excavation, and in the care and improvement 
of the museum, to which she had devoted a vast amount of time and skilL 
The motion was carried unanimously and Captain Cunnington briefly 
replied. The officers of the Society were then re-elected en bloc with the 
Rev. E. H. Goddard as hon. treasurer in the place of Mr. B. Hankey, wha 
had resigned, and the addition of Col. R. W. Awdry as hon. local secretary 
for the Lavington district. Both these alterations had been already passed 
by the committee, but their confirmation by the general meeting was 
necessary. A vote of thanks having been passed to Lord Lansdowne for 
his services as president, the business meeting came to an end. 

After the annual dinner at the Grosvenor Arms the members adjourned 
to the Town Hall where the mayor, Mr. W. Milverton, and Corporation in 
their robes formally welcomed the Society to Shaftesbury. The Marquis 
of Lansdowne then delivered his presidential address on " Sir William Petty," 
a paper of great interest, containing much unpublished material from the 



The Seventy -fifth General Meeting. 253 

Petty papers preserved at Bowood. The corporation plate, the interesting 
maces, both with iron flanged ends,^ the silver seal of 1570, the two bushel 
measures, one of the 17th century of bronze, the other of the 18th of wood, 
and the curious relic known as the byzant, were on exhibition together 
with historical documents belonging to the corporation, some of which 
seemed to require considerable attention if they are to be preserved. 
Seventy-four members and friends were present at this meeting. 

WEDNESDAY, JULY 25th. 
At 9.30 a long line of 18 cars and two char-a-bancs left Shaftesbury for 
Badbury Rings which they reached at 10.15. The day was a perfect one, 
the majority of the party had never visited the Rings before, and the great 
earthworks and the surrounding views were at their best. In the unavoid- 
able absence of Dr. R. C. C. Clay, F.S.A., who was to have described the 
site, Mrs. Cunnington filled his place and spoke on the great hill camps 
generally, and on Badbury in particular, and was followed by Mr. H. St. 
George Gray. The hour spent on this delightful spot seemed all too short 
when the whistle blew for the resumed journey to Wimborne. Here the 
Minster was reached at 11.30, and Mr. Vere L. Oliver, F.S.A., Hon. 
Secretary of the Dorset Field Club, gave an address on the history and 
architecture of the building, pointing out the chief features of interest 
afterwards during the perambulation of the Church. After lunch at Gush's 
Restaurant, the cars left at 2 p.m. for Farnham Museum, which was reached 
at 2.45. Here before the members entered the building, Mr. H. St. George 
Gray, who had worked so long with Gen. Pitt Rivers and had had so much 
to do with the original formation of the Museum, gave a very interesting 
account of the General's work, incidentally mentioning that he had spent 
regularly about £3000 a year on his excavations and other archaeological 
undertakings, but not more. This he contended was not an unreasonable 
amount considering the large revenues of the estate. The members then 
dispersed through the rooms which they found in a condition very much 
improved from that of some years ago, the present owner, Capt. G. Pitt 
Rivers, the General's grandson, being keenly interested in the upkeep of 
the collection, to which he has himself added a large number of ethnological 
objects from the South Sea Islands. After tea at the Museum Hotel, 
members left at 5.15 for Shaftesbury. The evening meeting, at which about 
60 were present, took place in the Town Hall at 8 p.m., when a very inform- 
ing paper was read by Mr. W. Farley Rutter, town clerk, on " Old Shaftes- 
bury," ^ containing a great amount of matter on the history of the place, 
in which the Rutter family have played for generations a somewhat similar 

^ The Corporation Plate of England and Wales^ by Jewitt & Hope, 1895, 
describing and illustrating these maces, says that both maces are certainly 
of the late 15th Century, and that the Royal Arms of the Stuarts and the 
date, 1604, on the top of one of them are a later insertion, the other mace 
retaining its original engraved top. 

^ Mr. Butter's paper is printed in full in The Wiltshire Gazette ^ August 
16th and 23rd, 1928. 



254 The Seventy -fifth General Meeting, 

part to that of the Ounningtons at Devizes. Light refreshments were 
kindly provided on the first night by the Mayor and Mayoress, and on the 
second by Councillor E. E. Browning. 

THURSDAY, JULY 26th. 

The previous day's excursion had been wholly in Dorset, this day's was 
wholly in Wilts. As before, the motors and char-a-bancs left Shaftesbury 
at 9.30, arriving at Fonthill House at 10 o'clock. The owner and builder of 
this splendid house, Mr. Hugh Morrison, M.P.. was detained in London and 
could not be present, but the whole house, upstairs and downstairs, was 
most generously thrown open to the members. The centre block of the 
house is the old gabled Manor House of Berwick St. Leonard, taken down 
stone by stone, every stone being carefully marked, and re-erected at ** The 
Ridge," exactly as it stood on its original site.' 

The effect of the whole is extremely fine, the situation is charming, and 
the interior of the house is full of all manner of art treasures, in spite of 
the fact that many of the most notable pictures and pieces of oriental china 
have gone to adorn the London house. As it was the hour and a quarter 
allowed was all too short to allow of more than a glance at the contents. The 
general effect is not so much that of a show place as of a great house in 
which every room has been furnished and arranged with exquisite taste, 
and its treasures have been set out to the best advantage ; a house obviously 
loved and intended to be lived in. 

Leaving Fonthill at 11,15, a quarter of an hour's drive brought the party 
to Place Farm, Tisbury, where Mr. H. L. G. Hill acted as guide, describing 

' The history of the successive houses at Fonthill is most complicated. 
The old house of the Mervins by the lake was burnt down in 1755, soon 
after it had been purchased by Alderman Beckford. The house built on 
its site, called sometimes " Fonthill Splendens," cost it is said £250,000. 
Alderman Beckford died in 1770. William Beckford, his son, began to 
build his Gothic " Abbey " in 1796, a considerable distance from the Alder- 
man's Fonthill House, which became dilapidated and was partly pulled 
down. Beckford sold the property in 1822 and 1823, and in 1825 the tower 
of his " Abbey " fell, destroying all but a fragment of the building. In 1859 
the Marquis of Westminster built a new " Fonthill Abbey " as a residence 
about half-a-mile from Beckford's Abbey, in " Scotch Baronial style." 
Meanwhile on the site by the lake Mr. Morrison built a new Fonthill House 
in the Italian style, retaining one wing of the Alderman's house, and this 
remained the Morrison residence until Mr. Hugh Morrison some years be- 
fore the war removed the old Manor House of Berwick St. Fjeonard to a site 
on the hill well above and some distance from the lake, adding two large 
wings to the central block formed by the Berwick St. Leonard house. This 
work begun before the war, has since been completed, and the house at first 
known as " The Ridge" is now the only " Fonthill House," the Morrison house 
by the lake having been quite recently entirely demolished. The architect 
responsible for the re-erection of the Berwick St. Leonard house and the 
additions to it on either side was Mr. Detmar Blow. 



The Seventy-Jifth Genei^al Meeting, 255 

the outer and inner gatehouses, the great barn, and the remaining medieval 
features, especially the remarkable 14th century chimney of the existing 
farm house, which was most kindly thrown open to the members' inspection 
by Mr. and Mrs. W. M. Dean, the present occupiers. Leaving Place Farm 
at 12 o'clock the members reached Tisbury Church at 12.15 ; at this point 
27 cars and two char-a-bancs were present. After a few words by the Vicar 
the building was described by Mr. H. L. G. Hill, and a few words on the 
heraldry added by the Rev. W. Goodchild. The upper storey of the tower 
has recently been practically rebuilt. It cannot be described as beautiful, 
but it is curious and marks a stage in the history of the Church. It was at 
first proposed to substitute a modern tower in the perpendicular style, but 
the diocesan advisory committee, before whom the plans came, strongly 
advised that the existing building should be retained and rebuilt as far as 
was necessary for its safety, and this advice was followed by the Church 
authorities. This seems worth recording as an example of the kind of work 
which the recently formed advisory Church Committee is doing in the 
diocese.' The great yew tree in the churchyard, entirely hoflow, measures 
S6ft. in circumference. 

After lunch at the Crown Hotel the programme set forth a visit to Castle 
Ditches Camp, but again the number of cars present made this inadvisable, 
and instead members left Tisbury at 2 p.m. for Anstey Church, where the 
Kev. Quartus Bacon, Vicar of Swallowcliffe and Anstey, gave an interesting 
account of the history of the place and Church, beginning by saying that 
he was indebted for his information to the Kev. W. Goodchild, Vicar of 
Berwick St. John, who was himself present, and followed with a few 
remarks. Both these gentlemen assumed that the existing plain little 
Church was substantially that of the Hospitallers, but Mr. H. L. G. Hill, 
F.R.I.B.A., drew attention to the fact that it was really not so at all, for if 
Hoare's plan in Modern Wilts is to be trusted, the present building has 
obviously been largely rebuilt and altered since Hoare's time, for neither 
its plan nor its dimensions are the same. At present, the most interesting 
things in the Church, are the curious font which may be Norman, but has 
been greatly scraped and newly faced, and the remarkable renaissance 
carved poppy heads of the choir stalls, which came out of the choir of 
Salisbury Cathedral. They are beautiful work of a very uncommon type 
of foliage deeply undercut, and the Vicar mentioned that the Cathedral 
authorities of the present day would be glad to get them back. The 
living of Anstey was a " donative " in the gift of the University of Oxford, 
and as such the incumbent was not under the jurisdiction of the Bishop. 
In consequence Anstey bore a bad character in the later middle ages as a 
place where irregular marriages were celebrated and other undesirable 
practices were too common. Mr. Bacon was the last incumbent to be 
*' donated " in England before the abolition of " Donatives " by the Act of 
1898. He mentioned that owing to the peculiar circumstances there was 
no stipend at all attached now to the living of Anstey. The large building 



Tisbury Church is fully described, W.A.M.^ xxxvi., 559—614. 



256 The Seventy -fifth General Meeting, 

near the Church, once the guest House of the Knights of St. John, was 
entirely burnt out a year or two ago and its high pitched roof and much of 
its interest destroyed. It is now used as a wheelwright*s workshop. The 
house occupied by the Commandery was pulled down in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth and a farmhouse was built on the site. 

Leaving Anstey at 3 p.m. members arrived at Compton Park. Here they 
were most kindly and hospitably received by Mr. and Mrs. Penruddocke^ 
the Church bells were ringing a peal in their honour, and flights of wild 
duck circled round over the lake as the long procession of cars took their 
places in the park, and on the lawn a tent was erected for tea. The interest 
of the house lies largely in the great dining room panelled from floor to 
ceiling and adorned with fine carved work of the Grinling Gibbons and 
Wren period and style, due to Thomas Penruddocke, who married a Freke. 
In this room are the principal family portraits, the portrait of Prince 
Rupert, by Vandyke, and one of Thomas Cromwell, attributed to Holbein. 
But more than the fine pannelling and carving and furniture by Kent and 
Chippendale, the glass case containing the special family relics appealed to 
members. Here were exhibited the original warrant signed by Cromwell 
for the execution of Col. John Penruddocke after the abortive Royalist 
rising, and the original farewell letter to him from his wife written on May 
3rd, 1655, "at 11 o'clock at night," when all hope of obtaining a reprieve 
from the Protector was given up. Here also was the linen cap worn by 
him when he was beheaded on May 16th. In the same case was the jewel^ 
a rich gold chain with a pendant of a large cabochon sapphire surrounded 
by rubies, given by Queen Katherine Parr to Sir George Penruddocke for 
his gallant conduct in the field. This was last exhibited to the public at 
the exhibition in the New Gallery in 1902. The drawing room has a fine 
Adam ceiling and mantel piece. With the expression of their warmest 
thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Penruddocke, the meeting of 1928 came to an end 
in the same perfect weather in which it had begun. As usual, time had 
been kept throughout and all arrangements had gone like clockwork under 
the command of Captain Cunnington. A sufficient balance remained after 
all expenses had been paid, and it will remain in the memory of those who 
took part in it, as by no means the least pleasant of the Society's meetings. 



257 



HEYTESBUKY ALMSHOUSE ACCOUNTS, 1592. 

Copied by J, J. Hammond. 

The Almeshouse of Haytesburye in the Countie of Wiltes. 

The accompt of Xtofer DugdailP clerke, Keeper of the Almeshouse of 
Haytesburye aforesaid of all the rentes fynes heariotts and other revenues 
and profits of the mannors landes ten*^ and hereditaments belonginge unto 
the sayde Almeshouse lyeing in the Countie of Wiltes for one whole yeare 
ended at the Feast of St. Michaell tharchangell anno tricesimo quarto 
Domine Elizabethe Regine Anglie etc. annoque Dni 1592 taken at Haytes- 
burye the Seaventh daye of October anno supradicto before John Mathewe 
gent Steward of the Mannors and landes belonging to the said almeshowse. 

Pynes. Imprimis the saide Accountante yeldeth accounte and chardgeth 
himself with twentye pounds by him this yeare receaved of John Mere- 
wether for his fyne of Drapers graunted to him for two lyves. xx'\ 

Item the saide accountante yeldeth accounte and chardgeth himself with 
twenty shillings by him this yeare receaved of John Standlacke for his fyne 
of certeyne landes in Warmester xx'. 

Hearyotts. Item he chardgeth himself with three pounds by him 
receaved of John Merewether the elder for two heariotts uppon the sur- 
render of his two coppyeholdes which were granted to him for two lyves vij'^ 

Money receved. Item he chardgeth himself with twenty shillings 
receaved of Jasper Moore Esquier laide out this year in lawe chardges in 
defending the saide Almeshowse xx*- 

Chieffe Keuts. Item he yeldeth accounte of xxxvij". i^. one pound of 
peper and one pound of comyn by him receaved of the cheiflfe rentes of the 
tennants of the saide manner of Cheverell Magna for the saide yeare xxxvijl 
i''., 1 lb. peper, 1 lb. comyn. 

Custumarye Rents. Item he yeldeth accounte of xvj^^ x^ x*^. ob. by 
him receaved of the rents of the custumarye tenants of the saide Mannor for 
the saide yeare as in former accountes xvj'\ v^ x*^ 

Indenture. Item he yeldeth accounte of nyne pounds by him lykewyse 
receaved of the rent of the farm of Cheverell hales due for the said yeare 
and of twelve pence for the rent of a pasture called Fulke m'she so demysed 
unto John Merewether & others by indenture, ix^i. xij<i. 

Indenture. Item he yeldeth accounte of nyne pounds six shillings 
eight pence by him receyved of the rent of the farme of Cheverell burnell 
in the occupation of John Harris for certeyn yeares and of twenty shillinges 
of increase of rent upon the same farme as in the former accountes x". vj\ 



* Christopher Dugdale was of the Seend family of that name and appears 
in their pedigree. 



258 Heytesbury Almshouse Account^ 1592, 

Warmester. Item he yeldeth accounte of foure shillinges of chieffe 
rent of Will" Middlecott for certeyne lands in Warmester and of tenne shil- 
linges eightpence of Will™ Alforde for certyne lands in Warminster aforesaide 
together with ix^ iiij"^ of increase of rent uppon the saide Alforde as by his 
lease thereof appeareth xxiv*. 

Calne. Item he yeldeth accounte of twenty-fower shillings for the 
rentes of certeyne lands in Stockley in the Parish of Calne dewe by Thomas 
Weston xxiv^ 

Scudmore Upton. Item he yeldeth accounte of fortye shillings for the 
rentes of certeyne landes in Scudmore Upton so demysed to John Smith 
and others. 

Sum' tot^'" of the Accomptants chardges 

Ixvi^ xviii^ vij^ 1 lb. pepper. 1 lb. Comyn. xK 

Ordynary Chardges. Wherof th sayde Xtofer Dugdaill the Accoun- 
tante demandeth Allowance upon this Account for money by him payde and 
disbursed for the necessary provision and findinge of the poore men and 
women being now tenne in number within the sayde Almshowse for one 
whole yeare ended at the feast of St. Michael tharchangell anno xxxiv supra- 
dicto videlicet for theire comons there wheate barley pease oatemeale salte 
victualls hennes honey candles egges hoppes clothes for their hose & shirtes 
& for theire shoes hemp & leather to cloute them and for the wages of 
their barber cater & woman And for divers other necessaries & expenses for 
the provision of the same howse for one whole yeare as hath been alwaies 
allowed by the president of the former accounts. And as particularly 
appeareth by a booke exhibited by the Accountant & thoroughlye 
examyned uppon the takinge of this accompt xxxij^ i'^. 

Allowances. Item this accountant demandeth allowance of seaventeene 
pounds fower shillings & seven pence by him laid out the yeare precedent 
and not allowed as appeareth in thefooteof thesaideaccompte xvii4iij^ vij^. 

Extraordinary Charges. Item he demandeth allowance of money 
spent by him this yeare in travelling about th' affayres of the Almshowse 
firste twice to London in Michaelmas tearme and twice in Easter tearme as 
appeareth by a bok of particulars exhibited by their accountant and ex- 
amined V* xix' ix^ 

Extraordinary Charges. Item he demandeth allowance vii' xv^ x*^ 
by him laide out in Oouncellors fees at the day of hearinge in the Rolles 
takinge out of deposicons our Attorney's fees & the chardges of a Comyssion 
at Warmester the xvj of August as by the particular byll appeareth checked 
upon this accompte and examined vii' xv® x^ 

Schole Masters Wages. Item he demandeth allowance of tenne 
pounds by him payd this yeare to Mr. John Wyglesworth for teachinge the 
scole there x^ 

The Kepers Owne Allowance. Item he demandeth allowance for 
his owne man servante his wages for the same yeare according to the order 
of the saide howse twenty shillings. And also of one pounde of peper and 
one pound of comyn as the same hathe always heretofore been allowed by 
the former accounts to the keeper there xx*. lib peper. lib, comyn. 



Copied hy J. J. Hammond. 259 

The Stewards Pee. Item he demandeth allowance for the Steward's 
fee for the keepinge of two courtes this yeare xiii^ iiij<^. and for makinge up 
of this accompte x'. accordinge to the presidente of the former accountes. 

Rentes with drawen. Item he demandeth allowance of fy ve shillings 
charged upon his receiptes among the rentes of the customary tennants for 
a close called pye lease w*^*' he hath not receaved for that there resteth 
question touching the valyditye of an estate therein claymed by Edward 
Hungerford Esquier. Summa tot^'' de allocacon Ixxv" viij' xi^ So that 
upon this accompte allocat allocand disallocat disallocand there remayneth 
to this accomptant dewe viij* x' iiij^ 

per me Christoper Dugdaille. per me Johem Matthewe Senescall" ibm. 



260 



NOTES. 



A Crouched Burial at Winterslow. During the gales 

of February, 1927, a large beech tree in Popple Light Copse, east-south- 
east of Lobscombe Corner, belonging to Mv. A. J. Seaward, was blown 
down and a few fragments of human bones exposed. Subsequently we 
excavated beneath the upturned roots of the tree and found a clean-cut 
cist measuring 2ft. 8in. X 2ft. 2in. It was 3ft. Sin. below ground level 
with its long axis pointing north and south. The cist was covered by a 
cairn of large flints which reached to within a foot of the surface, in 
the cist was a skeleton lying partly on the back and partly on the left 
side with the head to the north and the feet to the south. Ihe head 
lav over the left shoulder with the face turned to the east. The knees were 
drawn up and separated. The arms were outside the knees with the elbows 
half extended. The whole skeleton was very tightly packed in this small 
cist. There were no associated objects. r i-i, i, ii 

The position of this interment was on the northern slope of the chalii 
ridge and there were no indications of any mound. In the wood near by 
were several flint flakes and a rough flint pick. The attitude of the skeleton 
and the smallness of the cist point to the burial being of the early Bronze 

Age. 

Report on the hones by Sir Arthur Keitht F.R.S. 

" I wish we could tell when that burial was made under the flint cairn at 
Winterslow. A crouched burial under a heap of stones suggests one niade 
in pre-Roman times, but there is no doubt that the skull of the man, about 
50 years of age, found in that grave has characteristics of the Romano- 
Briton I have long suspected that the type of man we call Romano-Briton 
was in'the south and east of England long before the Romans came. Is 
this burial pre-Roman ? My other reason for desiring an exact date is be- 
cause the jaws of this man show a remarkable degree of reduction such as 
is usually found amongst highly cultured people. 

The man was about 5ft. 6in. in height, but with rather big bones, delicate 
in certain parts. The maximum length of the skull is great, 205mm., and 
its greatest width although measuring 142mm. must be increased to 144mm. 
on account of a slight compression on one side. The man was markedly 
big-headed, his cephalic index being about 70mm., and rather low and flat 
vaulted, the auricular height of the vault being 116mm. There is a per- 
fiistent interfrontal suture and the forehead is wide, 102mm. ; the greates 
posterior frontal width being 130mm.. very wide. The forehead is vertical 
and sharply bent where it meets the roof. The width at the eyebrow 
ridges I08mm. The cheekbones are remarkably small, their width between 
orbital margin and masseteric border being only 22-5mm. The width of 
the ascending ramus of the lower jaw is 28mm., and apparently the lower 
wisdom teeth had never been developed. As to the upper wisdoms nothing 
can be said as the upper jaws are missing. 



Notes. 261 

One notices the wide prominent flange-like (or shelf-like) chin, a highly 
evolved feature, and also the very open angle where the body and ascend- 
ing ramus meet. The depth of the symphysis is 36mm., but it is thin from 
back to front, 11mm. The bones of the skull are of medium thickness, the 
parietal at its thickest being 7mm. The bones contain no animal matter, 
being straw-yellow in colour, and their state of preservation is such that one 
could believe that the burial may well antedate the first coming of the 
Romans. 

I do hope some other discovery may help us to unravel the date of this 
burial." R. C. C. Clay. 

A ** Pillow-mound " in the parish of Wardour. In 

the parish of Wardour, west of Rowety Plantation, :|-mile S.S.W. of Totter- 
dale Farm, Lat. 51-2.48. N., Lon. 2.4.23, W., there is a low rectangular 
mound lying with its long axis north and south. It measures 42ft. x 15ft., 
and is about 1ft. high. Its ends are squared and its top flat, and it is sur- • 
rounded by a shallow ditch. It was first discovered by Col. J. Benett- 
Stanford. This pillow-mound is very similar to some found on Steeple 
Langford Down. The nature of these mounds has not been determined, but 
the excavation of a large rectangular mound in Bury Hill Camp, Gloucester- 
shire, has proved it to have been a hut site inhabited during the early part 
of the Roman occupation (Proc. Spelaeological Soc. No. I., Vol. 3, p. 9). 
Whether the pillow-mounds" in Wiltshire are of the same date awaits 
proof. R. C. C, Clay. 

Stonehenge Avenue. By R. C. C. Clay. A note in 

Antiquity t September 1927, pp. 342 — 344. The air photographs which 
revealed the lines of the Amesbury branch of the avenue showed it running 
down to the Stonehenge — Amesbury road, but on the other side of the road 
the ground was under grass and therefore nothing showed in the photo- 
graph. In June, 1927, trenches were dug at the southern edge of the field 
lying between the road and the farm buildings of West Farm, across the 
probable line of the avenue of which there were no surface indications. 
The eastern edge was found to be a flat-bottomed ditch, 1ft. lOins. below 
the surface and lOins. below the level of the undisturbed chalk. At this 
level the ditch was 2ft. wide, and at the bottom 1ft. wide. There were no 
signs of a bank " but the direction of the silting implies that there was one 
outside the ditch on the far side of the avenue. Near Stonehenge, however, 
the bank is inside the ditch. The ditch on the western side was found in 
a part which had been cultivated. The bottom was Sins, in width. There 
was no indication of a bank in the silting. The width across the avenue 
from ditch to ditch was llOjft. as against 70ft. at Stonehenge, 68ft. between 
the old and new King Barrows, and immediately north of the road 113ft." 

Sarsen Stones at Eing^ston Deverili. It may be as well 

to put on record how these three large sarsen stones came to be in their 

present position while the facts are still in living memory. For many 

f years the stones lay close to the river near the spot where the old road 



262 Notes, 

crossed it. Mr. Carpenter, of the Post Office, Kingston, aged 82, well 
remembers when they were moved by a former Rector (Mr. Clerk) from the 
river to the Rectory garden close to the N.E. corner of the churchyard. 

Some years later they were moved again by another Rector (Mr. Moore) 
to their present position in the field adjoining the eastern side of the church- 
yard. Carpenter assisted in this removal. The two larger stones were 
then put upright with the smaller one on top as a capstone. The capstone 
has since been removed as it was considered dangerous, and now lies at the 
foot of the upright on the side nearest to the Church. Carpenter remembers 
that when he was a boy the " old people " said that the stones had been 
brought down from the hill above the village, called " King's Hill," or 
"King's Court Hill." 

There is a brief mention of the stones in the Magazine (vol. xvii., p. 275), 
in connection with the visit of the Society to the Deverills in 1877 ; at that 
time the stones were in the Rectory garden before their removal to their 
present position in the field. 

In their original situation on the hill the stones seem to have had con- 
siderable importance attached to them ; one version of local tradition saying 
that they had been a meeting place of Kings, another that fines had to be 
paid at them, and a third that executions took place there. 

Sarsens do not seem to occur naturally in the district, and it is not 
unlikely that the stones once formed part of a dolmen or other megalithic 
monument. They are tabular blocks of sarsen, the two larger roughly 
about 6ft. X 4|ft. X lift. ; the smaller about the same length and thickness 
but not so wide. It is said that they were first brought down from the hill to 
the river to form steps to a barn, or perhaps stepping stones over the river. 

M. E. CUNNINGTON. 

The Saxon Jewellery from Round way. In 1840, near 

the neck of a skeleton forming the primary interment of a barrow on 
Roundway Down, were found a number of gold barrel-shaped beads and 
pendants of garnet and paste en cabochon set in gold, which obviously 
formed a necklace, together with two gold pins set with garnet and con- 
nected by a gold chain in the centre of which was a small circular disc of 
dark paste set in gold, with a cross engraved on its face. These objects are 
numbered S 6a — f in the Catalogue of Antiquities in Devizes Museum^ Part 
II., where they are illustrated. They have also been illustrated in Akerman's 
Remains of Pagan Saxondortit Plate I.; and in Diary of a Dean, fig. 36. 
They are again figured in Tke Arts in Early England^ 1915, by Baldwin 
Brown, vol. iii., p. 371, plate Ixxxi., 2, 3, 4, and are fully described in the 
same work, vol. iv., pp. 428, 429. " The pendants or jewels with carbuncles 
en cabochon are most probably products of Anglo-Saxon craftsmanship, 
but are certainly influenced by Romano- British models though not necessarily 
by the contemporary activity of surviving Romano-British workman. They 
are of the Christian period in the 7th Century. The same date will serve 
for the Roundway Down pins and jewels .... the pins themselves 
with their inset carbuncles would suggest the early part of the 7th 
Century. The horses' heads terminating the chains are Saxon rather than 



Notes. 263 

Celtic, and they appear in a debased and therefore late form .... 
the central jewel (on the gold chain between the pins) is a piece of capital 
importance quite unique in Anglo-Saxon tomb furniture, but it is an imita- 
tion by a Teutonic craftsman of a distinctly Celtic technique, and only a 
tentative imitation, for the sinkings are too shallow to have really held a 
differently coloured enamel paste. The interlacings on the back and the 
cross motives on the face indicate a date in the 7th Century .... such 
imitations of an unfamiliar technical process suggest something more than 
the existence as survivals of pieces that could serve as models, they appear 
to indicate some living perpetuation of Celtic craftsmanship in the midst 
of Anglo-Saxondom." [This ornament is illustrated by enlarged photo- 
graphs both of the back and the front.] 

Books bought from the family of Col, Will. Long, 

of Clevedon, After the death of Col. Will. Long in 1926 the Society 
purchased from his family : — 

(1) A thick 8vo volume bound in red Morocco containing a great number 
of letters written to William Long, the author of " Abury Illustrated " and 
" Stonehenge," in Wilts Arch Mag. These letters are for the most part in 
reference to those papers. A large number are from Dr. John Thurnam, 
others from Richard Falkner, Will. Cunnington, F.G.S., Canon Jackson, 
Joseph Fisher, E T. Stevens, J. J. Irvine, A. Clark, &c. 

(2) Another volume bound in red Morocco, 4to, lettered " Abury lUust- 
trated by W. Long, Esq., M.A." This is a large paper copy of his work on 
Abury, interleaved and with extra illustrations, and with a great number of 
letters of appreciation mounted and bound up with it. 

(3) A number of loose letters dealing with the pedigrees of various 
branches of the Long family received by Mr. Will. Long whilst he w^as at 
work on these pedigrees. Of these letters about 60 are from the Rev. Ed. 
\Yilton, of West Lavington, between the years 1836 and 1871 (in which 
year Mr. Wilton died) and contain a great deal of information on the Long 
family history. Twenty-two letters (Nos. 75 to 97) are from Canon Jackson 
on the same subject. These letters have been placed in a letter file box in 
the library. E. H. Goddard. 

Mound at Whetham opened. Dear Mr. Goddard,— You ask 
us to describe the excavation of a mound on the knoll at Whetham. This 
mound is surmounted by Scotch Firs and stands in full view of the house 
on the sky-line, on the far side of the pond. We opened it in 1927, and cut 
one trench through it from east to west, and two from north to south. The 
original grass line was everywhere distinct and did not appear to have ever 
been disturbed. Finally the whole of the centre was removed, but nothing 
whatever was discovered. Mr. Namier, who was staying at Whetham, 
suggested that our " round barrow " was raised and planted with pines in 
the 18th century as a " pleasing prospect," but we failed to persuade this 
18th century historian that, since the barrow was erected in his period, he 
ought to provide the labour to replace it. R. Money Kyrle. 

D. A. J. Buxton, F.S.A. 

VOL. XLIV.— NO. CXLIX. S 



264 



Notes. 



Pottery Rings at East Kenuet. In digging out the 

foundations for an addition to East Kennet Manor, the residence of Capt. 
Vigors, in 1926, two burnt clay pottery rings were found and are now pre- 
served by Mrs. Vigors — one is perfect, the other consists of rather more 
than half the original. Nothing else was found with them. They are well 
burnt to a red brick colour, made of clay with a considerable number of 
fragments of flints in it, probably from the clay with flints above the chalk. 
There are examples of these rings in the Devizes Museum, one of them 
found at Clyffe Pypard. They have been called net sinkers, loomweights, 
and rings for the support of round-bottomed vessels, and their age has been 
regarded as uncertain. Mr. Thurlow Leeds, has, however, recently found 
several on the site of an Anglo-Saxon house at Sutton Courteney, Oxon. 
Their date seems, therefore, fixed as Anglo-Saxon. The Kennet examples 
show no signs of suspension as loomweights, but that probably was their 
purpose. E. H. GoDDARD. 

Stone Celt found at Box, by Mr. A. Shaw Mellor. 

The following note appeared in The Antiquaries Journal^ Oct., 1926, vol. 
vi., pp. 442—444. The editor is indebted to the Society of Antiquaries for 
permission to reprint it and for the loan of the block illustrating it. 




Stone celt found at Box. 



I 



Notes. 265 

" The specimen illustrated is 3|in. long, and interesting in more than one 
particular. It was found about 1916 at Box, by Mr. A. Shaw Mellor, in a 
heap of stones thrown out in preparing a garden-bed at Box House, fifty- 
yards south-west of the parish Church ; and may be described as a blunt- 
butted celt of square section and polished all over, of a type rarely found 
in England, and analogous to flint specimens from Scandinavian interments 
of the latest Neolithic period, but of a hard, dark, greenish-grey igneous 
rock of fine texture, which has elicited the following remarks from Ur. H. H. 
Thomas, petrographer to the Geological Survey : — " The rock is character- 
ized by an abundance of small phenocrysts of white felspar which 
are of all dimensions up to 5mm. These small crystals are commonly 
isolated and rectangular in form, but a good many have rounded outlines, 
and there is also some grouping. Occasional larger phenocrysts are met 
with, elongated in habit, which reach a centimetre in length. All the fel- 
spars are peculiar in having their central portions decomposed and replaced 
by a mineral aggregate of darker colour contrasting strongly with the narrow 
white external layer of unaltered felspar. Without the confirmatory 
-evidence that would be furnished by a thin section cut from the celt itself, 
it would be unsafe definitely to assign the celt to any particular source, but 
the macroscopic characters of the rock of which the implement is made are 
so pronounced and striking that they alone form a basis for the suggestion, 
if not the absolute identification, of the source. A rock with identical 
texture, structure, colour, and other macroscopic characters forms an 
intrusive mass at Bwch-mawr, ij miles south-east of Clynog-fawr, near the 
northern coast of Carnarvonshire. It shows particularly the same distribu- 
tion of the small felspars, their occasional grouping and rounded outlines, 
and especially the decomposed central portions against a narrow white 
exterior. Microscopic examination of the Bwlch-mawr rock (E. 518 in the 
sliced-rock register of the Geological Survey collections) shows that it 
is a porphyritic quartz keratophyre or granophyre. The phenocrysts are of 
albite and perthite, and it is the albitic central portions that have suffered 
decomposition. The matrix is a fine-textured mass of albite, orthoclase, 
and quartz, the last two minerals occurring in micrographic intergro wth. In 
addition, there is an amphibole which forms somewhat indefinite aggregates 
throughout the rock. This hornblende is now brown in colour and strongly 
pleochroic, but it recalls the habit and mode of occurrence of riebeckite in 
the paisanites. Chlorite is distributed generally throughout the rock and 
contributes largely to the dark greenish-grey tint of the fine-textured matrix. 
I am unaware of any other rock that offers so many points of similarity to 
that of which the celt is composed ; in fact the two rocks when placed side 
by side appear to be identical in all respects, and I would tentatively suggest 
that the Clynog district is the source whence the implement was derived. 
The suggestion is made because it may be the means of bringing to light 
other implements made of the same material, which, by their distribution, 
may definitely indicate the source." 

Circular Earthwork at Ratfyn, Amesbury, Colonel 

Hawley in his last report of the excavations at Stonehenge (Ant. Journal^ 
April, 1928, p. 166) describes a large circular earthwork found when making 

S 2 



266 Notes. 

the railway. It stood over a small deep valley on the north, and was on 
that side 7ft. deep. Its actual width was not known as it was not properly 
excavated. Col. Hawley says **It was last occupied in the latter part of 
the Early Iron Age. This was shown by a good deal of pottery of that 
period, one perfect vessel being a small red bowl with a cover, a little re- 
sembling Samian ware in colour but not in form. The site was probably 
occupied also in the Bronze Age, as about five years ago (dr. 1923) a fine 
hammer-mace was found close to it on the south, on land now built over, 
where there were three very low barrows in line with a large one still stand- 
ing at the corner of the Amesbury road. This ditch though very deep on 
the N. side, nearly died out on the S. It had no projections on the sides of 
the ditch, nor bays, or barriers. It had inhumation burials along the bottom 
of the ditch which were continued nearly to the S. The graves were 2ft. 
deep and bootnails were found at the feet in every grave. There were no 
objects of the Roman period noted. This site has never been recorded.'" 
On the back of a photograph of a crouched skeleton Col. Hawley notes it as 
having been fouod in a " Bronze Age interment cist in the ditch of a hut 
circle. Other interments at another part of the circle were on the floor of 
the ditch, no cist, bodies buried straight. There were three or four of 
them." Col. Hawley notes on the back of the photograph here reproduced 
*' Hut circle of Bronze Age overlapping Iron Age." 

Roman Coins at Little Somerford. About the year isss 

a number of Roman coins were found at Little Somerford when a well was 
being dug. Apparently sufficient Roman masonry had been laid to make a 
cache for between 30 and 40 coins, among them a good specimen of a second 
brass of Vespasian, now in the possession of Mr. Priddy, postmaster at 
Horsham, Sussex, to whom the coin was given by the discoverer. The find 
was not reported and the coins, about which no further information is 
forthcoming, were distributed locally. S. E. Winbolt. 

Traces of the Roman Road In Conolt Park, Wilts. 

It is well known that the Roman Road from the city of Winchester to 
Cirencester broke its direct route before forming the main avenue of Saver- 
nake Forest by a semi-circular bend to the west (commencing in or about 
Conolt Park), owing doubtless to the difficulties presented by the contours 
of this remote down country. 

The commencement of this bend is now obliterated by the more modern 
diversion of the roads in Conolt Park, though many indications of its former 
direction are still to be traced. In process of time these indications will 
tend to become less and less distinct. It might seem desirable, therefore^ 
to record a recent investigation of the probable route in ancient days. A 
rough sketch of such an investigation is appended. 

In the lower corner of this plan is the Hampshire Gate — the meeting 
point of the two counties of Hants and Wilts. Thenceforth the line of the 
old road is through the latter county. From this " gate," which is situated 
about 700 feet above sea level, is a superb view over a wide area of the two 
counties. Andover is distant 6j miles, and Weyhill may be reached in 
5 miles by the shire lane dividing the aforesaid counties. 



I 



';:"...^".*;:.f >; 






i. . ,v ij*^ *.i!te£>i,s - - *.»,** u.-i . <»'*f.' !!"Cy?wv- ■:•''i....- 






,1^^ i 










Notes. 



267 



m \\ 






C*OivAOLT P/\K«{ 




Suggested course of Roman Road at Conolt. (Scale : 4in. to a mile). 

From this point (marked A) the present road is identical with the Roman 
Road (which runs in an N.E. direction) for some 500 yards. The former 
then diverges to the right, descends sharply into a dell, with an equally 
steep but longer rise to point marked C, with the present Conolt House 
on high ground on the right. 

But in pursuit of our investigation at the point marked B, we enter the 
park through a gate on the left and the route lies in a perfectly straight 
line beside a broken avenue of chestnut trees, on a well defined terrace 
rising in places 15 or 20 feet above the falling ground on the right. A pond 
lies below. 

In about 350 yards we arrive at a fence marked " b." We look back and 
see that the line we have taken is absolutely straight with the road A B, 
which we left. 

Climbing the fence the chestnut avenue recommences — now more or less 
doubled with a space of 30 to 40 feet between the lines. Still in a straight 
line we continue through somewhat broken ground to a second fence 
marked " d." The distance between the fences is about 500 yards. 

Here at " d " we notice a singular drop in the line of fence which is not 
accounted for by the greatly sloping lie of the ground : and it seems to me 
that this is an indication that we are correctly on the line of the old road 
and that this sudden dip of the fence is owing to the ancient removal of 
soil for the purpose of supporting the level of the road (A to B). 



268 Notes. 

The causeway beyond is now in view flanked on this side by rows of trees* 
If we still continue in the straight line (towards a rookery) we shall observe, 
I think, slight indications of the old route, but they are not so distinct as 
before. 

If the old road then passed into the present one we have journeyed some 
I mile only from B to D, and we have determined our investigation, i^ut 
I cannot but think that the old road took its turn within the park and 
proceeded a good 600 yards through the present lines of trees to the gate (E) 
which debouches on the causeway. Outside this gate and for a distance of 
some 200 yards is an untidy bit of waste on the left side of the present road 
— ultimately thinning out where the road rises slightly at F and this I take 
to have been the course of the Roman Road. This point, however, is not 
of great importance. 

If we seek for the cause of this diversion of the old track I venture to think 
that a very plausible reason may be found. 

Local tradition has it that in this corner of the park existed a century or 
more ago a large mansion which was burnt down and not rebuilt. In a 
truth it may still be said that Conolt Park has no mansion — the present 
house being but an enlargement of the old dower house or other building 
on the property. 

If this be so, the owner evidently wished to remove the road traffic 
further from his privacy ; and at the same time desired to include the once 
magnificent avenue of chestnuts and other trees which had been planted 
along the route. 

He therefore diverted the road from F (or possibly only from D) to a 
corner at 0, and thence at an angle down to B. 

This is the result of my present investigation : which I should much like 
any member of the Wilts Archseological Society, who may be interested, to 
come over and confirm : or by subsequent enquiry, modify. The matter, I 
venture to think, is not without interest and deserves a record. 

H. E. B. Arnold. 

Bradford-on-Avon. The Chapel on the Bridge^. 

The Wiltshire IHmes, Oct. 29th, 1927, contained an appeal signed by Lord 
Fitzmaurice and Mr. 0. R. Quartley for subscriptions for the repair of the 
Bridge Chapel before it was handed over to the Wilts County Council for 
safe keeping. The sum required was ^300 of which about £110 had been 
subscribed up-to-date. The following interesting report upon the con- 
dition of the building by Mr. H. Brakspear, F.S.A , accompanies the appeal. 
Largely through the generosity of Lord Fitzmaurice the necessary sum has 
been found and the work has now (1928) been completed. 

" The existing structure is built upon one of the piers of the bridge which 
occurs between the Norman and 14th century parts of the bridge. This 
pier was corbelled out to support the original chapel, and this corbelling of 
the 14th century still remains though the chapel itself has disappeared. In 
its place has been erected the present structure, 12ft. square, with walls only 
12in. in thickness. It has a doorway on the west side, but no sign of any 
original windows. The building is covered by a domed roof of stone and 



Notes, 269 

is surmounted by a heavy stone finial and iron weather vane. The build- 
ing was fitted up as a " blind house" or " lock-up" with two cells and an 
entrance lobby, and the iron bedsteads of the prisoners yet remain fixed to 
the walls. All over the building, inside and out, are iron straps with the ends 
turned back into the stonework, which were apparently to prevent the 
prisoners cutting their way through the thin walls." The report goes on to 
describe the amount and method of the necessary repair. 

Sir John Falstaff and Steeple Langford. A few years 

ago in a book on, I think, Village Life in the Middle Ages, by a professor 
at Sheffield, I came across the statement that Sir John Falstaff paid his 
tithes in the nave of the Church of Steeple Langford in the 14th Century* 
I could not get any further information from the author and I have forgotten 
the title of the book ; I could not find out the connection of Sir John 
Falstaff with this village until I discovered in Scrope's History of Castle 
Combe that the Manor of Bathampton, part of this parish, belonged to the 
barony of Combe. 

This barony was granted to Reginald, Earl of Cornwall (1146 — 1175), 
passed to his son-in-law, Walter de Dunstanville ; then to his son Robert 
de D. (d. 1184, buried at Wilton) ; then to Walter, • who died in 1270, leaving 
one daughter, Petronilla, who married Sir Robt. de Montfort, and her son, 
William, sold his manors to Bartholomew, Lord Badlesmere, executed in 
1422. Giles, Lord Badlesmere died without issue and the lordship of Castle 
Combe was assigned to John de Tibetot, who had married Margaret, sister 
of Giles (1339—41). After the death of Robert, Lord Tiptoft, in 1372, the 
wardship and marriage of his three infant children was granted to Sir Rich. 
Scrope in 1372 ; his son, Sir Stephen, married his father's ward, Millicent, 
second daughter and co-heiress of Robert Lord Tiptoft, Lord of Castle 
Combe in 1372. 

She married, secondly, Sir John Fastolfe, who, after her death, 1446, till 
his own in 1460, held the estates of Castle Combe, including, amongst many 
others, the manor of " Bathampton- Wyly." 

From Thomas? de Wyrcestre's papers it appears that in 1439 John 
Todeworth, surveyor of the manors of Bathampton Wyly, was examined by 
the auditors of Sir John Fastolf touching arrears due from him : certain of 
his charges were disallowed, e.g.^ 10s. for a" gourie cloth that Thomas Piers, 
late reff of Castel Combe had bought." It would seem that Thomas Piers, 
orPerys, here mentioned was the priest of Steeple Langford, from a humble 
letter addressed by him to Fastolf, formally attesting his success in collecting 
arrears of rent from his tenants at Bathampton- Wily. 

^ Philip de Depeford held one-fifth of a Knight's fee in Batham-Wily of 
Nicholas de Wily, and he of Alfred of Lincoln, and he of Walter de Dun- 
stanville. Gilbert de Muleford held half a knight's fee in the same town 
(Batham-Wily) of Walter de Dunstanville. 

" The account given by Hoare, of Wily, and its tithings of Depeford, 
and Great and Little Bathampton, in the adjoining parish of Steeple Lang- 
ford is very imperfect. The whole seems to have been a dependency of 
Castle Combe, at least down to the middle of the 15th Cent" (Scrope). 



270 Notes. 

Suo Domino, Domino Johanni Fastolf militi etc. Rygt worshypful & 
reverent lord I recommende me unto your hynesse by sekying you of your 
grete goodnes that ye be good lorde unto your tenent John Aleyn etc. And 
as ye send wrytyng to Langeforde to your preste & bedesman Sir Thomas 
I to do yowr commandement. Truly and effectually I have done my part 
in the Chyrch of Stypellangford to your tenents Robert Edward, Robert 
Rose, Adam Warrok, Wyliam Peter of Bathampton-Wily that they have 
trewly payd to Thomas Spurlok the rents of ij yere & thereto they wollen 
swere uppon a boke. Also as for the billys that William Dorset wrote 
schal be sent in the letter as ye commanded. Furthermore we have accounty ed 
& leyd that Thomas Shurlok hath receywyed ixli xiijs iiijd for ij yere : I 
contyd in the chyrch of Langeforde forsayd betwixt Matens & Masse the 
Sonday afore the feste of Sente Mycall in Monte Tumba, to ye whech 
wrytyng we al yowr tenents putten to our selys. No more unto yow but 
ye Holy Trynite have yow ever in hys blessed kepying. I wete at Lange- 
forde the XV day of Octobir. By yowr ouyn trew por bedesman Sir Thomas 
Pirys, preste of Stipillangford — (4 seals attached). 

[Rectors of Steeple Langford— 1435, Willielmus Ferthyng ; — Johannes 
Goodyng ; 1443, Johannes Ohedworth ; 1452 — 77, Willielmus Crowton]. 

W. S. TUPHOLME. 

Roman Building on Draycott Farm near Huish. 

A letter dated November Uth, 1892, to myself from Mr. G. E. Dartnell, of 
Salisbury, son of the Rector of Huish, says " That building in a field near 
Huish has never been recorded, even in the newspapers. When Mr. 
Newman was leaving Draycott Farm, 8 or 10 years ago, he determined to 
satisfy his curiosity as to what there was in that field. The growth of the 
crops showed foundations must be there. Part of the field had Roman 
tesserae lying about. The Huish folk have a tradition that " a great city " 
once stood there. So he cut a way through his wheat to a well-marked 
spot and dug there at the corners of the supposed walls. A plan of his 
finds would show the four corner foundations of a room or building, with 
some " pillars " here and there in the middle, discovered by prodding with 
the crowbar. In one corner (of the room) a skeleton was found. The walls 
ran out in other directions. The search was of course very imperfect, as he 
only destroyed just enough of his wheat to get at what I have shown [Mr. 
Dartnell gives a rough sketch from memory showing the corners of an 
oblong rectangular foundation with some " pillars " in the centre]. I am 
sorry we did not take measurements, etc., at the time." It is obvious that 
the " pillars " were hypocaust supports and that the building was part of a 
Roman house. E. H. Uoddard. 



271 



WILTS OBITUARY. 
Captain John Edmund Philip Spicer, died March 3ist, 

1928. Buried at Chittoe. Born June 27th, 1850, eldest son of Major John 
William Gooch Spicer and Juliana Hannah Webb, daughter of Rev. Edmund 
Probyn, of Longhope and Abenhall, Glos. Educated at Eton, joined 1st 
Life Guards, 1869, and served until 1887. Married 1888, Lady Margaret 
Mary Fane, younger daughter of 12th Earl of Westmoreland. He soon 
after settled at Spye Park and resided there until his death. J. P. for 
Wilts 1881, High Sheriff 1889. He took no prominent part in county 
business. During the Great War he was second in command of the 1st 
Volunteer Battalion Wiltshire Regiment. He was best known as a sports- 
man in the hunting field or on the box of his coach, the " Nimrod," which 
ran regularly from Devizes to Bath in 1892, and from Marlborough to Bath 
in the following year. He also drove it between London and Brighton, and 
was for many years a regular attendant at the Four-in-Hand Driving Club 
meets. He was one of the oldest members of the Beaufort Hunt, and from 
1888 to 1895 acted as master of the pack, hunting the country handed over 
to him by the Duke of Beaufort, the country which after many subsequent 
changes is now hunted by the Avon Vale Hunt. He also for a time kept 
and hunted a pack of old English Harriers. There are many references to 
him in Sporting Recollections of a Younger Son by Claude Luttrell. He is 
succeeded by Captain Anthony Napier Fane Spicer, who with four other 
sons survives him, his eldest son and^only daughter having pre-deceased him. 
Long and appreciative obit, notice with photograph of his coach at the 
door of Spye Park and some notice of the house, in Wiltshire Gazette^ April 
5th, 1928. 

J. W. Brown, died at his home in Salisbury, June, 1928, aged 85. 
During the greater part of his life he had been connected with the well- 
known firm of Messrs. Powell, of Whitefriars, and was the designer of many 
of their most important works in stained glass. The whole of the Powell 
windows in Liverpool Cathedral, in the lady Chapel and choir, are by him, 
as also is the large window in Salisbury Cathedral to the memory of Bishop 
(Dean) Webb. There are also windows in New York, Wells, Adelaide, and 
Belfast Cathedrals designed by him. He continued to design glass till 
within a year of his death, one of his last works being for a window in a 
Church in Accrington. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette^ June 7th, 1928. 

James Henry Wilson, died May, 1928, aged 63. Buried at 
Bishopstone. Born in London, succeeded his uncle in the farm at Longcott 
(Berks), moved thence to Shrivenham, and in 1904 to Bishopstone, where he 
acted as churchwarden for many years. He had been president of the Live 
Stock Traders' Association, and his services as a judge of sheep were in 
demand at shows over a wide area. He married Caroline Hedges, of 
Ashbury, who, with three sons and a daughter, survives him. 
Obit, notice with portrait, N. Wilts Herald, June 8th, 1928. 



272 Wilts Obituary. 

Charles James Kindersley Maurice, died June nth, 

1928, aged 52. Buried at Preshute. Son of Dr. James Blake Maurice, of 
Marlborough. Lived and farmed at Manton Grange. Known as a breeder 
and judge of pedigree cows. 

Frank William Marillier, C.B.£., died June, i928, aged 

72. Born at Bristol. At 17, became a pupil of Major Pearson of the Bristol 
and Exeter Railway. In 1876 became a draughtsman in G.W.R. works, 
rising to be works manager at Saltney, 1898, and carriage and wagon 
superintendent at Swindon, 1914, During the war he was chairman of the 
technical committee for ambulance trains in England, France, and the 
United States, and supervised other war work of all sorts in connection 
with trucks, carriages, wagons, &c. For this work he was made O.B.E. in 
1919 and CB.E. in 1920. He retired in 1921 and lived in Swindon until 
his death. He was churchwarden and member of the Town Council. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, June 30th, 1928. 

Canon Edward Denny, died May 18th, 1928, aged 74. Buried 
at Codford St. Peter. Educated Pemb. Coll., Oxford, B.A. 1876, M.A , 1880, 
Deacon 1876, Priest 1877 (Lichfield), Curate of St. Michael and All Angels, 
Caldmore, Walsall, 1876—79; St. James, Plymouth, 1879—83; Llanfrechfa 
Upper (Mon.), 1883—1910; Vicar of Kempley (Glos.), 1886—98 ; St. Peter's, 
Vauxhall, 1898—1910; Hector of Codford St. Peter, 1915, until his death*. 
Canon of Salisbury, 1924. " He was one of the chief authorities on the 
subject of Anglican Orders . . . in 1912, something in the style of the 
17th Century, when men who had business to do in the world mysteriously 
found time to construct enormous tomes of controversy, he published a most 
learned volume entitled " Papalism," said to have been the only English 
book which the late Pope ever read, based upon his exhaustive knowledge 
of the early Fathers." He was a pronounced Liberal and an advanced 
High Churchman. 

Obit, notices. Times; Salisbury Diocesan Gazette; June, 1928. 

He was the author of the following : — 
Anglican Orders and Jurisdiction, 1893. 
De Hierarchia Anglican a, 1895 [in conjunction with Dr. T. A. Lacey ; 

Bishop John Wordsworth contributing a Latin Preface]. 
Papalism, 1912. 

Rev. Charles Andrew Sladen. Died May, 1928, buried 

at Alton Barnes. Son of Bev. Edw. H. Mainwaring Sladen. Univ. Coll.* 
Oxon, B.A.1877, M A. 1881, Deacon, 1877; Priest, 1878 (Winchester); Curate 
of Burghclere, 1877—79 and 1882—89; Alverstoke, 1879—81 ; Andover, 1881 
—82; Winsley, 1893—96; Vicar of Burton (Ches.), 1896—1901 ; Hector 
of Alton Barnes, 1901, with Alton Priors, 1913 ; Curate of Alton Priors, 1911 
—13. He resigned Alton Barnes about 1925 and had lived in retirement* 
Obit notice Wiltshire Gazette, May 24th, 1928. 

Rev. Vere Awdry. Died July 12th, 1928, aged 73, buried at 
Box Cemetery. Youngest son of Sir John Wither Awdry, of Notton^ 
Lacock. Educated at Marlborough, qualified as solicitor, but was ordained 



1 



Wilts Obituary. 273 

Deacon from Chichester Theol. Coll., 1886, and Priest 1 888 (Sarum); Curate of 
N. Bradley, 1886—91 ; Vicar of Broad Hinton, 1891—95 ; Vicar of Ampfield 
(Hants), 1895 — 1917, when he retired to live at Box, taking occasional 
services, and for the last two years being responsible for the services at 
Chapel Plaister. He identified himself with the interests of Box in many 
ways. He married three times, his son by his first wife, Lt. Carol Awdry, 
was killed in the War, his two sons by his third wife are at the Dauntsey 
School. Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, July 19th, 1928. 

Dr. William John Alexander Adye, Died April eth, 

1928, aged 65, buried at Bradford-on-Avon. Elder son of Dr. William Adye, 
of Bradford. Assisted his father and succeeded to his practice, becoming 
Medical Officer to the Urban and Rural District Councils. A singularly 
touching appreciation of *' Dr. John " by " Fay Inchfawn " (.Mrs. Atkinson 
Ward) dwelling on his cheery kindness and humorous way with the suffering 
and the poor, which made him so beloved in Bradford, was printed with an 
obituary notice in Wiltshire Times, April 14th, 1928. 

John Xing', died July 13th, 1928, aged 75. Buried at Bromham 
Cemetery. Son of James King, builder, of Bromham. As a member of the 
Devizes Volunteers he became a first-rate rifle shot, and in 1880 won the 
St. George's Challenge Vase and Gold Jewel at Wimbledon. On the for- 
mation of the Wilts County Council in 1888 he contested the seat for the 
Rowde division as Labour candidate against Mr. H. E. Medlicot. and though 
he was defeated he was elected an alderman of the council, January 3ist, 
1889, and continued to serve on the council until his death, being known 
throughout the county. J. P. for the county 1922. Throughout bis life he 
was a strong Liberal and Nonconformist. He was an enthusiastic gardener 
and smallholder. He was one of the best known members of the County 
Council and was widely respected. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, July 21st, 1928. 

The Right Rev. Mgr. Count Francis Browning 

Bickerstaffe-DreW, C.B.E., died July 3rd, 1928, aged 70. Buried 
at Winterbourne Gunner, Born February 11th, 1858, son of the Rev. 
Harry Lloyd Bickerstaffe, his mother being the daughter of the Kev. Pierce 
Drew, Rector of Youghal. Educated at Lichfield Grammar School, Den- 
stone, and Oxford. At the age of 20 he was received into the Roman 
Catholic Church and was ordained priest 1884, and was attached to the 
Pro-Cathedral at Kensington. He was commissioned Chaplain to the 
Forces, 1892, serving at Plymouth, Malta, and Salisbury Plain. He was 
private Chamberlain to Popes Leo XIII. and Pius X., and Domestic Prelate 
to the latter. Created a Count and Knight of the Order of the Holy 
Sepulchre, 1909, and Protonotary Apostolic, 1912. He was an original 
member of of the Pontifical Council of Malta, and a member of the special 
council of the Malta University. He served in the war, 1914 and 1915, was 
twice mentioned in dispatches, and created C.B.E. Assistant Principal 
Roman Catholic Chaplain, Southern Command, 1918. He retired 1919 



274 Wilts Obituary. 

He was L.L.D. of the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, and of Marquette 
University, Wisconsin. He had lived for many years at Winterbourne 
Gunner and Salisbury. He was best known as " John Ayscough," the 
name under which all his writings were published. " The Monsignor was 
a fastidious, and almost an exquisite personage. His literary taste, his 
sense of ecclesiastical precision, and his love of military life were reflected in 
his writings and in himself .... his best book was " San Celestino," 
. . . This was noticeably superior to his other writings which were most 
readable when autobiography was disguised in his fiction. ... He had 
a firm touch in character drawing, a sensitive appreciation of natural 
beauty, and a cultivated style of writing." 

Obit, notice, Times, July 5th, 1928. 

He was the author of the following works : — 

San Celestino, an Essay in Reconstruction, Post 8vo., pp. 332. 6/-. 

(An account of the Life and Papacy of St. Gelestine V,). 1909. 
Marotz [a novel]. 1908. 
Dromina [a novel]. 1909. 
Mezzogiorno. London, Chatto & Windus ; St. Louis. B. Horder. 1910 

[a novel]. 
A Roman Tragedy. 
Mr. Beke of the Blacks. 
Outsiders and In. 
Admonition. 
Hurdcott. London, Chatto & Windus, 1911. 7|in. X 5in , pp. 393 [a 

novel, scene laid round Salisbury and the Plain]. 
Faustula. In A.D. 340. Chatto & Windus, 1912. 7fin. X 5in.,pp. 332. 

6/-. 
Gracechurch. Longmans & Co., 1913. 6/-. [Purports to be the auto- 
biography of the author as a small boy]. 4th edition, 1919. 
Prodigals and Sons. Chatto & Windus, London, 1914. [27 short 

stories]. 6/-. 
Monksbridge. Chatto & Windus, London, 1914. 6/-. [A novel], 
French Windows. 1917. Post 8vo. [Impressions of the War]. 
Tideway. 1918. 
Fernando, three editions in 1918. Cr. Svo., pp. 320. 7/-. [Autobiography 

in guise of a novel]. 
Abbotscourt. Chatto & Windus, London, 1919. 7/-. [A novel]. 
Letters to his mother during 1914, 1915, and 1916. Edited 

with an Introduction by Frank BickerstaiFe Drew. 1919. Svo. 

10/6. 
A Prince in Petto. Chatto & Windus, 1919. 7/-, 
First Impressions in America. London, John Long. 1921. 8vo., 

pp. 318, 
The Foundress. John Long, 1921. [A novel]. 
Mariquita. 1922. [A novel]. 
Dobachi. 1922. [A novel, a Puritan settlement on the New England 

Coast]. 



Wilts Obituary. 275 

Pages from the Fast. 1922. [Reminiscences]. 

Brogmersfield. Hutchinson & Co., London. 1924. Cr. 8vo., pp. 286. 

Jacqueline. Uhatto & Windus. 6/-. [A novel]. 

The Story of Oscar. 

[His first novel was published in 1879, the second in 1903, the third in 
1907. His first article was in Chambers Journal, 1876]. 

Frederick William Giddings, died Feb. iith, )928, aged 59. 

Buried in Devizes Cemetery. Son of Edwin Giddings, wine merchant, of 
Devizes. He succeeded with his brother to his father's business. Joined 
the 2nd Volunteer Batt. Wilts Regt. as a private and later was commissioned. 
In 1908, when the Territorial Force was constituted, he retired to the 
Reserve of Oflficers, but in 1914 when war broke out he rejoined and was 
largely instrumental in raising the 4th Reserve Battalion and was for a 
time in command at Trowbridge, and went with the 2nd/4th Batt. to India, 
December, 1914. Invalided home in 1916 he served with the 4th Reserve 
Batt. at Sutton Veny and elsewhere. He had lived of late years at New- 
bury. He was a prominent freemason. He married first Miss Mabel Creed 
and secondly Miss Beatrice Harris who with three children survives him. 
Obit, notice Wiltshire Gazette, February 16th, 1928. 

William Page Roberts, D.D., died August I7th, 1928, aged 
92. Buried at Farnham Royal, Bucks. Son of W. Roberts, of Broockfield, 
Lanes. Born January 6th, 1836. Educated at Liverpool College, and for 
a while at the Wesleyan Theological College at Richmond. His family were 
Wesleyans, but he decided to take orders in the Church of England and 
entered St. John's Coll., Cambs. B. A. 1861, M. A. 1865. Hon. D.D. University 
of Glasgow, 1907. Deacon 1861, Priest 1862 (Chester). Curate of St. Thomas, 
Stockport, 1861-64 ; Vicar of Eye, Suff., 1864-78 ; Vicar of St. Peter's, 
Vere Street, Marylebone, 1878—1907 ; Canon Residentary of Canterbury, 
1895 — 1907 ; Dean of Salisbury, 1907—19 ; when he resigned and went to 
live at Shanklin where he died. He was Select Preacher at Oxford and 
also at Cambridge. He married, 1878, Margaret Grace, 6th daughter of the 
5th Lord Rivers, who died April, 1926. Their two sons died young, two 
daughters survive them. It was as a preacher that he became widely known 
at Vere Street and Canterbury, and afterwards at Salisbury. Indeed he 
continued to preach occasionally even in his 89th year. In opinion he was a 
broad churchman. The evening services at the Cathedral which he es- 
tablished, especially during the war, were attended by very large congre- 
gations. He had travelled widely in Europe, and also in the United States, 
Canada, Palestine, Egypt and the Soudan, Ceylon and India, and the West 
Indies. 

Long obit, notices. Times, Wiltshire Gazette, August 23rd, 1928, and other 
papers. 

He was the author of the following : — 
Law and God. Twelve sermons. 1874. Post 8vo. 5/-. ; 3rd edition, 

1875. 5/- : 1878. 
Reasonable Service. Sermons. 1876. Post 8vo. 6/- ; 2nd edition, 

1877. 4th edition. 



276 Wilts OUtuary. 

Liberalism in Religion and other Sermons. 1886. Or. 8vo ; 2Qd 

edition, 1887. 
[His first sermon preached in Salisbury Cathedral, September 22ad, 

1907.] Wilts County Mirror, Sept. 27th ; Salisbury Journal, Sept. 28th, 

1 907. 
[Sermon preached in Canterbury Cathedral, Sept. 29th, 1907]. Salis- 
bury Journal, Oct. 5th, 1907. 
George Herbert. [Sermon preached in Salisbury Cathedral, 

Nov, 6th, 1907]. Salisbury Journal, Nov. 9th; Salisbury Dio. Gazette, 

Dec, 1907. 
Heredity. [Address to Parents' Nat. Educational Union at 

Salisbury.] Salisbury Journal, May 8th, 1909. 
Darwin. [Sermon preached at Salisbury Cathedral, July 4th, 

1909.] Salisbury Journal, July 10th, 1909. 
[Sermon preached at Infirmary Annual Service at Salisbury 

Cathedral, Sept. 28th, 1909]. Salisbury Journal, Oct. 2nd, 1909. 
[Sermon preached Christmas, 1911, at Salisbury Cathedral] 

Salisbury Journal, Dec. 30th, 1911. 
Conformity and Conscience. 1914. Three editions. 
Crabbe Centenary Celebration. Sermon preached at Trowbridge. 

Salisbury Journal, June 27th, 1914. 
Shakespeare Memorial Sermon preached at Stratford -on- Avon, 

April 25th, 1915. Salisbury Journal, May 1st, 1915. 
Sermon preached in St Paul's Cathedral at An. Nat. Service 

for Seafarers, Oct. 20th, 1915. Salisbury Journal, Oct. 23rd, 1915. 
Armistice, fcermon preached at Salisbury Cathedral, Nov. 17th, 

1918, Salisbury Dio. Gazette, Jan., 1919, 



277 



WILTSHIEE BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, AND ARTICLES. 

[N.B. — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The Editor 
appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views, in any 
way connected with the county, to send him copies of their work, and to 
editors of papers, and members of the Society generally, to send him copies 
of articles, views, or portraits appearing in the newspapers.] 

Wessex from the Air. By O. G, S. Crawford, 
r.S A , and Alexander Keiller, F S.A , F G.S , with 
contributions by R. C. C. Clay, M.RC.S, L.R.C.P., 
F.S.A , and Eric Gardner M.B., F.S A. Oxford, at the 

Clarendon Press. 1928. 

4to., pp. xi. + 264. 50 photo plates, 61 sketch maps and figures. Price 
50/- net. 

This fine volume begins with a chapter on the history and bibliography 
of archaeology from the air, giving a detailed account of the earliest air 
photographs taken, showing ancient sites. The different classes of earth- 
works dealt with are then described, camps, villages, fields and barrows. 
Of the camps Mr. Crawford remarks that the evidence of pits and hut sites 
in the photographs in many of them goes to show that they were per- 
manently inhabited, and as to the diflSculty of water supply he thinks that 
regular sieges of fortified places were not a part of the warfare of the times 
when they were thrown up, and that the normal supply of water was pro- 
vided precisely as it is to this day in the hill villages of Algeria, by being 
brought up daily by the women from springs at the foot of the hill. 

Of the village sites he says that all of them were apparently inhabited 
during the Roman occupation, but that many were of earlier origin. He 
divides these villages of the early iron and Romano- British periods from 
600 B.C. to 400 A.D. into two types. The earliest were pit dwellings as at 
All Cannings, Swallowfield, and Fyfield Bavant, with thatched roofs ; the 
later, as at Rotherley and Woodcuts, were huts above ground. The 
villages in Roman times were open and undefended, except by a ditch and 
fence to keep cattle out. " In Romano- British times practically the whole 
of Salisbury Plain, Cranborne Chase, and the Dorset Uplands were under 
the plough." With regard to the origin of cultivation in Wessex, Mr. 
Crawford finds reason to modify his former opinion that it began with the 
advent of the Early Iron Age people, on account of two new pieces of 
evidence, (a) that fragments of querns have been found in the ditches of 
Windmill Hill, Avebury, associated with pottery that may be called 
Neolithic, and (b) that Dr. Clay in 1925 excavated at " Wudu-burh " in 
Broad Chalke a rectangular earthwork " which is quite obviously later than 
the well developed cultivation banks upon which it is laid out. If it was 
constructed as he concludes by the finger-tip people, agriculture must have 
been an ancient industry already when they arrived." Dr. Clay's account 



278 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

of the excavation of this earthwork on the south slope of Knighton Hill 
midway between Knighton Hill buildings and the crossing of the Ox-drove 
by the Roman road, identified by Dr. Grundy as the '* Wudu burh " of the 
A.S. charters is printed with plan and sections on pp. 131 — 137. Six sec- 
tions were cut through bank and ditch and a composite section shows early 
Iron Age sherds alone on the bottom of the ditch, and the same mixed with 
Romano- British fragments at two higher levels in the silting whilst at the 
bottom of the surface mould only Romano- British sherds appear. Dr. 
Clay identifies those found at the bottom of the ditch as of La Tene I. date 
one of them having large finger-tip impressions identical with the pottery 
found at All Cannings, Fifield Bavant, and Swallowcliffe. These must 
have been deposited almost as soon as the ditch was dug. The air photo- 
graph shows this earthwork as superimposed upon a series of cultivated 
lynchets. As to this Dr. Clay says of Section 2—" It is diflScult to show on 
a plan or to explain by words the evidence that at this spot the 
lynchet was earlier than the ditch, but anyone seeing the excavations 
could have no doubt at all." A much smaller four-sided enclosure with a 
bank only 1ft. high close by, was also examined and judged to be contem- 
porary with the larger earthwork, Incidentally Dr. Clay makes the interest- 
ing suggestion that the reason why the ends of a ditch next to the causeways 
are often of greater depth than the rest of the ditch, as at Avebury, may be 
merely the necessity of providing a greater mass of material at this point 
to complete the ends of the vallum, and that this may explain the "craters" 
at Stonehenge. Mr. Crawford concludes that at whatever date the system 
of cultivation began, " it did not reach its maximum extension until the 
Romano-British period." Tribal warfare was then impossible, the popula- 
tion must have rapidly increased, and there was also the stimulus of the 
export trade in corn. 

Under " Pillow mounds " (longmoreor lessrectangular mounds which are 
not barrows) Mr. Crawford mentions a long flat mound on the south side of 
Liddington Camp opposite a gap in the rampart, 72ft. long by 22ft. wide, 
and another on Laverstock Down, 21 yards long by 10 yards wide, and 
from 2ft. to 3ft. high with ditch all round it. 

In a list of 46 Wiltshire air photographs not reproduced in the book, the 
following are amongst the new discoveries noticed : — four barrows in the 
ploughed ground on Waden Hill, Avebury, between the allotments and the 
new pond ; a new disc barrow on Snail Down, Collingbourne ; circular en- 
closures on Everley Down ; Sarsen rows on the the edge of ancient fields 
at Totterdown ; the ditches of two ploughed down barrows at West Over- 
ton ; the interior of Barbury Castle shown to contain innumerable pits ; 
a new small single ditched camp between Upavon village and Widdington 
Farm ; three round barrows in the corner of a field on Milk Hill. The 
ground to the north of Stonehenge has often been photographed with a view 
to finding the lost north branch of the avenue but no trace of it is to be 
seen. Amongst other new sites not photographed are a square earthwork 
near Porton Down Farm ; the close association of camps and ancient fields 
at Barbury, Yarnbury, and Lidbury ; a number of pits in a field adjoining 
the Avebury circle on the S.E., north of the Kennett Avenue ; a large 



^ I 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 279 

enclosure 5-mile west of Windmill Cottages, Everley ; a small one in the ex- 
treme N. corner of Laverstock parish ; along barrow between Fussells Lodge 
Farm and Figsbury Kings in the parish of Clarendon Park, 171ft. long, 5ft. 
4in. high ; and a possible long barrow on Cockey Down, above the Winter- 
bourne. 

Yarnbury Camp is illustrated by an admirable air photograph and is 
described by Mr. Keiller. All previous writers, apparently following Hoare, 
have given the height of its main rampart (there are three ramparts and 
two ditches all round it) as 50ft. or 52ft. whereas its real vertical height is 
25ft, Hoare no doubt imeasured the length of the slope instead of the 
actual vertical height. Of the six existing entries only that on the east is 
ancient, which is strongly guarded. The interior circle, that probably of an 
earlier camp, is clearly visible on the photograph, which also shows the 
curious annexe on the S.W. side. 

Chiselbury Camp, in Fovant, with its single rampart and ditch, is also 
illustrated and described by Mr. Keiller. The single entrance inside a semi- 
circular outwork has two distinct entries. It is suggested that this camp 
was the refuge for the people of the La Tene village on Fyiield Bavant Down 
excavated by Dr. Clay. Of Figsbury Rings an excellent airphoto is given, 
and Mrs. Cunnington's account of the excavation is quoted. The bronze 
sword found within the camp in 1704 and now in the Ashmolean is illustra- 
ted. Of Hamshill Ditches in Barford St. Martin there is an air photo and 
description by Mr. Crawford. There are two fragmentary round enclosures 
of the " Spectacle type " connected by a raised causeway with ditch on each 
side. These were probably sheep or cattle pens with a raised road between 
the pens. Outside the larger circle are numerous remains of habitations, 
foundations of a wall, roof tiles, iron slag, and Romano-British sherds, and 
other objects. This large Romano-British village is apparently contemp- 
orary with the " spectacles." Similar double circles occur on Pewsey Down 
and at Rotherley. 

In Britford on the top of a hill one mile due south of Salisbury Cathedral 
an air photo of land under green wheat showed clearly part of a circular 
camp. The remainder in fallow ground was invisible both to the camera 
and upon the ground. This camp unknown before has been named Wood- 
bury, from the fact that Akerman gives that name to the locality. 

Hanging Langford Camp, in Steeple Langford, and the neighbouring 
earthwork Church End are shown on the same photo and described by 
Mr. Crawford who regards the "camp" as the site of a Celtic village 
with strong ditches and banks, with a clearly defined entrance on one side, 
whilst the photograph shows no signs of their ever having existed on the 
other sides at all. 

Ebbsbury (in Wishford and Groveley) Mr. Crawford regards as proved 
by the photograph to have been an important example of 

" a hill top camp of formidable dimensions, abandoned and partially 
levelled by cultivation during the Romano-British period. That is the 
explanation of those detached sections of strong triple ramparts which 
puzzled Colt Hoare and all subsequent observers. They are not as Colt 
Hoare thought, the latest part of the design ; and their discontinuity is 
TOL. XLIV. — NO. CXLIX. T 



280 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

due to deliberate destruction. The destroyers were doubtless the 

Romano-British villagers whose principal settlement seems to have been 

outside the camp on the eastern slope of the hill. . . . The importance 

of the site is that it affords evidence for the first time of the abandonment 

of a hill top camp by agricultural villagers) of the Romano- British period. 

. . . The Pax Romana made obsolete the strongly fortified hill top 

camps. . . . Now that Ebbsbury has provided the clue, it is probable 

that other detached fragments will similarly fall into place. The ramparts 

west of Hamshill ditches may be the remains of another. . . . From 

the plan it looks as if Stockton works were the remains of a camp ; and in 

many respects, as Colt Hoare pointed out, these remains bear a close 

resemblance to those at Ebbsbury." 

The photograph of Overton Down shows numerous sarsens and lynchets 

bounding cultivation patches. That of Combe Bissett Down shows a small 

squarish earthwork superimposed on the " lands " of earlier cultivation. If 

the earthwork is of Early Iron Age, as it appears to be, the " lands " must 

be Prehistoric. The photo of Coombe Down, Enford, again shows these 

•' lands " or ridges. Mr. Crawford notes that Sadlers Pit, now dry, called 

" Comesdeane Well "in 1591, anciently contained water. 

Of Ogbury, in Durnford, he remarks that the disappearance of the ditch 
is due to cultivation, ancient and modern. The Celtic rectangular cultiva- 
tion " fields " are shown within the camp. 

" There are few parts of Wiltshire where the Celtic system of cultiva- 
tion survives in such perfection as on Pertwood Down," in Brixton Deverill. 
Here the photograph shows the Roman Road, 21ft. wide, on the usual raised 
causeway in its relation to the lynchets of the cultivation plots. This road 
led from the Mendip lead mines to Old Sarum and Winchester, and thence 
to Clausentum the port, and was in use as early as A.D. 60 since a pig of 
lead of that date has been found on its course. It is, however, evident 
that the road when made cut through existing lynchets. 

Steeple Langford Cowdown, immediately south of Yarnbury, is a " unique 
site." " It consists of a dry valley or combe whose sides are covered with 
Prehistoric fields. At a later date than these a number of mysterious 
geometric figures have been carved. These stand out in low relief on the 
turf and can be seen on the ground. . . . The general appearance from 
the air resembles a number of biscuits laid upon a table." Of these 21 are 
noted by Mr. Crawford, who can, however, give no explanation of them, 
only suggesting as a possibility their connection with Yarnbury fair in some 
way in mediaeval times. Colt Hoare illustrated and described them in 1825 
in Modern Wilts. Several of the mounds have been dug by Mr. R. S. 
Newall and have produced nothing. Calstone Fields are given as a good 
example of mediaeval lynchets subsisting down to modern times, as shown 
in an early 18th century map. 

Bush Barrow, in Wilsford (S. Wilts), and the adjoining Disc Barrows are 
given in an air photo, and the objects found in the former, now at Devizes, 
are illustrated from new drawings by Mr. Waterhouse. 

Tower Hill Barrows in Newton Toney are shown in a photograph and 
Mr. A. Keiller notes that Hoare, and following him " Goddard's List," 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, a^ui Articles. 281 

place two of these barrows over the Hampshire border. This is wrong, all 
«ight of them are in Wilts. They are not on modern ordnance survey maps. 

Collingbourne Cowdown Barrows are shown on a photograph. 

The triple barrow on Amesbury Down, 91 in Goddard's list, is also photo- 
graphed and together with the only other examples of triple barrows in 
England, those on Overton Hill, and at Baltic Farm, Shepherds Shore, is 
described in detail by Mr. Keiller, who notes " with disgust" that a late 
tenant had buried an ox in one barrow of this group (Goddard's Bishops 
Cannings 29) and the present tenant had buried a colt in Bishops Cannings 
32. " Mounds were easier to dig," he said ! 

Three good air photographs of Avebury village, Avebury Trusloe, and 
Beckhampton are given, taken to see if they would throw any light on the 
question of the Beckhampton avenue, but no sign of it appeared. The small 
angular enclosure at Woodford Clump, and the quadrangular example on Hor- 
ton Down in Bishops Cannings are photographed, the latter in order to correct 
Dean Merewether's very inaccurate plan in Proc. Arch. Inst., Salisbury, 
p. 101. Two photographs are given to the Stonehenge Avenue. "The 
Spectacles," two circular enclosures joined by a ditch, on Pewsey Down are 
photographed and described by Mr. A. Keiller. Mr. Crawford gives a plan 
of the many different lines of the old Bath Road in connection with a photo- 
graph of the rectangular enclosure on Cherhill Down. The earthwork 
enclosures round Barbury Farm buildings which may be of any age are 
shown. The polygonal enclosure " The North Kite," at Wilsford, is photo- 
graphed and described as probably a Romano-British farm like Soldiers 
Ring at Damerham. Mr. Crawford mentions that there is a similar earth- 
work at Stapleford. 

It has been impossible in this notice to mention either the Hampshire or 
Dorsetshire sites dealt with, but so far as Wiltshire Archaeology is con- 
cerned the book is certainly one of the most important and valuable works 
published in this generation. Its whole get up is sumptuous, and the 
reproductions of the photographs are as nearly perfect as may be. 

Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge during 
1925 and 1926. By I.t -Col. W. Hawley, F.S.A. 

Antiquaries Journal, April, 1928, vol. VIII., pp. 149 — 176. Folding plan, 
plates of " Cists in the bank on E. side of ditch," and " Ditch looking E., 
showing the two barriers, etc.," and 4 cuts. 

This report deals with the excavation of portions of the ditch on the east 
mde, and west of the S. Causeway. Part of the site within the circle was also 
dug over. The ditch was found to be very irregular varying in depth 
from 4 to 5 feet and in width from about 9 to 15 feet. The upper layer of 
the silting averages 13 to 15 inches, and the lower chalk silting 33 to 40 
inches in depth. At one point a barrier of untouched chalk extended right 
across the ditch. The floor of the ditch was covered with muddy (apparently 
trodden ?) chalk and sprinkled with flint chips, only a very few of which 
showed signs of work. Some beaker pottery occurred at the top of the 
lower silting. The upper layer contained everywhere quantities of chips 
from the stones, both sarsens and blue stones, the latter much the most 

T 2 



282 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

numerous, together with many sherds of Romano-British pottery. None 
of these chips were found below the upper layer. Two roughly made axes 
from the Rhyolite fragments of the blue stones were found. Col. Hawley 
sums up the evidence as to the relative ages of the cremated interments of 
which several were found at the sides of the ditch, as well as those found 
in the Aubrey holes. In no case was there any sign of a cinerary urn. In 
the case of the Aubrey holes the cremated remains were clearly put in after 
the hole had become largely filled up, and were thus later than the digging 
of the holes. In the same way, the interments of burnt bones in the ditch 
are all either in the side of the ditch, in which case the bowl shaped " grave " 
cuts through the silt of the side before it reaches the solid chalk, or on the 
interior slope of the rampart which was formed of the debris from the 
excavation of the ditch. Therefore whether they are in the silt at the side 
or on the slope of the rampart they are necessarily later than the digging 
of the ditch. These cremated interments are presumably of the Bronze 
Age, but with the exception of long bone hair pins in two or three cases, 
and the remarkable small cushion mace found in a small shallow burial at 
the base of the rampart in 1924, nothing has been found with these inter- 
ments. It follows that the Bronze Age was subsequent to the partial 
filling of the ditch with silt. Col. Hawley remarks that the discovery of 
" Woodhenge " at Durrington now makes it at least possible that the Aubrey 
holes which exactly resemble some of those at " Woodhenge " held originally 
not stones but wooden uprights. 

The further excavations in the ditch during 1926 produced half of a good 
flint axe from the lower silt as well as other worked flints and cores, also a 
large ox skull, of Bos primigenius, deposited in the silt when the ditch was 
nearly filled up. The upper layer contained quartzite and flint hammerstones, 
a large quartzite maul, a good barbed flint arrow head, also numerous chips 
from the stones, and Romano-British pottery. 

The great irregularity in the construction of the ditch, the straight lengths 
of it, the numerous bays with lateral projections, which in three instances 
still form a barrier of undisturbed chalk right across the ditch, suggest that 
the ditch was left unfinished. At first Col. Hawley was inclined to regard 
these bays and craters as dwelling places, intercommunicating, but with 
some artificial partition between them, but the entire absence on the ditch 
bottom, except in the two craters at the main entrance, of any distinct 
marks of fire, or of black earth or bones such as are always found in pit 
dwellings, etc., prove that there could have been no occupation of the ditch 
as a dwelling place. The presence, however, of the layer of dirty chalky 
mud everywhere found on the bottom of the ditch, in and above which 
numerous flint chippings are found, seems to show that the ditch was used 
for passage for some time after it was made and perhaps that flints were 
chipped there. Col. Hawley now thinks that the bays and barriers, and 
irregular and varying width and depth of the ditch were simply due to 
the method of digging. He suggests that gangs of men began by digging 
oblong holes which were gradually enlarged until they met, forming the 
craters and bays, now visible, and that the sides of the ditch were never 
finished off. He compares this with the interrupted ditches at Windmill 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 283 

Hill, Avebury, and in Germany, which have been held to be characteristic 
of Neolithic work. There is, however, he notes, this diflference, that whereas 
much pottery has been found on the bottom of the German and Windmill 
Hill ditches, none at all has occurred at Stonehenge, the fragments of beaker 
pottery having been found higher up in the silting. He remarks " the 
multitude of horn picks discovered was beyond any recorded elsewhere, and 
the great size of many of the horns indicates a race of red deer much bigger 
than those met with at present. These and the remains of wild oxen and pig 
proclaim the people to have been expert hunters. The bone remains, 
however, have not yet been examined." 

The digging in the centre of the circle was undertaken chiefly to discover 
whether the curved line of the inner Bluestone horseshoe was continued 
beyond the stones now standing. Holes were found large enough to contain 
stones, and Col. Hawley says " Regarding the extension of the ends of the 
horseshoe, there are certainly three stones on the N.E. which show a definite 
prolongation of the figure. '. . . I believe that the stones of the horse- 
shoe were continued in a curve forming an ovoid figure and not one of 
horseshoe shape." At one spot a disordered mass of human bones was 
found lying over a grave from which they had apparently been ejected in 
Georgian times, judging from fragments of tobacco pipes found with Roman 
pottery and coins near it." In a general review of the results of the ex- 
cavation Col. Hawley says "It is now evident that the site is. older than 
the monument standing upon it. The ditch gives proof of this, for it was 
silted up when the monument was made, the chips of the stones forming 
the latter occurring above the silt and never in it." The builders of the 
structure made no attempt to dig out the ditch again. Beaker pottery was 
the earliest found, not on the floor of the ditch, or in the body of the lower 
silt, but either embedded in the top of the silt or in the upper layer above 
it. The beaker pottery then of the early Bronze Age is that of a people 
who arrived on the spot when the silting of the ditch was nearly or quite 
completed, and the building of the present structure must be dated to the 
end of the Neolithic or the overlap of the two ages. The " Barrow " on the 
south was proved to be no barrow but the site of a stone, doubtless of the 
date of the monument. The Helestone was probably one of two rough 
stones standing in craters to the south and south -east of its present position, 
to which it seems to have been moved along a wide groove. The circular 
trench round it is apparently earlier. The Aubrey holes were earlier than 
the monument and held wooden uprights. The " Post holes " Col. Hawley 
regards as the earliest structures on the site, or perhaps coeval with the 
Aubrey holes. Their use is not known. The Y and Z holes are certainly 
of the same date as the monument and part of the original plan, as their 
positions are radially opposite the stones of the outer circle. The sharpness 
of their sides shows that they never held stones and their shape is wrong 
for wooden columns. The fact that they contained Bluestone chips right 
down to the bottom show that they were dug after the trimming of the 
Bluestones. As to the Bluestone lintel Col. Hawley suggests that if the 
Bluestones formed a circle in South Wales before their transportation to 
Wilts, the stone may have been in use there, and have been brought with 



284 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

the rest and used as an ordinary upright at Stonehenge. The report con- 
cludes " The excavation did not show that Stonehenge was a sepulchral 
site, but I quite believe it was erected to be reminiscent of something of 
that nature which had stood there previously. It was no doubt first and 
foremost a temple and secondly a place of assembly where priests and 
military nobles dispensed justice and promulgated laws." 

The Stratigraphical Distribution of the Corn- 
brash : I. The South- Western Area, by James Archi- 
bald Douglas, D.Sc, Sec. G.S., and William Jocelyn 

Arkell, B.SC, F.G-.S. Quarterly Jour, of the Geolog. Soc, vol- 
Ixxxiv., part I., 1928, pp. 117—159. 

The part of the Cornbrash outcrop here described runs through Oxford- 
shire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, Somerset, and Dorset, of which the Wilta 
portion, Shorncote Quarries, Charlton Quarry, Garsdon Quarry, Foxley 
Koad Quarry, Malmesbury, Corston and Bancombe Wood Quarries, and 
Lower Stanton St. Quintin Quarry, with other exposures near Chippenham 
and Hilperton, occupy pages 135 to 143. The conclusions reached by Mr. 
S. S. Buckman in a recent paper on " Some Faunal Horizons in Cornbrash "* 
are controverted in many cases by the present writers. Exact sections 
showing the sequence of the beds in all the quarries mentioned above 
are described, with their distinctive fossils, and smaller exposures between 
the larger quarries are also noted. There are four plates of typical Corn- 
brash fossils. The whole subject is dealt with with scientific exactitude. 

Savernake Forest. Some Notes for Ramblers. 
Alfred Joyce Watson, Marlborough. Printed at the 
County Paper Offices, 1928. Pamphlet, 8vo., pp. i6. 

Mr. Watson (lately Vicar of Cadley) disclaims any intention of writing 
a guide book and speaks of " these scattered notes," but they are very 
pleasant notes by one who has lived in the Forest for the last twelve years, 
and contain much information not to be found in the ordinary guide book. 
For instance, after referring to the various well-known great oaks, the 
King oak, the Queen oak, the Dukes Vaunt, and the Amity or " Emmety '^ 
oak, he tells us that the " great swollen oak that stands near the Salisbury 
road is politely referred to in the guide books as the Wen Oak, but is known in 
the vernacular as the '* Big Bellied Oak." And again, " An interesting 
tree is the Cluster, or Curly Oak, a small specimen about 30 feet high, grow- 
ing near the Column Drive. It has been described by Professor Henry, of 
the Royal College of Science, Dublin, as a sport or mutation of the common 
oak, and he wrote a short article about it in the " Gardener's Chronicle "" 
in 1917. The leaves grow in dense clusters, almost forming rosettes, and 
some acorns sown by Mr. Arthur Yates, of the Warren, have produced little 
trees showing the characteristics of the parent." Of the birches he writes, 
" The children still know how to tap the birches in the spring, when the 
sap is flowing, and inserting a straw drink the " birch wine " with great 
delight." 



1 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 285 

He explains the absence of woodland flowers, bluebells, primroses, <fec., 
by the presence of deer and rabbits, who also destroy the millions of seed- 
ling trees that spring up every year. " There can be few other tracts of 
semi-wild country in which the vegetation has been similarly reduced, but 
unquestionably the deer fence is the explanation. As compensation for 
the scarcity of flowers, there comes in the autumn an extraordinary wealth 
of many coloured fungi." It is noted that adders are frequent in the 
Forest, and that the Little Owl is steadily increasing, whilst the Nightjar 
has become extremely scarce. The heronry, in the middle of the Forest, 
had formerly as many as 20 nests. The ponds in the Forest mostly contain 
small Prussian carp. Mr. Watson suggests that both Thornhill pond and 
Bitham pond were probably clay pits dug out by the Romano-British 
potters, to whom also the name " Cockertroop " lane, i.e., " Crockers thorpe " 
is due. The open spaces " Ashlet " and " Ouselet " are really " Ashlade " 
and " Woolslade," the latter name being associated with wolves not with 
wool. " Bushels Clump," near Cadley, is associated with a queer legend of 
buried treasure, silver plate stolen from the mansion, in which a bushel 
basket figures. 

The avenue called " Long Harry " derives its name from one Harry Long, 
who hanged himself on a beech tree, whose stump still remains, whilst 
Navigation Ride is so called because it was planted by a gang of " navigators." 
The Grand Avenue was planted by Charles, 3rd Earl of Ailesbury, in 1723. 
Of local words still in use, Mr. Watson gives " Devil's Guts " as the name 
of the wild clematis, and " Crawl-bush Wind " for the S.E. wind. Of this 
latter he can give no explanation. Various other items of folk lore are 
touched on, local ghosts, elderwood, flowers that should not be brought 
in doors, and " seed balks," still believed to portend grievous misfortune. 
Altogether an excellent and most readable collection of local information. 

Crauborne Chase and Grrovely. In an article entitled 

" Our Debt to Rome 1 " in Antiquity, June 1928, Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, in 
support of the theory of the " complete hiatus " between the Roman and 
medieval civilisations, more especially as seen in the contrast between the 
" Celtic " and the Saxon systems of agriculture, has much of interest to say 
of the Romano- British and earlier village sites and cultivation of Cranborne 
Chase and Grovely. 

" The whole of which is now Cranborne Chase is covered with the 
still-visible boundary banks of Celtic fields. That is the explanation 
of those flint banks in woods which have puzzled so many enquirers. 
The whole area has reverted to its natural vegetation ; and since there 
is a thick covering of clay with flints upon the chalk, both here and at 
Grovely, the natural vegetation is a thick scrub of thorn, furze, and 
oak .... as a rule the villagers selected sites just ofi' the clay, 
since the chalk was obviously preferable for habitation, and this dis- 
position is very evident on Grovely Ridge. . . . The whole ridge 
between the Wylye and the Nadder is thickly covered with prehistoric 
and Romano-British remains, settlements, fields, boundary banks, and 
barrows. These remains are found equally in woodland and on down- 



286 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

land and cultivation To-day, as for many centuries past, 

Grovely Wood is encircled by a belt of downland about half-a-mile 
wide in places, dividing the woodland from the ploughed fields of the 
valley settlements. . . . It is here that the best remaining " Celtic " 
settlements are to be found. Perhaps the most important is that called 
in the Ordnance Map " Grovely Earthworks." These cover a large 
area on the north side of the wood, on Ebsbury Hill. . . . The 
earthworks called Hanging Langford Canip and Church End Ring form 
a single whole and are the remains of a village. . . . The Roman 
road from Old Sarum to the Mendips ran along the top of the ridge 
. . . and besides lead there came along it coal from the Somerset 
mines, some of which has been found in the Romano-British village of 
Stockton and on other contemporary sites." 
Dwelling on the essential difference between the Romano-British villages 

on the heights, and the Saxon settlements in the valleys, he says : — 

"No post- Roman objects, and no examples of the easily recognized 
Saxon objects, have ever been found in a Romano-British village of 
Wessex. ... I wish to call attention to the behaviour of the Wilts- 
Dorset county boundary with regard to the two groups (of Romano- 
British and Saxon villages), because it provides a clue to the way in 
which the southern English counties were formed. In Cranborne 
Chase the county boundary coincides with and follows the frontier 
between two valley groups (of Saxon villages) ; and it cannot, therefore. 

be older than the valley-villages themselves I allude to it 

merely because I want to show that our county system is closely inter- 
woven with the system of valley-settlements and groups, whose 
foundation de novo I attribute to the Saxons." 
There are good sketch maps of Cranborne Chase and Grovely showing 

the ancient settlements, &c. 

Wiltshire Village Industries. Under this title Mr. Alfred 

Williams contributed a series of articles to the Wiltshire Times, September 
17th('0, 24th ; October 1st, 15th, 29tb, 1927. He describes how the water mill 
was used not only for grinding but also for sawing, threshing, and many other 
purposes. As an example of what village industries meant he takes 
Wanborough. Here, in addition to the mill, there were spinning and 
weaving of cottons and woollens, tanyards and leather dressers, lime kilns, 
blacksmiths and carpenters for making all kinds of implements, wagons, 
ploughs, &c., a malthouse and brewery, a rope work, a soap and candle 
works, tailors, butchers, bakers, a shoemaker, and a basket maker. Flax, 
he says, for linen, was grown on the slopes of the downs, the farmers' wives 
and daughters spun their own yarn, hemp was grown locally for ropes and 
sacks. The wool was sent to Oxfordshire to be dyed, and the cloth also 
was sent there when made to be finished or " milled." The tanners had a 
festival in June called " Bark Harvest." A cottage shoemaker is said to 
have left a fortune of £2,000. Soap was made of lees from wood ashes, 
and potash of lime boiled up with tallow and oil. Where people did not 
make their own soap they bought grey Bristol soap at Id, per lb. or black 



I 



Willshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 287 

soap at ^d. per lb. Soap pills, he notes, were commonly used medicinally 
as an aperient. He describes the method of making cottagers' candles. A 
number of " gixes " were cut from the hedges (seeding stems of hemlock, 
hog weed, hare parsley, &c.), these were cut into lengths, a wick was passed 
through tbem, and the tube was filled with hot tallow. When the tallow 
was cold the " gix " was cut away and the candle was ready for use. Rush- 
lights were made from large plump rushes, the skin, except a very narrow 
strip to hold the pith together, was peeled off, the pith dried and dipped in 
hot mutton fat. Sulphur matches were, of course, made at home, of slivers 
of pine wood dipped in brimstone, to be lighted by the tinder box, the 
tinder being linen rags scorched brown at the fire. The match was applied 
to the " swiltering " (smouldering) tinder on which the spark from the flint 
and steel had fallen. When tinder was short, Mr. Williams says, the tail 
of the white linen shirt, worn by labourers in Wiltshire, was cut off to pro- 
vide more. At Bishopstone (N. Wilts) the feast of Hocktide was observed, 
and the "Aldermen of the Hocker bench " presided over the ceremonies 
and sports. The hemp industry here was considerable and quantities of 
home-grown fibre was sent to factories in the towns. Willow fibre was 
another article of some commercial value prepared locally ; this was used 
for making hats and baskets, the backs of chairs, and so forth." In the 
Church at Bishopstone is preserved an iron clock made by the village smith 
which for 238 years was in use in the tower. It was cleaned in its later 
years once a year by being taken down by the sexton and having its grease 
and oil burnt off by paraffin in the churchyard. 

At Wroughton chalk was quarried for building purposes, and was weathered, 
e.g., exposed for a winter under a roof of thatch to keep it dry, before it was 
used. The hardest blocks were always built into the south and west walls, 
the inferior material being good enough for the north and east. Mr. 
Williams gives interesting details of the work of pit sawyers at Wroughton. 
They were paid 2s. 6d. per 100 ft. for sawing spruce and larch, and 2s. 9d. 
for elm, oak, and ash. Of the former they reckoned to saw about one foot 
per minute, at which they could earn 8d. per hour if that pace was kept up. 
The hard woods, however, could not be cut at this rate. 

Mr. Williams speaks highly of the admirable work of the old village 
! coach builders and wheelwrights, some wagons still in use have been in use 
\ over 100 years. One farmer mentioned had no wagon on his farm less than 
I 70 years old. 

Perhaps the most interesting of Mr. William's articles is that on Aldbourne 

where, up to half-a-century ago, village industries flourished greatly. The 

oldest was silk weaving which was carried on until the end of the 18th 

century. Then the weaving of linen and fustian and gimp making were 

I standard industries, and later on still, willow weaving, willow plaiting, and 

: straw plaiting. The willow fibre was obtained from young withy poles and 

trees, and sometimes from lime trees. The trees were stripped of their 

; bark, sawn intopieces3ft.long,and split intoquarters, which were shaved into 

( strips. These strips were torn apart into strands rather smaller than straws. 

j These were passed on to the weavers who wove them into pieces a yard 

square. These squares were collected from the cottages and sent by road 



288 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

wagon to London to make hats. It is said that they were exported to the 
Continent for the same purpose. The price paid for weaving was Is. 6d. 
per dozen squares, and about i*50 was earned in the village every week. 
For willow plaiting the willow was cut into smooth strips with handplanes 
and women and girls plaited five strips at a time. When the strips were 
sewn together the material was locally known as " Tuscin," perhaps a 
corruption of Tuscan. Willow wood was also burnt for charcoal, specially 
used for the manufacture of gunpowder. Hence the old saying that th© 
withy trees along the upper Thames " fought for the King." 

He also describes the chairmaking industry at Aldbourne, which 20 years 
ago had an output of 100 chairs a week, but has now entirely died out. 
The wood used was chiefly ash, birch, and beech, from the Marlborough 
neighbourhood. The lathe used for turning the legs was of very simple 
construction, and its method of use is carefully described. 

Few more interesting and valuable articles have been published in Wilt- 
shire papers of late years. 

Archaeological Benefactors of Hampshire, Dorset, 
and Wiltshire. By Heywood Sumner, F.S.A. Presi- 
dential address, extracted from the proceedings of the Bournemouth 
Natural Science Society, vol. XIX. [1927]. Pamphlet, 8vo., pp. 27. 

It was a happy thought of Mr. Heywood Sumner to put together in this 
way a calendar of the fathers of archaeology for each of the three counties 
in which Bournemouth is chiefly interested ; and he has carried out the idea 
admirably. In each county the founders of local archaeology are dealt with 
in chronological order, with accurate details of their principal published 
writings and some account of their character and of their influence and 
work in the history of archaeology. Wiltshire occupies pages 16 — 27. 
Aubrey is dealt with at considerable length, as is fitting, and so are Stukeley 
and Sir R. Colt Hoare, William Cunnington, F.S.A., and his grandson 
William Cunnington, F.G.S. John Britton, J. Y. Akerman, John Thurnam, 
the Rev. A. C. Smith, William Blackmore, and Edward T. Stevens are all 
included in the roll of Wiltshire benefactors. Gen. Pitt Rivers, however, 
is a little unfairly claimed for Dorset, and the description of his methods 
of excavation and research occupy six out of the ten pages devoted to that 
county. A most useful, and what is more an extremely readable and even 
entertaining account of the archaeological patriarchs of the three counties 
with which it deals. 

The Letters of Maurice Hewlett, to which is 
added a Diary in Greece. Edited by Lanrence 
Binyon, with Introductory Memoir by Edward 
Hewlett. Methuen & Co., London, 1926. 8vo.,pp. xi. 

+ 294. The illustrations are :— Portrait ; The Old Rectory, Broad Chalke ; 
A Garden Pool ; The River Ebble. The preface by Laurence Binyon is a 
critical appreciation of the man and his writings. The Introduction by his 
younger brother, Edward Hewlett, gives some slight account of the Hewlett 
family of Chetnole and Yetminster, Dorset, and fuller details of their 



Wiltshire Boohs, Pamphlets, and Articles. 289 

grandfather, Henry William Hewlett, who married Octavia Charlotte, 
daughter of Mr. Gay, of Aldborough Hall, Norfolk. Their son Henry Gay 
Hewlett married Emmeline Mary, d. of James Thomas Knowles, architect. 
Their eldest son, Maurice Henry Hewlett, was born at Weybridge, Surrey, 
January 22nd, 1861. He was educated at Hampton and Sevenoaks Grammar 
Schools, Palace School, Enfield, and the International College, Spring Grove, 
Isleworth. Leaving school in 1878 he joined the family law business. In 
1888 he was called to the Bar and married Hilda Beatrice Herbert. Hia 
brother gives some account of his childhood and school days. The letters 
are very largely taken up with his successive literary works, a large number 
of them being addressed to Sir Henry Newbolt, his neighbour and friend 
whilst he lived at Broad Chalke. The Old Rectory there he took originally 
in 1903, made the garden, left it in 1912, and came back again in 1917, 
leaving it finally for a cottage near The Knapp in 1921. 

Was William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, taorn at 

Stratford-SUb-Castle ? The Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. lOtb, 1927 
has an interesting article, with further notes on April 14th, on this subject 
and on the further question as to whether the present front of the old 
manor house now the Vicarage at Stratford has or has not been rebuilt 
since early in the 19th Century. The house originally known asMawarden 
Court was built as the manor house by the Earl of Salisbury in 1673. Over 
the door is the inscription " Parva sed apta domino 1673." Thomas Pitt 
rented it as a leaseholder under the Bishop in 1690. About 1712 he built 
a western addition in Queen Anne style. His son, Robert, the father of 
Will. Pitt, lived there from the date of his marriage in 1703. After his 
death the property was apparently sold, and after several changes was 
bought early in the 19th Century by the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury, 
who, in 1849, after the northern wing had been pulled down, gave it as a 
Vicarage to Stratford. Thomas Pitt rebuilt the Church tower in 1711, and 
did other work of restoration, as well as giving the communion plate. His 
grandson, William Pitt, entered Parliament as M.P. for Old Sarum, and it 
has often been said that he was born in the Vicarage at Stratford. More- 
over, when he entered Trinity College, Oxford, as a gentleman commoner, 
in 1726, he gave his birthplace as Stratford-sub-Castle. On the other hand 
he was, says Lord Rosebery in his Chatham : His Early Life and Con- 
nections, "born in London in the parish of St. James's, Nov. 15th, 1708," 
and was baptized at St. James's Church, Piccadilly, Dec. 13th, 1708. More- 
over, the late Mr. H. J. F. Swayne, who once lived in the house, is quoted 
as saying that Pitt's mother went up to London for her confinement, wishing 
to be under the care of a doctor there. The Rev. Peter Hall, in his 
Picturesque Memorials of Salisbury (1834), says that "'the Manor House 
has been erroneously commemorated by Mr. Seward as the birthplace of 
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham" (see also a further letter by Mr. J. J. 
Hammond in the Gazette of April 15th, 1927). 

The very curious question of the date of the present road front of the 
Vicarage is discussed in these two issues of the Gazette and three views of 
it are given : (a) from a print published by T. Cadell, engraved by J. 



290 Wiltshire Books, Pa7nphlets, a7id Articles. 

Landseer after J. G. Wood published in 1795 ; (b) from the view given in 
Hall's Picturesque Memorials, 1834 ; (c) from a photograph of 1927. The 
views of 1795 and 1834 are practically identical except that the central gable 
is in 1795 represented as of considerable size, whilst in 1834 it appears as a 
mere dormer in the roof. Buckler's drawing (in the Society's library) made 
for Sir R. C. Hoare, 1808 — 10, confirms the 1795 view in every detail, and 
Buckler as a draughtsman is scrupulously accurate. In all three of these 
drawings the centre of the front between the projecting side gables is shown 
as wide enough to contain on the first floor, side by side, three three-light 
windows with a central gable over. At present the centre of the front 
between the side projections and gables is barely wide enough to contain the 
porch and a small two-light window over, with no gable above, yet the side 
projections and gables show no signs whatever of having been rebuilt since 
1834. It is a curious architectural puzzle. 

Missing Chapter in Salisbury History, By J. J. 

Hammond. Pamphlet, 7^in. X 4f in., pp. 15, with folding map, reprinted 
from Salisbury Jour7ial, 1928. 

Mr. Hammond sets out to trace the extremely complicated history of the 
way in which the course of the Salisbury rivers the Avon and the Wily 
were many times altered and diverted. The original course of both rivers 
at the time of the founding of New Sarum is not certainly known. Mr. 
Hammond conjectures that the Avon ran down the valley across what is 
now Castle Street to Brown Street and so to Bugmore, whilst the Wily 
flowed probably just south of the present Palace and joined the Avon at 
Bugmore. It is believed that the " Bishop's Ditch " represents the original 
course of the Wily. " Partly to form a defence on the western side of the 
new city, partly to work the Town Mill, and partly because it was in the 
way and caused floods at the point where it was joined by the Wily, the 
Avon was diverted from a point about Blackwell and carried in a new 
channel as we know it parallel with Castle Street to the Bishops' Mill and 
so down to Crane Bridge and by the back of the Close, out of its course 
all the way, from about where the Corn Exchange stands. . . . The 
Wily was diverted into it, and the combined rivers carried all round the 
Bishop's Manor until they joined the original river below Bugmore at the 
point known as St. Martin's Steps." " The original course of the Avon 
from St. Martin's Steps onwards was by Alderbury and Jjongford." Bishop 
Bingham built Ayleswade Bridge and Crane Bridge. The name Mutton 
Bridge, really Shoulder of Mutton Bridge at the point where the Bourne 
joins the Avon, is derived from the shape of an old enclosed field at that 
point. Ayleswade is a corruption of Earlsward ; the land on the south side 
of the bridge is still called the Earldoms, and the bridge is the earliest part 
of that now called Harnham Bridge. Later on at some unknown date the 
"Wily was further diverted to work the Fisherton and W. Harnham Mills. 
The old " Bone Mill" at W. Harnham appears to be older than 1500 and 
Harnham Bridge " could not have been built much before then." The first 
body armed with legal powers to regulate the river was the Commission of 
Sewers, dated July 8th, 1580, and Mr. Hammond prints the series of orders 



1 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 291 

issued by these commissioners five years later, as to the regular clearing of 
the water courses, cutting of weeds, etc. Mr. Hammond attributes the 
increased flooding of the city to new cuts and alterations made in the flow 
of the river subsequent to the Act 16 & 17 Uh. II., for making the Avon 
navigable from Salisbury to Christchurch, a scheme which failed, and the 
formation of the Britford Watermeads by Mr. Jervoise, owner of that estate^ 
somewhere about 1650. Probably these were amongst the earliest water 
meadows in the county. The outbreak of cholera in 1849 caused an enquiry 
into the sanitary conditions of the city which had then no drains and no 
water supply other than wells. Drainage and water works were carried 
out 1853 and 1854 at a cost of ^27,CO0. In 1856 the open channels in Blue 
Boar Row, Minster Street, and Silver Street, were filled in. In 1860 the 
Close ditch which ran along the outside of the Close wall from Crane 
Bridge by the bottom of Exeter Street to Nutting's Mead where it turned 
to the right and so into the river was partly filled in. Old Fisherton bridge 
was destroyed in 1872. 

Brunei and after : the Romance of the Great 
Western Railway. By Archibald Williams. With 

78 illustrations. Published by the G.W.R. 1925. 7iin. X 4|in., pp. vii. 
+ 205. Folding map. Price Is. 

This small book presents a vast deal of information in a very readable 
way. Beginning with the prospectus of a projected Bristol and London 
railway in 1832, it describes the gradual growth of the line until on June 
30th, 1841, trains were running from Paddington to Bristol. It is men- 
tioned that Box tunnel, one mile, seven furlongs in length, cost ^BlOO per 
yard to make. The opening of the subsidiary and branch lines is also traced, 
and the original battle of the gauges described, and the eventual change of 
the whole line from the broad to the narrow gauge. The growth of new 
lines, and the work of the G.W.R. during the war are noted. Amongst 
other things it is stated that more than 3,000,000 men travelled over the 
Swindon, M arlborough, and Andover line during the war, and that the huge 
quantity of gun carriages, ambulance trains, shell forgings, and other war 
equipment, made at Swindon, was made without any financial profit what- 
ever accruing to the Company. At the end a synopsis of all the important 
dates in the history of the line from 1833 to 1924 is given. A really ex- 
cellent shilling's worth. 

Box Tunnel. The Great Western Railway Magazine for Sept., 
1928, has an article, reprinted in Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 6th, 1928, on the 
construction of the Box Tunnel, 1836 to 1841, in which year it was opened 
to traffic on June 30th. The bricks, of which 30,000,000 were used, were 
.mostly made by a Mr. Hunt, on the west side of Chippenham. 

Some Old Houses of Devizes, No 22, Browfort. 

By Ed. Kite. Wiltshire Gazette, Mar. 10th, 1927. Originally an 
ornamental summerhouse, a plan and elevation of which is given in Original 
Desigm of Temples and other Ornamental Buildings for Parks and Gardens, 



i 



292 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

by Thomas Collins Overton, 1766, described as " a villa built for Mr. 
Maynard, near Devizes." Jacob Maynard was warden 1694 and master 
1704, of the Drapers' Trading Guild. He married Eliz. Taylor, of Market 
Lavington. His son Jacob Maynard, b. 1681, married secondly Joan or 
Jane d. of John Mayo, of Devizes, and died 1719. Their son James Maynard 
was an "apothecary " 1748» and built the Summer House, afterwards Brow 
Cottage about 1766. He died 1786, aged 79. John Maynard, his elder brother 
b, 1704, married Ann, d. of Thomas Bayly, of Devizes. His son John, b. 
1737, d. 1802, was a doctor in Calne. His sister Jane, b. 1739, inherited his 
property and on her death left it to her cousin the Rev. Joseph Mayo, b. at 
Seend, 1793, curate of Poulshot 1820. He became chaplain to the new 
Prison in 1823, enlarged the house at the " Brow " and lived thereuntil 
1839, when he went to America, where two of his descendants are now 
prominent members of the medical profession. On the death of the Rev. 
Joseph Mayo, 1859, "The Brow" was sold about 1861 to William Brown, 
who rebuilt the house as it now stands. The present owner is the Rev. 
Paget L. Bayly, late Rector of Newton St. Loe, who bought it about 1907. 
Some further notes on the Mayo family of Devizes are given by Mr. Kite. 

A Wiltshire Shepherd. Some incidents in his life. 
By George Pearce, Shepherd, of Laverstock, Wiltshire 

Gazette, Jan. 13th, 1927. An interesting article. The old man, aged 82, 
describes the hardships of his early days when he began work at 6 years 
old and became shepherd over 1,600 sheep at fifteen. He tells a curious story 
of seeing mysterious little lights bobbing up and down on Knook Down at 
night. His master also saw them and got the Government to send down a 
lot of soldiers who " dug about and found guns and swords and dead bodies 
and where the lights were a large box of valuables and money." He was 
given £2 but his master thought it ought to have been more. Also at 
Knook in a house belonging to a Mr. Flower, in which curious knockings 
were heard, he slept one night, heard the knockings, located the spot in the 
floor from which they came, took up a board, and found the dead body of 
a murdered girl. The murderer was never discovered. The story of the 
buried treasure is curious if not entirely the product of an old man's 
imagination. 

Some Wiltshire Byways. Third Series. By 

M. K. Swayne Edwards. Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 20th, 1927, to 
Jan. 5th, 1928. As in her previous S. Wilts series, Miss Edwards writes in 
a pleasant gossipy way of her motor drives and walks in Central and North 
Wilts, touching on an interesting Church, a lovely view, a point of history, 
or an amusing happening to herself, all equally lightly. She does not pretend 
to write a guide book or to describe even the most interesting things with 
any completeness, but motorists who do not know the county might do a 
great deal worse than follow in her wheel tracks and see what she marks as 
best worth seeing from Tilshead and Lavington to the Pewsey Vale and 
Ramsbury, and from Bedwyn and Froxfield to Bradenstoke and Dauntsey. 
She notices out of the way things like the fire hooks on the wall at West 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 293 

Lavington, the three plague graves near Erchfont, the excellent custom of 
the modern inhabitants of Devizes of decorating their lamp posts with 
hanging baskets of flowers (why don't other places do likewise 1 ), the fact 
that at Broad Hinton where the Church is dedicated to St. Peter ad Vincula 
which corresponded to Lammas Day, the feast is still kept on Lammas Day, 
but on the Lammas of the old and not of the new calendar. Here, too, the 
story of the burnt bible and of the row of consequently handless children 
(does not the tomb in Church witness to the truth of the story 1) is recorded. 
She is, too, very entertaining at times in the account of her own small adven- 
tures, as, for instance, in her search for the site of " Woodhenge " at Durring- 
ton, and the eventually finding of it by accident, in spite of the well-meant 
efforts of the natives, who had never heard of it, to send her to Fargo to 
look for it. The modern Ramsbury font, however, seems to have imposed 
itself upon her as Saxon, as it has upon others before her. 

John Spratt of Wootton Riyers. Under the heading, " A 
Village Genius," the N. Wilts Herald, June 22nd, 1928, gives an interesting 
article on the life of this native of Wootton Kivers, who, born 70 years ago, 
began life as a boy on the farm at seven years of age and stayed on the 
land till he was 20. Then he obtained employment in a brewery at 
Maidenhead. Here he began to try his hand at mending the watches of 
his fellow workmen. Coming back to Wootton Rivers, in 1881, he acted 
as postman for 17 years, using his spare time in the repair of clocks and 
watches, making clocks for himself, first an ordinary timekeeper, next a 
striking clock, then a chiming clock, and lastly a clock playing about 140 
different tunes on home-made drums. In 1911 the village proposed to com- 
memorate the coronation of King George V. by providing a Church clock, but 
the estimates received proved beyond the local resources. Thereupon Mr. 
Spratt offered to make a clock on condition that the neighbours gave him 
all their old metal scraps, broken mowing machines, bicycles, &c. Out of 
these he made a clock with three dials and six sets of quarter chimes. He 
has presented two penny-in-the-slot musical boxes of his own making to 
8avernake Hospital. 

Iiacock. Extracts from Churchwardens', Over- 
seers', &C., Account Book, 1583—1821. Printed in 
JV. Wilts Ch, Mag. under Lacock, 1925 to 1927. By F. H. Hinton. 

Lacock. Parochial History in the 18th Century. 

By F. H. Hinton. Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 12th— Feb. 9th, 1928. 
Extracts from account books of overseers begin with items of parish relief 
in 1724. The prices of goods, the wages of labourers, poor relief, beer at 
funerals ? for the bearers, figure amongst the parish expenses. Rent was often 
paid by the overseers for poor persons, also payments for the redemption of 
goods seized for debt. It is incidentally mentioned that chair making was 
an industry in Lacock within living memory. 

In 1726 a linen sheet cost 3s. 4d., a shift 2s. 2d., a pair of shoes for a boy 
2s. 4d., and a pair of "breeches" for the same, 2s. 3d. A blanket in 1736 
cost 3s. 2d. 



294 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

In 1741 barley was commonly given in relief to the poor, also in the same 
year "peasen,'*rice, " pruans," currants, biscuits, sinnament, treacle, and salt^ 
as well as meat, mostly in cases of sickness. A sheep's head and henge cost 
4d., a bullock's head lOd., a shoulder of mutton 9d., a " quarter of mutton " 
Is. 4d. Pig meat is not mentioned except lard for medicinal purposes. 

Milk is only mentioned once, coal only once, but " turves " or " turfs " at 
Is. per 100 often. Faggots cost £1 for the 100. 

The rateable value of Lacock for the first half of the 18th century was 
^1,133 (in 1926 it was £7,440) and Jd. rate yielded £4 14s. 5d. 

The average number of deaths for 50 years was 37. The amount of relief 
varied from £103 to M99. 

Of diseases consumption, rheumatism, king's evil, small pox, and epidemics 
of fever, are often mentioned. 

In 1740 for " Broaton Water," or "Holt Water," many payments were 
made for a girl afflicted with king's evil. 

The small pox patients in 1736 were isolated in a cottage on Bewley 
Common. 

The Royal Mineral Water Hospital at Bath was opened in 1742 and 
Elizabeth W. from Lacock was one of the earliest patients, £3 being paid 
by the overseers for her treatment. 

Instances are given of entries in the 18th century at the burial of non- 
parishioners for a special fee for " breaking the ground." 

Of the parish apprentices in the first half of the 18th century two-thirds 
were placed with broadweavers, fullers, or burlers, in Lacock, Bradford 
Melksham, Trowbridge, Corsham, and Calne. The Lacock masters in- 
cluded a fellmonger, a "sinister" (seamstress), a basket maker, and a 
" Manti Maker " (mantua or dressmaker). 

From 1701 to 1736 very few vagrants, and those only females were re- 
lieved. But in the war period from 1740 onwards vagrants were continually 
being relieved and passed on. Expectant mothers and vagrants, ill of the 
small pox were hastily relieved and seen safely out of Lacock and into the 
next parish, which in its turn doubtless did likewise. 

In 1702 the rateable value of the parish was £1133, and a rate of 4d. in 
the £. was raised '* towards amending the ways." The road down Bowden 
Hill was in 1704 pitched with stones. 

laacOCk. An article in Wiltshire Times, August 20th, 1927, on the 
charms of Lacock gives some account of its history, with three illustrations 
of houses and streets. 

Lackham, Chapel at. In Wiltshire Gazette, May 5th, 1927, 
proofs of the existence of an endowed chapel are quoted. In 1308 John 
Bluet, Kt., granted lands to Robert de le Brigg on condition that he ren- 
dered yearly 2 lbs. of wax at the Chapel of the B. V. Mary of Lackham. In 
1346 John de Peyton obtained licence to have a private Chapel at the 
Manor of Lackham, and there are Institutions of Chaplains to this Chapel 
in 1349, 1352, and 1410. 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 



295 



The Heytesbury Papers. At the sale of the contents of 
Heytesbury House, April 27th to May 1st, 1926, the most remarkable lot 
in the library consisted of 40 volumes of MS. Letters and Papers of William 
a Court, First Baron Heytesbury (1779-1860) who was Secretary to the 
Naples Legation 1801, and to the special Vienna Mission 1807 • Envoy to 
Barbary 1813, to Naples 1814, to Spain 1822 ; Ambassador to Portugal 1824 
and to Russia 1828-32 ; and Viceroy of Ireland 1844-46. The diplomatic 
reports and correspondence contained in these volumes chiefly relate to the 
missions to Sicily, Naples, Spain, Portugal, and Russia 1814-32 and include 
many original letters from the statesmen of the time. They are of much 
importance for the history of the period, and it is now announced that they 
have been acquired for the British Museum. 

The Days of Backswordlng, Stratton Veteran's 
interestingr Reminiscences. By W. Bramwell Hill 

N Wdts fferald, Jan. 20th, 1928. A very good article in which John 
Butcher (or John Ballard), of Stratton, aged 86, tells of the Backswording 
Gang (3 P.ncocks Hinder, Gregory, Slade, and Lewis), who 75 years ago 
used to saly forth to all the neighbouring " feasts " and fight all comers. 
Aldbourne feast was a terrible place for backswording and so was the White 
Horse during the three days revel there. At Stratton feast there was also 
.nH.f ''^' /" fu^ ^5 "^^ '''<* '° ^ ^'"°S '""""l °°^ Vi^yo''^ waist, 
at Chiseldon""'''" ^°^° ^""''''' remembered the Stocks 

Salisbury Cathedral, its SerTices, Revenues, and 

Administration. Report of the Cathedrals Commission issued by 
the Church Assembly and printed in The Wiluhire Gazette, Dec. 8th, 1927. 

eacl Tf?^ T )f- "" ""' """ ^"'^ '='"'• '»26- It is mentioned that 
each of four Priest Vicars receives £340 per annum from a special endow- 
ment, and a house, the organist £330 and a house, and the other lay clerks 
(singing men) £115. The Choir School has an endowment of £1327per 
annum, 16 choristers and from 4 to 6 probationers receiving their education 

free at the School The Cathedrallibrary contains 8,000 books and 233 MSS 
but has no annual income. Some £1,200 to £1,500 a year is spent on the 
repairs and the upkeep of the fabric. This suffices for ordinary repairs but 
tTalyCaToSreacr^ ^^^^ -«'-- ^^'"^^ ^ year, the four^esiden- 

A T^® ^!']^^^^°^ i*^ Wiltshire. By Alfred Williams 

A short article in the Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 29th, 1927. Mr Williams 
tells us that when collecting folk songs in 1914-15 he found thaT whTs 
there were traditional carols and glees to be found in the Cotswolds and in 
Oxfordshire, there were practically none in Wiltshire south of the Thames 
He gives a carol from Poulton, now in Gloucestershire but formerly a 
detached portion of Wilts, and the words of " God rest you merry gentle' 
men," as sung by the King family at Castle Eaton. merry gentle- 

VOL. XLIV.-NO. CXLIX. 



296 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke. F. M. Kelly 

has an article in The Connoisseur, Oct., 1928, pp. 73 — 78, on a full-length 
portrait at Hardwick Hall attributed to Paul van Somer or George Geldorp 
(cir. 1620—30), there called " Edward Bruce, 2nd Lord Kinloss." On the 
strength of its singular likeness to acknowledged portraits of the 4th Earl 
of Pembroke, of which he reproduces four, in addition to the " Kinloss " 
portrait, he argues that the Hardwick portrait is really that of Pembroke 
and not of Lord Kinloss. 

A Wiltshire Lady. By Lord Olivier. Fortnightly Review, 
June 1928, pp. 788 — 795. An interesting article describing how a Painted 
Lady Butterfly took possession of a barrow near Oliver's Camp by Round- 
way, above Devizes, always sitting on the same white flint and occupying 
his whole time in pursuing, routing, and driving away any other butterfly 
or bumble bee who ventured to trespass on the territory of the barrow which 
he had made his own. The scenery is well described. 

Whitsuntide Customs. By Alfred Williams. Article 

in N. Wilts Herald, May 25th, 1928. The writer distinguishes between 
the Morris dance, which was formerly almost universal in Oxfordshire and 
Gloucestershire north of the Thames, and the step dance or country dance 
which obtained in Wiltshire south of the river. He regards the Thames as 
a real racial dividing line. 

Two Poems in Wiltshire Dialect, by Alfred 

Williams, are first published in Wiltshire Gazette, May 24th, 1928. 
" Harry Luckett's Sow," and " The Congrave Man." 

IiOngford Oastle. Portraits by Gainsborough, &c. No. XII. in 

the series of articles on " Private Art Collections," by the art critic of The 
Times, July 19th, 1928. The principal pictures are noted, Holbein, Quintin 
Matsys, Mabuse, Correggio, Rubens, Vandyke, Velasquez, Hals, Hobbema, 
Poussin, Claude, Gainsborough (" There is no finer male portrait by 
Gainsborough than the half-length of ... . first Earl of Radnor ")» 
Reynolds (eleven portraits), six miniatures by Nicholas Hilliard (including 
Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots), &c., &c. 

Jane on the Plain, A pleasant article in The Queen, July 25th, 
1928, by Margaret K. Swayne Edwards, with three good photographs, " A 
Typical Wiltshire Barn," " White Roads on the Downs," and " A Dewpond 
on the Downs." Jane is a small car. 

A Wool Account Book. The Rev. Edgar Glanfield prints in 
Wiltshire Gazette, May 10th and 17th, 1928, a series of extracts from a small 
M.S. Account Book which belonged to Mr. Richard Withers, of Gorton, in 
Boyton, and records the prices of wool sold by him from 1736 to 1748, and 
also a schedule of the stock and crops on Chitterne Farm in 1780, and the 
prices of many other things at intervals down to 1809. Amongst the terms 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, arid Articles. 297 

used in the wool trade are a " weigh of wool "=60lbs. ; a " pack "=four 
"weighs," or 240lbs. "Combing" wool was the best quality, "Running 
fine wool " was wool cleansed in a running stream. 

Shaftesbury and District, the Official Guide to, 
issued toy the authority of the Mayor and Corpor- 
ation, 1 928. Printed and published by J. W. Pearson & Son, Shaftes- 
bury. Pamphlet, cr. 8vo., pp. 28, 5 plates and 2 maps. A short account of 
the town, its history, and its principal buildings and institutions, together 
with notes on walks and drives in the neighbourhood. 

Early Days of Wiltshire Cricket, The Spring Annual 

[1926] of The Cricketer contained "Some Notes on Wiltshire Cricket," 
noticed in the Wiltshire Gazette, April 15th, 1926. During the last decade 
of the 18th Century cricket was played at various centres in the county, 
more especially at Everley. In 1820 the Purton club was formed for which 
E. H. Budd afterwards played. The South Wiltshire Club at Salisbury 
was an even stronger club and in 1854 eighteen of its members beat the All 
England Eleven by three runs. Many remarkable matches are mentioned. 

Wiltshire Militia. Under the title " A Vanished Regiment," 
the Wiltshire Gazette, June 7th and 14th, 1928, quotes at length from 
" The Militiaman at Home and Abroad, being the history of a Militia 
Hegiment from its first training to its disembodiment , with sketches of the 
Ionian Islands^ Malta, and Gibraltar.'^ By Emeritus, with illustrations 
by John Leech. This book was published in 1857. The author was the 
late Major Prower, of Purton. The regiment was the Wiltshire Militia, 
Dalminster was Devizes, and Breeze Hill was Roundway. The first chapter 
describing the first assembly of the Royal Wiltshire Militia at Devizes in 
January, 1853, is reprinted in full. It re-assembled April 4th, 1854, was 
permanently embodied on June 10th, and was stationed at Portsmouth, and 
on March 6th, 1855, a large body of volunteers embarked for service in the 
Ionian Islands during the Crimean. War, 

The Awdry Clog- Almanack. This has recently been 
acquired by the British Museum from Miss Awdry, the niece of Mr. W. S. 
Awdry, who bought it between 1858 and 1860 at a cottage sale in West 
Felton, Salop. It is a heavy wooden rod of square section with a handle 
at one end, the four edges being each notched for a quarter of the year, in 
groups of seven days separated by deeper cuts. A good illustration of the 
four sides with a description is given in The British Museum Quarterly, 
vol. iii., p. 14, 15, 1928. Its date is after 1608, as the 5th November is noted 
by a long notch. 

Fre-Norman Donhead, King Alfred's Work in the 

West. A lecture by the Rev. W. Goodchild, of which an abstract is 
printed in Salisbury Timest December 9th, 1927. He corrects the popular 
etymology which makes Donhead mean the source of the Don River, for 

u 2 



298 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

the Nadder was never called the Don, and the name means the " End of 
the Down." The place name " Rowbury " marks the site of a former barrow 
covered with bushes. 

Trial of the Duchess of Kingston. Edited by I<ewis 
Melville. Edinburgh and London : William Hodge & 

Co. [1927]. 

8vo., pp. xi. -1- 328. Three portraits of the Duchess and six other illus- 
trations. The introduction of 48 pages gives a biographical sketch of 
Elizabeth Chudleigh, born 1720 (?), died 1788. The remainder of the book 
is taken up with a very full account of the proceedings and the evidence at 
her trial for five days before the House of Lords for bigamy in marrying 
the Duke of Kingston whilst her first husband, the Hon. Augustus John 
Hervey, afterwards Earl of Bristol, was still alive. One of the series of 
" Notable British Trials." 

West Dean. *' The Borbach Chantry." The Salisbury 

Times, April 1 3th, 1928, contains an article on the curious Chantry Chapel, 
founded by Robert de Borbach in 1333. This building formed part of the 
Parish Church until 1868, when the Church was demolished and the present 
Church built a few hundred yards away. To the new Church were removed 
a slender column of the 13th century now utilised as a lectern, and two 
piscinas of the 13th and 14th centuries with a few tiles, whilst the memorials 
of the Evelyn family were placed in the Chantry, the only part of the old 
Church which was preserved. These remarkable monuments of the 17th 
century are here described at some length. The principal are those of John 
Evelyn, Elizabeth Tyrell, his daughter-in-law, George Evelyn, junr., died 
1641, Robert Pierpont, Earl of Kingston, and Sir John Evelyn, died 1685. 

Mr. Boulter, Highwayman. By Major Gerald Burgoyne. 
Born at Poulshot Mill about 1748, he began life as a miller, became a shop 
assistant at Newport, Isle of Wight, and took up the serious profession of 
his life, that of highwayman, about 1774, rode from Staines to Poulshot on 
" Black Bess " in one day in 1776, and was hanged at Winchester August 
19th, 1778. The account of his life left by himself and told by James 
Waylen in The Highwaymen of Wiltshire is dished up with many appropriate 
trimmings by Major Burgoyne in Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 16th, 23rd, March 
1st, 15th, 22nd, 29th, April 5th, 12th, 19th, 26th, 1928. 

St, Boniface College, Warminster. Its hopes and 

its needs. Anon, article in The Commonwealth, November 1927, pp. 
340, 341. 

The Wiltshire Legionaire. December 1927. Vol. 

I. Special No. The Wiltshire County Committee, British Legion. 
Trowbridge (Privately Printed), 8vo., pp. 3. Contains only an editorial 
article setting forth the objects and proposed contents of this newly-launched 
periodical, very creditably printed by an amateur printer, Mr. Arthur Blake, 
of Trowbridge. 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 299 

Broad Hinton Church. By Gilbert Prince (A. F. Smith, of 
Swindon). N. Wilts Herald, November 25th, 1927. A number of notes on 
the contents of the Church, the tombs, bells, &c. 

Melksham and Bradford-on-Avon. The Avon Tyre and 

Rubber Works, 1886—1927. Reprinted from The Hubber Age, May 1927, 
4to., pp. 11. 26 photo process illustrations. 

Tockeuham Church, Roman Pigfure. Built into the 

outside of the S. wall of the nave is a Roman figure in relief, 2ft. Sins, high 
from base to point, standing in a niche with a shell shaped head. The 
figure wearing flowing garments holds a cornucopia (?) in the left hand, 
whilst the right hand rests on a staff with apparently a serpent twined 
round it. This figure is mentioned by Aubrey ( Wilts Collections, p. 194) as 
representing St. Christopher. A small drawing of it appeared in The 
Illustrated Archaeologist, Vol. I., but until now it has never been adequately 
published. Thanks to a fine photograph by Mr. A. D. Passmore excellently 
reproduced as a full page plate, this omission is made up for in 2%€ 
Journal of Roman Studies, vol. xvi., 1926, Plate xxx., p. 232. "It seems 
to represent Aesculapius or Hygieia," 

StrattOn St. Margaret, The " Old Poor House " or " Church 
House " standing opposite the Jacob's Ladder Inn, recently demolished, is 
the subject of the following note by the Rev. James Harris, Vicar from 
1797, in an old account or minute book. "John Barrett of Marlborough, 
William Barrett of Stratton, and others in the year 1663 gave a messuage 
or tenement called the Church House, and two acres three-and-a-half roods 
of land lying in the west end, the produce of which the churchwardens may 
apply in repairing and adorning the Church or in any other way in the 
service of the Church, they approve of." From an article on " Records of 
Old Stratton," by W. Bramwell Hill in N. Wilts Herald, October 28th, 1927. 
In a subsequent article Ibid, December 2nd, 1927, two extracts from the 
Churchwardens accounts are given, the spending of £90 18s. 7d. in 1841 
in re-roofing the N. Aisle of the Church, and in 1846 the fact that " Lead 
from old Roof of North Aisle of Church sold for £73." 

Alabaster Effigies of the Fre-Beformation period, 

1303 — 1540. The recently issued volume of the Archaeological 
Journal for 1923 [sic) includes a very complete paper in which the whole of 
the tombs bearing alabaster effigies of the Gothic period in England, so far 
as they are known to the author are described and a large number of them 
excellently illustrated. Out of the total number, 304, Wiltshire can only 
claim four. Of these, three, Bishop Mitford, d. 1407 ; Lord Hungerford, d. 
1459 ; and Sir John Cheney, K.G., d. 1509, are in Salisbury Cathedral, and 
the fourth is in the Beauchamp or Bayntun Chapel at Bromham, Richard 
Beauchamp, Lord St. Amand (?) d. 1509. Of these the three knights have 
the collar of S.S, and all three are here illustrated. 



300 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Dunbarrow. By Dorothea H»ussell. Herbert Jenkins, 

London, 1926. Cr. 8vo., pp. 344., price 7s. 6d. The scene of this novel is 
laid at Avebury, which however is called " Waden," whilst Marlborough is 
" Wanborough." Why these two places should not be mentioned under their 
own names doesn't appear, as Tan Hill and the hurdle barn on the top of it, 
and Barbury are openly spoken of. The locality is described in considerable 
detail, and the downland scenery is the setting of the whole story, which has 
however, beyond this, no specially Wiltshire flavour. 

Iford Manor. Wooden figure sculptures in the collection of Mr. 
Harold Peto. By M. Jourdain. Country Life, December 17th, 1927, pp. 
936 — 938. A short article with six illustrations of notable German, French, 
and English medieval wooden figures in Mr. Peto's collection at Iford. 

Malmesbury Traders' Tokens of the 17th Century. 

By A. Ii. HinWOOd. A short article in Wiltshire Gazette, March 
31st, 1927, giving a list of 18 tokens and a few notes on the persons issuing 
them. 

Goddard Family. A few notes on monuments and tablets to 
members of this family in Churches of Wiltshire and the neighbouring 
counties are given by " Gilbert Prince " in N. Wilts Herald, August 19th, 
1927. 

Mildenhall Church. By Gilbert Prince, N. Wilts 

Herald, March 30th, 1928. Short notes on the Church, giving the inscrip- 
tions on the bells, with a view of the S. side. 

Devizes, " An Historical Account of ye Borough," accompanying 
Dore's " Map of Devizes," 1759, is reprinted in Wiltshire Gazette^ Dec. 8th, 

1927, and in the same issue "An order for the election of the Beedle or 
Comon Crier" and "The Othe of the Bedell" are reprinted from "The 
Book of the Constitutions of the Borough " of 1628. 

Lydiard Tregoze and its Church. By Gilbert 

Prince. A good article in the N. Wilts Herald, Jan. 6th, 1928. The 
Church is truly described as one of the richest in heraldry in Wiltshire, and 
equally truly as '* The most diflScult Church in the county to enter, not 
only the Church but the churchyard is kept locked." 

Chilton Poliat. By Gilbert Prince (A. F. Smith). N. Wilts 
Herald, February 3rd, 1928. A short article on this village, with a photo 
of the stocks, and notes on the Church, including the inscriptions on the 
bells in full. No. 5 by Henry Bagley is said to be the only bell made by 
him in the county. 

Ramsbury. By Gilbert Prince. N. Wilts Herald, February 17th, 

1928. He notices the curious inn signs. The Boot, The Malt Shovel, and 



Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 301 

The Bleeding Horse, and in the Church the Holy water stoup at the bottom 
of the belfry stairs, and the inscriptions on the bells. 

Axford. By Gilbert Prince. N. Wilts Herald, March 2nd, 1928. 
A short note on the medieval work of the Chapel, recording the existence 
of a bell within living memory which has disappeared. 

Secrets of some Wiltshire Housewives. A Book 
of Recipes. Collected from the Members of Women's 
Institutes. Compiled by Edith Olivier. Printed by 

Ooates & Parker, Journal Office, Warminster [1927], Price Is. Cr. 8vo., 
paper cover, pp. 2 + 69, one illust. This very useful collection of recipes 
and cures is so far local, in that the contents have been contributed entirely 
by inhabitants of the county, whose names are attached to their recipes. Miss 
Olivier has done a good work in collecting them. 

Stoneheuge and the Ancient Mysteries. By John 

Soul, A.D.TT.B. Pamphlet, 8vo., pp. 40 (14 pages of these are 
advertisements). Three diagrams showing circles, octagon, ovoid, triangles, 
squares, &c., as set out on the plan. Freemasonry, Druidism, mysteries of 
all ages and countries are largely drawn upon in this series of notes, the 
scope of which may be seen from the following : — 

" The " Open Cube " of six equal squares, forming the masonic jewel of 
the Christian Cross, is met with in the lines of the key measures from 
" Hel " stone to Sarsen circle, its arms and head formed by the squares east, 
south, and west. The tomb of Akneaton's mother is stated to have been 
erected in this form B.C. 1490. It is also found in the tomb of Ollamh 
Fodhla, in Ireland." 

The notes on the modern history of the monument, the list of private 
owners of the West Amesbury Manor, &c., are useful. 

Stonehenge. By G-eofFrey Webb. Country Life, Aug. 20th, 

1927, pp. 253 — 255, with six good photo illustrations. This is a good short 
up-to-date article, giving the main results of recent discoveries and exca- 
vations, Woodhenge being mentioned as a possible protype of Stonehenge. 
A curious slip is the mention several times of the newly discovered rows 
of holes at Stonehenge, as the STY holes. The object of the article is to 
draw attention to the appeal for the Stonehenge Preservation Fund. 

Stonehenge, concerningr the Sarsens Man, January, 

1927, pp. 12—15, the Rev. E. H. Goddard disputes Mr. E. H. Stone's con- 
tention in Man, 1926, that the Stonehenge Sarsens came from a limited 
deposit of " Tabular " Sarsens on the Plain, which were all used up in the 
building of the monument, etc., and contends that there never were any 
considerable number of sarsens on the Plain, and that the absence of sarsens 
in the villages south of Pewsey Vale, as compared with their abundance in 
the villages to the north of the Vale, proves this. Mr. Stone rejoins with a 



302 Wiltshire Books, Pamp/ilets, and Articles. 

short note reafiSrming his belief in the existence of S, Wilts sarsens, and 
Dr. R. C. C. Clay follows, supporting Mr. Goddard's contention and 
supporting the N. Wilts origin of the sarsens. 

Stoueheuge : The supposed Bluestoue Trilithon. 

Man, May, 1926, pp. 95, 96. Notes by Mrs. Cunnington and the Rev. G. H. 
Engleheart against the suggestion by Mr. E. H. Stone that the cup-shaped 
hollows on the Blue Stone " lintel " were mortars for grinding corn, and Mr. 
Stone's rejoinder. 

[StOUelieilg'e]. Druids' Journal, Special issue. For use at 
Stonehenge Summer Solstice Service, 26th June, 1927. 4to., pp. 8., illusts. 

Salisbnry and Shaftestonry Bank. An article in Wilt- 
shire Gazette, Jan. 26th, 1928, gives an account of the failure of Messrs. 
William Bowles, Thomas Ogden, and George Wyndham, of the above bank 
in 1810, caused by the bankruptcy of the London house of Messrs. Bigwood, 
Rainier, Morgan & Starkey. 

Iiidding^ton. By Gilbert Prince. In an article on the Camp and 
the Downs the chief points of interest in the Church are mentioned, in- 
cluding an old barrel organ still in working order presented in 1846 by 
Prebendary G. May, sold and restored to the Church in 1891, and the bells, 
the inscriptions on which are given in full. 

Christopher Tennant. " Christopher : a study in Human 
Personality by Sir Oliver Lodge (sketch of one killed in the war, aged 19)." 
Pubd., 7s. 6d. 

Wiltshire Regiment in the Ypres Salient. An article 

by Henry Benson in Wiltshire Times, September I7bh, 1927, gives a com- 
plete list of the " missing " members of the Wiltshire Regiment who fell in 
the Salient after August 15th, 1917, whose names are recorded on the Tyne 
' Cot Cemetery Memorial on Passchendaele Ridge. Those who fell earlier 
than this are recorded on the Menin Gate. 



303 



ADDITIONS TO MUSEUM AND LIBKARY. 



Museum. 

Presented by Mrs. T. Lewis : Oval weight (?) of earthenware with two 
perforations, ? a loom weight. From Broad Hinton. 

„ „ Admiral Sir Richard Poore, Bart., K.C.B. : A Beaker, 

Perforated Stone Hammer-axe, fragments of pottery 
found during excavations in the field adjoining Wood- 
henge, Durrington. 

„ „ The Agents for Crown Lands : A large Bronze Age 

Cinerary Urn, with small Bronze Knife-dagger found 
in it, exposed by rabbits in the side of the southern 
barrow outside Oliver's Camp, Devizes. 

„ „ Admiral Hyde Parker : Moulded ornamental bricks from 

Ramsbury, 

Library, 

Presented by The Rev. C. E. Hughes : MS. copies of Churchyard In- 
scriptions, Luckington, and of those in the Churches 
of Sherston and Alderton. 

„ „ The Author, Mr. W. J. Arkell : " The Stratigraphical 

Distribution of the Cornbrash : I. The South-western 
Area." Reprint from Quart. Jour. Geolog. Soc, Ixxxiv., 
1928. 

„ „ The Author, Mr. W. P. Westall, F.L.S. : Roman and 

Pre-Roman Antiquities in Letchworth Museum," 1928. 

„ „ The Author, Rev. A. J. Watson : " Savernake Forest, some 

Notes for Ramblers," 1928. 

„ „ The Author, Mr. J. J. Hammond : "Missing Chapter of 
Salisbury History," 1928. 

„ „ The Rev. T. C. Dale : MS. notes on the Families of Leigh, 

Ley, Lea, &c., of Wilts, &c,, and old deed of Ramsbury. 

„ „ C. C. Bradford, Esq. : Print of Salisbury Cathedral. 

„ „ Mrs. Alexander : Old Map of Wiltshire. 

„ „ The Author, Mrs. Richardson, of Purton House : "Long 

Forgotten Days (leading up to Waterloo),*^ Svo., 1928. 



304 Additions to Library, 

Presented by The Editor : Three numbers of " The Sarum Record " 
(Salisbury Theological College). 

„ Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A. Scot. : Seven Old Wilt- 
shire Deeds. British Museum Quarterly. 

,. „ Mrs. Lovibond : " Addresses at a Convention held in 

Salisbury, 1907." 

„ The Author, Mr. E. M. Marsden- Jones, F.L.S. : " On 
the Pollination of Primula Vulgaris" extracted from 
Liunsean Society's Journal, Botany, vol. xlvii., December 
1926. 

., The Publishers, The Clarendon Press: "Wessexfrom 
the Air," by O. G. S. Crawford and Alex. Keiller, 1928, 
4to. 

„ , Mr. J. D. Crosfield : Three back numbers of the Magazine 

and Church Bells of Wilts. 

., Lt.-Col. W. Hawley, F.S.A. : " Antiquities of Kertch and 
Researches in the Cimmerian Bosphorus, &c.. 1857." 
Archseologia, Vol. 77. 

„ Mr. A. F. Smith : Three small 4to. MS. Notebooks con- 
taining the Heraldry in some 250 Wiltshire Churches, 
noted by him. 

„ „ Mr. S. Russell : Photographs of the Shaftesbury meeting, 

1928. 

„ „ Mr. a Shaw Mellor : Reflections upon Tithes. By a 

Clergyman of Wiltshire, 1770. Remarkable events 
relative to New Sarum, 4th edition, 1819. 




28oof 



Printed and Published by C, H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. Devizes. 



THE SOCEETY'S PUBLICATIOI^S {Continued) 

STONEHENGE AND ITS BARKOWS, by W. Long, Nos. 46-47 of the 
Magazine in separate wrapper 7s. 6d. This still remains one of the best and 
most reliable accounts of Stonehenge and its Earthworks, 

WILTSHIRE— The TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTIONS OF JOHN 
AUBREY, F.R.S., A.D. 1659-1670. Corrected and enlarged by the Rev. 
Canon J. E. Jackson, M.A., F.S.A. 4to, Cloth, pp. 491, with 46 plates. 
Price -t'2 10s. 

WILTSHIRE INQUISITIONES POST MORTEM. CHARLES I. 8vo, 
pp. vii. -\- 610. 1901. With full index. In 8 parts, as issued. Price 13s. 

DITTO. IN THE REIGNS OF HEN. IIL, ED. I., and ED. II. 8vo, 
pp. XV. 505. In parts as issued. Price 3s. 

DITTO. THE REIGN OF ED. III. 8vo., pp. 402. In six parts 
as issued. Price 13s. 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY of the GREAT STONE MONUMENTS of 
WILTSHIRE, STONEHENGE, and AVEBURY, with other references, 
by W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S., pp. 169, with 4 illustrations. No. 89, Dec, 
1901, of the Magazine, Price 5s. 6d. Contains particulars as to 947 books, 
papers, &c., by 732 authors. 

THE TROPENELL CARTULARY. An important work in 2 vols., 8vo, 
pp. 927, containing a great number of deeds connected with property in many 
Wiltshire Parishes of the 14th and 15th centuries. Only 150 copies were 
printed, of which a few are left. Price to members, £1 10s,, and to non- 
members, £2, 

THE CHURCH BELLS OF WILTSHIRE, THEIR INSCRIPTIONS 
AND HISTORY, BY H. B. WALTERS, F.S.A. Part I, Aldbourne to 
Buttermere, 1927. Price 28. Part II.— To Rushall, 1928. Price 7s. 



WBLTSHii^E TOKENS. 



The Society has a considerable iiinii])er of 17th and 18th 
; century Wiltshire Tokens to dispose of, either by sale, or exchange 
I for others not in the Society's collection. 

Apply to Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A. Scot., Curator, 
,1 Museum, Devizes. 



BOOKBINDING. 
Books carefully Bound to pattern. 

Wilts Archaeological Magazine bound to match previous volumes 
Or in Special Green Cases. 



We have several back numbers to make up sets. 

C. H. WOODWARD, Printer and Publisher, 

Exchange Buildings, Sfaiion Road, Devizes 



The North Wilts Library and Museum at Devizes. 

In answer to the appeal made in 1905 annual subscriptions 
varying from £2 to 5s. to the amount of about £30 a year for this 
purpose have been given since then by about sixty Members of 
the Society and the fund thus set on foot has enabled the 
Committee to add much to tlie efficiency of the Library and 
Museum. 

It is very desirable that this fund should be raised to at least 
£50 a year in order that the General Fund of the Society may 
be released to a large extent from the cost of the Museum and 
set free for the other purposes of the Society. 

Subscriptions of os. a year, or upwards, are asked for from all 
Members, and should l)e sent either to Mr. D. Owen, Bank Cham- 
bers, Devizes, or Rev. E. H. Goddard, F.S A , Clyffe Vicarage, 
Swindon. 



Wiltshire Botany. 

With a view to the eventual issue of a supplement to Preston's 
"Flowering Plants of Wilts" Mr. and Mrs E. M. Marsden Jones 
of the Church House, Potterne, Devizes, will be glad to receive in- 
formation of the finding of any plants, either new to the county, 
or to any locality not mentioned in Preston's work. This informa- 
tion should include species, sub-species, and varieties of plants 
such as Yiola, Chenopodium, Hieracium, &c., which are difficult 
to distinguish. 

In all such cases good specimens of the plant should accompany 
the information. Please write distinctly. 



1 



Wiltshire Birds. 

Mr. M. W. Willson, at St. Martin's Kectory, Salisbury, is collect- 
ing notices of Wiltshire Birds, with a view to an annual report to 
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WILTSHIRE 
Archaeological & Natural History 

AGAZINE. 



No. CL. JUNE, 1929. Vol. XLIV. 



Contents. 



PAGIC. 



Sir William Petty : Presidential Address by the Most Hon. 

the Marquess of Lansdowne 305 — 313 

List of Goods destroyed by fire at Marlborough. 1689 : 

Transcribed by Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot., from 

the Corporation Records 314 — 318 

Trouble with the Bakers of Marlborough in 1634: 

Transcribed from the Municipal Records by permission of 

the Corporation by Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot. 319 — 321 
Tisbury in the Anglo-Saxon Charters : By the Rev. W. 

Goodchild 322—331 

The Recent Excavations at Stonehenge : By Lt.-Col. R. 

H. Cunnington 332—347 

Stonehenge. The Recent Excavations : By R. S. Newall, 

F.S.A 348-359 

Heraldry of the Churches of Wiltshire : By the Rev. R. 

St. John B. Battersby .360—871 

Wilts Obituary 372—379 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 380—394 

Additions to Museum and Library 395—396 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1928 397—400 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

A Plan of Stonehenge 348 

Plans of Chambered Tumuli, Stonehenge, cfec , 356 



Devizics :— C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 



THE 



WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE 



:ULTORUM MA.NIBUS GRANDE LEVATUR ONUS."— Ovid. 



No. CL. June, 192Q. Vol. Xr.IV. 

SIR WILLIAM PETTY. 

By the Most Hon. the Marquess of Lansdowne. 

[Head as Presidential address at the Annual Meeting of the Wiltshire 
A^'chseological Society at Shaftesbury, ^Jf,th Jidy, 1928.] ^ 

Almost everyone in Wiltshire must be familiar with the monument which 
stands on the top of Cherhill Down, near Calne, but few, I believe, could 
say when it was erected and still fewer what it was intended to com- 
memorate. I have indeed often been asked these very questions myself, 
and until recently have been unable to give any certain reply. 'J'be obelisk 
in question bears no date or inscription of any kind, nor was there any in- 
formation about it even among the members of my own family. Some 
years ago, however, I happened quite by chance among the papers pre- 
served at Bowood to discover the architect's account as well as the original 
specification and contract. These showed that the designer of the monu- 
ment was the well-known architect, Charles Barry, and its builders, Messrs. 
Daniel and Charles Jones, of Bradford-on-Avon, the material being Brad- 
ford stone. Barry was paid £92 for his design, and the cost of the edifice 
totalled £1359. The contract is dated xMay 14th, 1845, so it may safely be 
said that the monument was actually erected in that or in the following 
year So much for the date, but when writing a few years ago for the 
Wilts Arch. Alag^ an account of Bowood and its environs I could find 
nothing about the purpose, and 1 had to leave it to my readers to accept or to 
reject the various possibilities which had been suggested. Many seem, 
to have thought that it commemorated the accession of Queen Victoria or 
the birth of Edward, Prince of Wales, others considered it as a land-mark 
marking the extremity of the Bowood estate, and some said it was merely 
one of those " Follies" which large landowners delighted to erect (with or 

^This paper was printed in the Wiltshire Gazette, July 26th, 1928. 
'' WA.M ,1^08. 135, 136, 137. 
VOL XLIV — NO. CL, X 



306 Si7' William Petty. 

without cause) in earJy Victorian times. Nor, in the absence of any family 
record, did there seem to be any reason for accepting an alternative theory 
which I mentioned in my article at the time, namely, that the monument 
had been erected to commemorate a remote ancestor of my family. This 
explanation has, however, now proved to be very near the mark, as witness 
the following draft inscription which I discovered on a half sheet of note 
paper among some family letters a little more than a year ago : — 

To the Memory 

of Sir William Petty, Knight, 

Son of John Petty, Clothier, 

< To whose exalted understanding 

And indefatigable industry 

This Country was indebted 

For the foundation of science 

Which he laid 

And his family 

Not less for the example which he gave 

Than for the inheritance he bequeathed them 

This obelisk is dedicated 

By his grateful descendant 

Henry Marquis of fjansdowne. 

This inscription was in the hand of Lady Lansdowne, wife of the 3rd 
Marquis, and clearly shpws what was at the moment the intention of the 
Cherhill Monument. For reasons which I will presently explain I believe 
that this plan was subsequently laid aside, but however that may have 
been, and though his was only a posthumous connection with our county, it 
is of the man with whom the monument was thus in a sense associated 
that I propose to speak to-day. 

Petty was a curious and remarkable character who is, I venture to think, 
insufficiently known to the general public of to-day. I propose first to tell 
you something of his life and then to touch on his writings. Roth are dis- 
tinguished by their strange versatility, and some of the writings by an 
almost uncanny anticipation of modern thoughts and ideas. His biography, 
as you will remember, was written more than 30 years ago by my uncle, 
Lord Fitzmaurice, from the Petty papers now at Bowood, but these papers 
are so voluminous that only a small portion of them could be made use of 
in a work of that nature. I have recently been busy with them, and a year 
ago I endeavoured to supplement the biography by printing a number of 
Fetty's hitherto unpublished writings, while T have at this moment in the 
press a further volume which will contain a very interesting unpublished 
correspondence between Petty and his friend Sir Robert Southwell.' 

In addition to more recent volumes there are in existence a number of 
books and pamphlets written by Petty and published in the seventeenth 
century, during his life time or immediately after his death, as well as his 

' Tke Petty — Southwell Correspondence has since been published (Con- 
stable k Co.). 



By the Marquass of Lansdowne. 307 

account of the Down Survey of Ireland, edited and published by Sir 
Thomas Jjarem in 1851. 

Petty was born in the year 1623, at the town of Uomsey, in Hampshire. 
His father was a clothier, or maker of cloth, who beyond an education in 
the village school, does not seem to have been able to do anything for his 
ofispring by way of starting him in life ; his son must, however, have been 
a quick and intelligent youth, for he tells us he knew both Latin and Greek 
at the age of 15, Thus equipped, and with one shilling in his pocket, he 
went to sea, serving before the mast in a merchant vessel until he had the 
misfortune to break his leg and to be thrown on.shore on the coast of France 
not far from the town of Caen in Normandy. Here his Latin stood him in 
good stead, and to use his own words be was " strangely visited by many of 
the name of Le petit matelot Anglais qui parte Latin et Grec.'' It was 
probably his remarkable precocity in this respect that induced the Jesuit 
fathers of Caen to take him under their wing, and give him what must have 
been a free education in their college. He repaid them by a laudatory ode 
in Latin hexameters which I printed (with some of his other efforts in 
verse) in the Petty Papers. After leaving Caen he appears to -have led for 
three or four years a roving existence, hawking according to his own 
account sham jewellery, playing cards, and " hair hats." and serving for a 
time in the King's Navy, where he tells us *' at the age of 20 years he had 
gotten about three score pounds, with as much mathematics as any of bis 
own age was known to have had." Then came the Civil War which no 
doubt determined him for the time being to pursue his fortunes on the con- 
tinent rather than in England, and we next hear of him studying medicine 
at Utrecht, Leyden, and Amsterdam. ,In 1645 he was reading in Paris with 
Thomas Hobbs, of Malmesbury, for whom, if he cannot be called his " dis- 
ciple," he ever afterwards preserved the strongest admiration. 

A year later he returned to England and somehow found his way to 
Oxford. Here he commenced to practice medicine, apparently with con- 
siderable success ; he soon was admitted a Doctor of Physics, and a member 
of the Royal College of Physicians, and he somehow contrived to become a 
Fellow and Vice-principal of Brasenose College, all within the space of 
about three years. 

It was in 1650 that an event occurred which brought him prominently 
into public notice, and evidently had an important bearing upon his future 
career. One Ann Green, an Oxford woman, had, in accordance with the 
harsh code at that time prevalent, been sentenced to be hung for the mur- 
der of her illegitimate child. Petty has left us an account of her execution. 
She was a strongly built woman, and in order that there should be no doubt 
of her being quickly put out of her misery on the gallows, her friends who 
were standing by hung ou to her legs while she was suspended, whilst (with 
the best of intentions also) some soldiers who were standing by belaboured 
her body with their muskets. After thus hanging for a quarter-of-an-hour 
she was cut down, stamped upon to make sure that no life was left in her, 
and shut up in a coffin. Petty, however, requisitioned the body for the 
purpose of anatomical dissection, and it was carried off to his laboratory. 

2 X 



308 Sir William Petty. 

The coffin having in due course been opened, Ann Green was observed to 
*' rattle in the throat," and restoratives were applied. She persisted in 
*' rattling," and Petty thus encouraged proceeded to concoct for her a num- 
ber of curious prescriptions, which included such items as ground-up rock 
and a preparation composed of Egyptian mummies. To cut a long story 
short she emerged hale and hearty to an astonished world about a fortnight 
afterwards. The event was regarded as" almost supernatural, and Fetty's 
name became widely known in connection with it. It was quite therefore 
in accordance with the fitness of things that he should be appointed, as he 
was soon afterwards, Professor of Anatomy at Oxford, 

Two years later there was a complete change of scene, for he secured the 
appointment of Physician to General Fleetwood and the Cromwellian army 
in Ireland, and this appointment in its turn led to an entirely new field for 
Petty's- activities. It will be remembered that the Irish rebellion which 
broke out during the Civil War in England was eventually put down by 
Cromwell's troops. When the subjection of the Irish was completed, 
Cromwell found himself with a depleted exchequer faced with the difficulty 
of paying his soldiers to whom large arrears were due. and of repaying 
those known as "Adventurers" — English men of business who had ad- 
ventured their money for the purpose of financing the campaign. Now the 
land which belonged to the rebellious Irish had been declared forfeited to the 
state aiid the I^rotector conceived the idea of repaying all parties by means 
of this forfeited land, hoping thus not only to economise his cash but also 
to ensure by the planting of his Roundheads on Irish soil the establish- 
ment of a friendly in place of a disloyal population in that country. 
He was, however, faced by a difficulty, for there were practically 
no maps of Ireland in existence and no one knew exactly the extent or the 
nature of the land which was distributable. It thus became indispensable 
to have a new and complete survey of the country made. Petty somehow 
secured the job, though there is nothing to show that he had any previous 
experience in such matters. He carried it through nevertheless in a little 
more than a year, having measured in that time as he says "as much line 
as would encompass the whole earth about five times about." The survey 
was called the *" Down Survey" because it was the first of its kind to be 
set down in the form of maps. Of the original maps some are at Bowood, 
though others which were in the Dublin Record Office perished when the 
building was burnt down in the recent rebellion. There is, however, in ex- 
istence a complete set of contemporary copies which curiously enough repose 
in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. They appear to have been in transit 
from Ireland to England, in the early years of the 18th century, for the 
purpose of being engraved, when they were captured at sea together with a 
state carriage and a number of family portraits, by a French privateer. 
The French government has consistently refused to give them up but has 
allowed photographic reproductions to be made, and these can be purchased 
from the Ordnance Survey Ofiice. The Down Survey Maps are extra- 
ordinarily accurate, considering that the art of surveying was in its infancy 
at the time they were made. They held their own and were constantly and 



By the Marquess of Lansdowne. 309 

authoritatively used until they were supplanted by the modern ordnance 
maps with which we have now become familiar. Petty was paid for his 
work partly in Irish land and partly in cash which he employed for the 
most part in buying more land in Ireland. Henceforward, therefore, we 
hear little more of medicine, as the quondam doctor became an Irish land- 
lord. The remainder of his life was for the most part taken up with Irish 
affairs. In virtue it must be supposed of his interests in that country he was 
in 1676 made Judge and Registrar of the Admiralty Court in Dublin. 
When he was not engaged in admiralty affairs he was kept busy with the dis- 
putes consequent upon his Irish possessions, his retention of which became in- 
creasingly threatened by the rise of the Roman Catholic interest in the latter 
part of the reign of Charles II. and in that of his brother James II. It was 
during this part of Fetty's life that he produced most of the writings to which 
I have already referred as well as some of his more important published 
works. He died in December, 1687, at a moment when things looked very 
bad for those who depended for their tenure on the Act of Settlement. In 
the following year indeed all such properties were once more declared for- 
feited by their grantees and they were in process of distribution to their 
former owners when V\'illiam III. and the Battle of the Boyne intervened. 
Under the house of Orange the Protestant interest in Ireland again became 
secure, and Betty's son and successor was able to secure and even to add 
to the extensive properties which his father had left hira. 

Petty was buried in the Abbey Church at Ixomsey, his place of birth. 
His only daughter Anne, married the l^ord Kerry of the day, thus becoming 
the ancestress of the first Marquess of Lansdowne. This statesman, who is 
better known in history as the Earl of Shelburne, has left it on record that 
though his grandmother was "a very ugly woman " she " brought in his 
family whatever degree of sense may have appeared in it and whatever de- 
gree of wealth is likely to remain in it." 

The Cherhill Monument as we have seen was never inscribed and the 
original intention of dedicating it to Petty must have been afterwards laid 
aside in favour of another plan. The third Lord Lansdowne probably con- 
sidered, on second thoughts, that his ancestor would be more suitably com- 
memorated in the place where his body rested, than in the home of his 
descendants in Wiltshire, for up to that time not even a stone marked 
Petty's last resting place at Romsey. A monument in the form of a sarco- 
phagus surmounted by Betty in a recumbent effigy designed by the well- 
knowu sculptor, Westmacott, was accordingly erected by Lord Lansdowne's 
order in the Church at IJom.sey a few years later (1858). That this took the 
place of the monument to Petty seems clear from the inscription which it 
bears, and which has a strong resemblance to that originally planned for the 
Cherhill Monument. 

•' In memory of Sir William Petty, a true Patriot and a sound 
Philosopher, who by his powerful intellect, his scientific works, and 
indefatigable industry, became a benefactor to his family and an orna- 
ment to his country." 
It would be impossible, within the limits of this paper, to deal with all 



310 Sir William Petty. 

Petty's writings published and unpublished. I must be content to-day to 
indicate some of the ways in which he anticipated future developments in 
thought and idea. He seems to have been the first person to realise that 
economic problems could only be successfully dealt with after all the basic 
facts were known and accessible. He constantly insisted that " Ratiocina- 
tion " (as he was wont to call '* discussion ") should be carried on in terms 
of " number, weight, and measure." In other words he saw that without 
Statistics, as we now call them, no advance could be made in Economics . 
Thus he may fairly be claimed as the inventor of the Science of Statistics, 
and of Political Economy in so far as the second depends for its exercise 
on the first. It is perhaps difficult to realise that in Petty's time practically 
no statistics were available. There was nothing like a census of the popu- 
lation, or a general record of births, deaths, and marriages. Nobody knew 
what was the proportion between males and females, the average number 
in a family, the area or wealth of the country, the figures of imports and 
exports, or the countless data which are now open to all, readers of Whitaker's 
Almanack. 

The first attempt to collect and collate any figures of this character is to 
be found in a pamphlet entitled *' The Observations on the London Bills of 
Mortality." It was published over the name of John Graunt, an intimate 
friend of Petty's, but it was freely stated at the time that Petty, and not 
Graunt, was really responsible for this book. I have been able to discover 
among the Petty papers a considerable amount of fresh evidence in support 
of this view, though there; are still some who hold that Graunt was indeed 
the writer. I cannot, however, pause to go into this question to-day, but 
it is agreed that the writer, whoever he was, is entitled to pride of place in 
statistical science, for the " London Observations " constitute the first at- 
tempt at what we should now call applied statistics, and they contain the 
first known " Life Tables," in which an efi'ort is made to calculate the 
expectation of life at various ages. The ]>ondon Bills had been regularly 
kept for some fifty years before Petty (or Graunt) dealt with them in this 
book, but they were in fact the only statistics then available. In his various 
papers Petty is constantly demanding further information of the same kind, 
and it is clear that if he could have obtained the necessary authority he was 
fully prepared hiujself to collect it. He made in fact more than one at- 
tempt to get himself appointed " Registrar " or *' Accountant General " of 
the country for the express purpose of ascertaining all the facts' about the 
people, the land, the wealth, and the trade of England. But his appeal fell 
on deaf ears, and most of the statistics which he required were not forth- 
coming until a century or more after his death. 

But it was not only in the field of statistics that Petty was before his 
time. Owing no doubt to his early maritime experience, he was greatly 
interested in nautical afi"airs, and he spent much time and trouble in devis- 
ing what he called a Sluice Boat or Douhle-hottoni Ship. The affair 
consisted of two distinct hulls fastened together, rather like certain ferry 
boats which may still be seen in Scotland, by a deck or platform which 
stretched across both. This arrangement gave to the ship greater stability 
and thus allowed a much larger amount of canvas to be carried than in a 



n 



By the Marquess of Lansdowne. 311 

single-bodied ship, while it gave also a larger deck space and a greater 
carrying capacity than in an ordinary vessel. Four *' Double-bottoms " 
were built and launched under Petty's auspices, and at one moment the 
invention appeared likely to enjoy great success. A " Double-bottom '* 
met several other boats in a sailing competition in Dublin Bay and carried 
off the prize. She outsailed the Holyhead packet across the Channel, and 
Petty began to entertain projects of converting the whole of the King's 
Navy into boats of a similar character, and to this end endeavoured to 
enlist the sympathies of Samuel Pepys. His hopes were, however, destroyed 
by the foundering of his ship in the Bay of Biscay, all hands being lost, 
and later on when he returned once more to the charge and built a yet 
larger and stronger "' Sluice boat," she refused to sail at all, and^ad to be 
incontinently scrapped. A very successful " Double-bottom," however, re- 
appeared nearly 200 years later in the shape of the well-known " Caiais- 
Douvre" steam packet, the property of the Southern Railway, which for a 
period of some 20 years carried innumerable passengers between the two 
ports from which she took her name, and was immensely popular with the 
travelling public. 

Another of Petty's inventions was an " engine to be fixed in a ship to 
give her fresh way at sea or in a calm.'' This engine, it is true, was one de- 
signed for man or horse power, but it was the same paddle-wheel which, 
when steam was introduced, came into and remained in use until sup- 
planted by the screw propeller. 

Petty made excursions also into military problems. Not the least curious 
among his papers are those relating to a War Chariot, which in its ob- 
jects and use, if not in its construction, forcibly recalls the tank of the Great 
War. Like the tank, its special purpose was to economise the use of in- 
fantry or cavalry. It could act by itself or in squadrons in formation, 
though it was intended to be used in conjunction with the other arms. It 
was to •' run a push with great violence against any object," and when it 
had done so and had got into the enemy's position, it was to act as a " F'ort 
Royal," a self-contained unit carrying its own arms and equipment which 
would be able by itself to resist all hostile attack. It was no doubt a weak 
spot in this chariot that it had to be horse-drawn, and that its protection 
consisted only of brushwood, but Petty could scarcely have been expected 
to foresee armour plate or catterpillar traction ! 

Wie can some of us remember an election about 40 years ago which was 
largely fought on the popular slogan of three acres and a cow. This was 
asserted to be the inherent right of all who laboured upon the land, and 
bright hopes were held out that it might be obtained by those who sup- 
ported the Radical party at the time. I am not concerned to examine 
whether the proposal was possible or economically sound. Probably in a 
perfect ordered world three acres would not be enough for a man to make 
his living, and would be more than anyone whose living was made in other 
ways could successfully cultivate. But the origin of the idea is interesting. It 
was thought to have been invented by the late Mr. Jesse CJollings, who was 
foremost amongst its advocates, or by Mr. Joseph Chamberlain. It appears 
however that, excluding the cow which may have been a happy thought on 



312 Sir William Petty. 

the part of those two eminent politicians, the " three acres " was originally 
Petty's idea, for three acres a head is constantly being urged by him in hi& 
various writings as the ideal distribution of land per inhabitant. 

In the region of medicine Petty was the first to urge the establishment of 
a very modern institution, namely the Isolation Hospital. He recom- 
mended this, and no doubt rightly, as the best method to overcome the 
plague, which constantly recurred, especially in London, until the Great 
Fire destroyed the greater part of the insanitary dwellings from which it 
probably had its origin. H e foreshadowed also modern proposals in the shape 
of a MiniUry of Health and a Medical Research Council, for it was, as he 
says, against the interests of the state to " leave physicians and patients to 
their own shifts." He advocated Lying-in Hospitals for Women, which, I 
believe, did not exist until Queen Charlotte, wife of George III., founded 
that which still bears her name, and he seems to have contemplated that, 
in certain circumstances, children should be educated and maintained by 
the State. Speaking of the causes of the plague and other epidemics he 
has a curious passage : " the most powerful armies on earth are a sort of 
soldiers who for their smallness are not visible . . . Millions of invisible 
animals that travel from country to country, even out of Africa into Eng- 
land, and do fall on and draw back on a day as seems to be the efiort of 
some commanding intellect that commands them on the whole matter." 
Here we surely have, though crudely expressed, the modern germ theory. 

It was towards the end of the 18th ceutury that William Pitt came to the 
conclusion that the best way to secure peace in Ireland was to unite that 
country with England, and the Act of Union was passed in the teeth of 
strenuous opposition in 1800. It subsisted until a few years ago. I suppose it 
would be correct to say the principal argument for the recent discarding of 
this Union with Ireland was that it had been found by experience that a 
distinctively Irish population would never be contented under British 
rule. Petty anticipated Pitt's Union by more than a hundred years and 
seems to have foreseen the cause of its ultimate failure. For though he con- 
stantly advocated it, he coupled with it a proposal that there should be 
a wholesale transference by emigration of English to Ireland and of Irish to 
England, without which mixture of populations he claimed that it would 
not be a real or lasting one. Petty's was a drastic suggestion, no doubt, but 
it showed that he was fully aware of the diflSculties which would ensue un- 
less the populations of the two countries were somehow made homogeneous. 

As for London he was insistent that it should be allowed to administer 
its own affairs by a Common Council of its own, with subsidiary Councils 
for Health, Trade, Finance, &c. It was just about 200 years later that 
London became an administrative county and that the London County 
Council, with its various committees to deal with internal affairs, was 
actually instituted. 

That Taxation and Representation should go hand in hand has now be- 
come a political commonplace, but Petty was one of the first to insist on 
this axiom, and he constantly deplored the inequalities of representation as 
existing in his day. Much water was to pass under the bridge before these 
began to be corrected by the first of the nineteenth century Reform Bills. 



By the Marquis of Lansdowne. 313 

For the House of Lords also he was prepared with schemes of reform, 
one of these being that the Upper House should be strengthened by repre- 
sentatives "from all and every part of his Majesty's dominions" in order 
that it might hold its own against a too powerful House of Commons. In 
another he suggests the creation of a number of Life Peers (who were ap- 
parently all to be Dukes) in order to override possible opposition to such 
measures as had been approved by the King and the Commons. It is re- 
markable also to find him advocating Manhood Suffrage^ which now obtains, 
after 250 years. It may seem strange amongst all these intelligent 
anticipations that he did not also advocate votes for women. 

To the above list I might add a proposal for a General Land Registry^ in 
order that properties might be more easily identified and dealt with. In a 
very limited form this has been initiated for London, but only in recent 
times and after much opposition. We have yet to see it instituted for the 
whole country. 

Under the title of a " Scheme for the Provision of the poor " he advocated 
something which resembled our modern Labour Exchange, in which skilled 
was to be differentiated from unskilled labour, while those who were able 
to work were distinguished from those who were unemployable. 

He had prepared also a system of undenominational teaching and a 
special Catechism suited thereto, which might have provided ideas to the 
later framers of the Gowper-Temple Clause. He suggested the Decimal 
Coinage, now in general use abroad. No doubt we are never likely to get 
it here, though experts are, I believe, agreed that we ought to have it ; and, 
lastly, in a paper entitled " For preventing the abuse of oaths and ascertain- 
ing testimony," he proposed something akin to a Monomark. Every 
person over eighteen years of age was to have a seal on which would be 
engraved his name and date of birth, with his distinctive marks. The seal 
was always to be added to the signature of any legal documents, thus 
avoiding any f)ossibility of mistaken identity. 

Both Evelyn and Fepys were fervent admirers of Petty ; the former has 
left of him in his famous diary a long appreciation. In case I may have 
wearied you with all these details, I will use Evelyn's own words by saying 
in excuse that " Having never known such another genius, I cannot but 
mention these particulars among a multitude of others I could produce." 

Petty once complained in a letter to a friend that he was " represented by 
some to be a conjurer and by others to be notional and fanciful near up 
to madness." I have told you of some of his strange and prophetic 
" notions." They are taken, not from his works printed and published at 
the time, but from his private writings, thrown off in moments of leisure, 
and probably never shown to any but a few personal friends, for new ideas 
(as Petty himself hints) were not always well received at the time. 

His "notions," though they did not materialise at the time, prove once 
more the truth of the familiar adage that " there is nothing new under the 
sun." Evelyn's enthusiasm must, I think, have been justified when"he wrote 
in th,e account to which I have referred, " If I were a Prince I would make 
him my second Counsellor at least. There is nothing impenetrable to 
him." 



314 



LISTS OF GOODS DESTEOYED BY FIRE AT 
MARLBOIIOUGH, 1679. 

Transcribed by Capt. B. Howaed Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot., 
from the Corporation Records. 

The town of Marlborough suffered from several smaller bad fires besides 
the memorable one in 1653 when the greater part of the town was burnt 
down and damage done to the extent of £80,000. 

A somewhat serious outbreak in 1679 resulted in the destruction of 
several houses and a great deal of property belonging to the poorer in- 
habitants. 

Amongst the Corporation papers of the period are a number of accounts 
for payment for damage done by this fire, which by the courtesy of the 
Mayor and Corporation I have been allowed to extract. They are especially 
interesting fronj the fact that they give a good idea of some of the principal 
items of household furniture and trade utensils in use at that period. The 
original spelling is given and where possible the meaning of words now 
obsolete. 

FIRE, APRIL 9th, 1679. 
An acount of deborah Stanmers lost by fiere. 

2 Beds flok 

One Chaf Bed 

One Silk (?) rugg 

Five pece of blankats 

2 flok bowsters 

2 father pelows 

One father bowster 

Twoe bedsteeds 

One pere shets 

One cradel Rug 

5 boxes 2 Cofers one table bord 

2 bouster cases 3 pelo cases 

3 bibles and other boks 
3 dishes peuter & hony & dripen pane 
ffor waring Aperall linen & wolen 
ffor lumber goods & 2 hats 

11. 



J6 


s. 


d. 


01. 


10. 


00. 


00. 


2. 


06. 


00. 


16. 


00. 


00. 


15. 


00. 


00. 


05. 


00. 


00. 


10, 


00. 


00. 


12. 


00. 


01. 


00. 


00. 


00. 


4. 


00. 


00. 


03. 


00. 


00. 


14. 


00. 


00. 


09. 


00. 


00. 


15. 


00. 


00. 


10. 


00. 


02. 


00. 


00. 


00. 


15. 


00. 



Lists of Goods destroyed hy fire at Marlborough, 1679. 315 

A bill of the lost that was sustained by William and Samuell ffowler 
which was consumed by the fire Aprill 9th, 1679. 

Two tenement house 

One tester bedsteed with matt coard 

Thre Livery bedsteeds & one trundle bedsteed with 

Matts & coards 
One high Cubberd with drawers 
One small Cubberd 
9 shirts & smocks 3 sheets and aprons and other 

small linnings 
3 bibles 

2 bolsters & one flockbed 
2 blankets 

One round table board 
One other table board 
One long f ourm and 3 Joynstools 
2 Flagons and a pewter tankard 
2 Tubbs 
2 Coffers 
One settle 

2 other settles and 2 racks 
One horse to sett barrells on 

2 small chaires 

Working tools & seats and lasts in the shop 
For bonelace to the value of 
One pealow coverled &, a rideing hood 
For other things as lumber about the house 

42. 3. 0. 
William and Samuell ffowler 

This is the envitory of the lost of Richd. Sutton as neare as wee can judge. 

32 dozen od whalebone at lis. 6d. p. doz. 

A parcell of thread cost 

7 pd of pinke & Cornacion holein^ thread 

3 pound of Cornacion pinke stiching thread 
Beetwene 2 or 3 pounds selke at £1 per pd. 
17 ends of Teck' sum I7s. per pece sum 18s. 
in money 

3 quart of a C (hundred) of fagots 
3 Bedes 2 high Beades and one low Bead 

2 pare of Cortins 

3 Bolsters 
3 ruges 



£ 


, 


d. 


33 


8. 


0. 


0. 


10. 


0, 


0. 


16. 


0. 


0. 


10. 


0. 


0. 


2. 


0. 


1. 


10. 


0. 


0. 


6. 


0. 


0. 


12. 


0. 


0. 


4. 


0. 


0. 


5. 


0. 


0. 


4. 


0. 


0. 


5. 


0. 


0. 


4. 


0. 


0. 


3. 


6. 


0. 


3. 


0. 


0. 


4. 


0. 


0. 


5. 


0. 


0. 


1. 


0. 


0. 


1. 


6. 


1. 


0. 


0. 


0. 


8. 


0. 


0. 


7. 


0. 


0. 


14. 


0. 



£ 


s. 


d. 


18. 


08. 


00. 


11. 


15. 


00. 


01. 


09. 


04. 


01. 


01. 


00. 


02. 


12. 


00. 


13. 


05. 


00. 


09. 


15. 


00. 


00. 


11. 


00. 


05. 


00. 


00. 


01. 


04 


00. 


01. 


10. 


00. 


01. 


10. 


00. 



1 Bed Tick for Mattresses. 



316 Lists of Goods destroyed hij fire at Marlborough, 1769. 



4 pare of blancotts 

3 bedsteads and matts and cords 

3 coufers and two boxes of linnen valued at 

my wife two gounds and 5 peticots 

3 long skarfs cost 
2 neck skarfes 

2 new Castors 

4 Velts ^ 

5 Barills and Beare 

7 peces of silke Qoelome 

9 peces of thread Goelome 

my two shouts of Clothes 

my childrens clothes 

a pare of bootes and Leather hose 

3 Table boards and two frames 

5 cofers and 8 boxes 
3 Tronks 

1 Counter in the Shope 

All my Shopebords and Bulke 

Benches stoles and Chayers 

A parcell of hard wood judge to be a tun 

A parcell of made ware judge to be 9 or 11 Dozen 

9 dozen of white & colard Leather 

90 ells of lockerum ^ cost 1 s. Ijd. per ell 

1 flagon and a Cobbord 

Between 5 & 6 Dozen of ware cott out & stich 

2 Baren clothes, one sarge & ye other cloth 

3 shuts of childbead lining 

4 pare of showes 7 pare of stockins 

6 papers of bonelacefthreed 

1 Tablebord and 1 box more and hogshead 
Of maney bords for benches and sheules ^ cost 

2 Tubes and one Kive ^ 

2 bocketts and 2 looken Glaseses 

1 sack and 1 grist bagg 

1 pare of billes and 1 chiver 

Bibels tastemens and Books 

Rack and manger 

1 dreser board and settell 

6 holand aprons and two calicoe & 2 green say^ 

1 iRnthorne and fier bucket 



£ 


s. 


d. 


02. 


00. 


00. 


OL 


04. 


00. 


07. 


00. 


00. 


09. 


00. 


00. 


01. 


06. 


00. 


00. 


05. 


00. 


01. 


00. 


00. 


00, 


12. 


00. 


01. 


08. 


00. 


01. 


17. 


00. 


01. 


08. 


00. 


03. 


00. 


00. 


02. 


10. 


00. 


00. 


09. 


00. 


01. 


08. 


00. 


00. 


15. 


00. 


00. 


17. 


00. 


00. 


12. 


00. 


01. 


09. 


00. 


01. 


03. 


00. 


00. 


12 


00. 


18. 


00. 


00. 


01. 


03. 


00. 


05. 


08. 


00. 


00. 


08. 


00. 


09. 


00. 


00. 


00. 


19. 


00. 


01. 


06. 


00. 


00. 


19. 


00. 


00. 


19. 


00. 


00. 


10. 


00. 


00. 


13. 


00. 


00. 


18. 


00. 


00. 


39. 


00. 


00. 


04. 


00. 


00. 


04. 


00. 


00. 


15. 


00. 


00. 


02. 


6. 


00. 


06. 


00. 


01. 


12. 


20. 


00. 


04. 


00. 



M Felts. 
^ Lockram, cheap linen. 
" Sheules," probably a miss-spelling of stools. 
^ Kive, Keeve, a large brewing tub, 
^ 8aye, a kind of serge. 



Transcribed hy Capt, B. Howard Cunnington, F.S.A,, Scot, 317 



26 Chaynges (Chains) 

2 wendor cortens (window curtains) 
A parcell Chayney and perigon 
Temsor serch ^ and Kele 

4 pound of oringe skey (? sky blue) & Greene threed 
1 remlot of red satten 

1 fiaskitt 2 Steele platts and 1 presen ieron (press- 
ing iron) 

3 pare of fusten drawers and 3 wastcott 
my shope booke cost 
Stomigers'-^ goeing one in the worke 
A parcell of short whalebone contayning 37 lb. 

By my acount it dothe amount to 

Bee sides maney other nesescareys Bee longing to howse keping as allsoe 
the damidge of what I may loose by the lost of my shope booke the which 
I doe heare for bare to relate. 

Richard Sutton. 

Timothy Chivers losse by ffyer as underwritt. 

A sute of cloths of mine and my wife 03. 10. 00. 

In linon of all sorts and lace 04. 10. 00. 

In houshold goods of severall sorts 2 10. 00 



£ 


s. 


d. 


03. 


10. 


00. 


00. 


04. 


00. 


01. 


10 


00. 


00. 


04. 


00. 


00. 


09. 


00. 


90. 


07. 


00. 


00. 


03. 


00. 


00. 


19. 


00. 


00 


02. 


06. 


01. 


13. 


00. 


00. 


17. 


00. 


159 


15. 


4. 



10. 10. 00. 



An a count of ye lost of Constant Bennett. 
One waynskett bed sted and one standing bedsted 
One chest one coffer one box 2 chayers 1 joynstoll 
lost in mony and wood 
lost in linion and woollen 
lost in lumber goods and dyett 
- lost one fustian mantl valine 

Suma £5 14s. Od. 

The lose of William Engles goods att ye fire 
first in mony lost at ye fire 

2 gold rings valine 
one sutt of clothes valine 
oue holand sheet and two holand pillowbeds 
one brase pott and a brasen candlesticke 

3 pewter poringers and 2 pewter salts 
2 sallett (1 salad) dishes 
a turkey cussen (cushion) 
for small linion 

Some is 12— 05— lo. 

* i.e. lem.se or .Search, a smail sieve, and Keel, a vessel tor liquor to 
stand and cool in. 

^ Stominger= Stomacher. 



1. 


10. 


0. 


0. 


12. 


0. 


01. 


14. 


0. 


0. 


10. 


0. 


01. 


0, 


0. 


0. 


8. 


0. 


re. 
3. 


15. 


0. 


1. 


10. 


0. 


3, 


10. 


0. 


1. 


10. 


0. 


0. 


5 


0. 


0. 


3. 


0. 


0. 


1. 


6. 


0. 


1. 


4. 


2. 


10. 


0. 



£ 


s. 


d. 


1. 


10. 


00. 


0. 


10. 


00. 


3. 


0. 


0. 


2. 


0. 


0. 


1. 


0. 


0. 


0. 


15. 


0. 




15. 


0. 




3. 


6. 



318 Lists of Goods destroyed hy fire at Marlborough, 1679. 

John Allen his loss att ye fire 
lost in wareing clothes &, stockins and shoos 
lost in linen shirts and bands and drawers 
bibles and a book of heraldrye and many other books 
colours vermilion and pink and verdygrece and white- 
led and redled and other colours to the value of 
3 Marble stones and Mailers 
brushes and pencells and other tooles 
lost in boxes and 1 cofer and things in them 
lost in money 

and I lost all my paterns and other things, pictures and the like 
which I dont know ye worth of and the lost of my lifeinge house. 
I hope you will consider of it. 

(Dorithy Titcombe). 
[There is no heading to this account but it begins as follows : — ] 
on bedsted on bed of fiacks and fethers on fether 

boulstr, on fether pelow, on pair of blankets, 

on shet on rugge 4. 0. 0. 

on bedsted, on bed of flokes and fethers on fether 

Boulster, on pair of blankets on sheet on rugge 2. 10. 0. 
on bedsted on fiocke bed, on fether boulstr on flocke 

boulstr on pair of blankets on coverlet 2. 0. 0. 

On chafe bed, on floke boulstr on floke pelow on 

trusell bedsted 
on standing bedsted 
on livery bedsted 

On chest, 2 fether pelos on new blanket 
On coffer with a coverlet in him on deske full of 

linen to the valy of thirty shilling 1. 10. 

On chest, 2 petycotes, 2 wascots on new pair of 

bodises 2 pa,ir stokins, on pair of shous 2 

chaings on sheet on riding Howed 
Of brase burnt as much as com to thirty fiveshilns 
On pauter plate puter chambr pot 
On coubord, on cine, on cendr and five tubbes, on 

paill, 2 Tabell bords and frams, on gine^ stoll, 

2 ginc chairs, 2 laders, on Tabl bord without a 

fram on great prese 
Wood and boards 



1, 


6. 


8. 


1. 


6. 


0. 


0. 


5. 


0. 


1. 


0. 


0. 



3. 


0. 


0. 


1. 


15. 


0. 


0. 


3. 


6. 



3. 5. 


0. 


1. 18. 


0. 


23. 08. 


0, 



Besids the loast in the estate of my hows which estate wase 24 or 25 
years at rent fre consedred the Chamber rent pd and my owne dwelling fre, 
the wliich 1 lave to your considration to Judg. 

Dorithy Titcome. 

\ ? Gine stoll, i.e., joint stool, joint chair. 



319 

TEOUBLE WITH THE BAKEKS OF MAELBOKOUGH 

m 1634. 

Transcribed from the Municipal Records by permission of the Corporation 
by Capt. B. H. Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot. 
The Complts are for breaking the Judges order, wch order consists of 
these pts. 

1. That the bakers stand in the Mkett howse. 

2. That the Assize should be given according to the law by sworne men. 

All which is fullfilled. And it may be thus made good viz. 

1. They have not been disturbed in standing in the Markett howse, 

2. The Assise hath been geven them by sworne men according to the 
booke. 

3. In geving thassize the Mayor & Justices have alwaes acknowledged 
the order to be just. 

The Bakers' Misdemeanor. 

1. They have publiquely charged the Mayor wth injustice. 

2. One of them have cursed some of their supposed adversaries. 

3. They have threatned the Jury wth the starrchamber insomuch that 
some of them have said for feare that they had rather geven xs then to 
serve in the Jury. 

4. Joseph Blake hath said lett the Mayor sitt the assize if he dare, I 
will make my bread as I wish. 

5. They have broken the assize in an extraordinary manner viz. iiij oz 
and more in a penny white lofe. 

6 They make spiced bread, and say they will do so still, and make it 
not above halfe so weighty as it should be. Every busshell of.wheate con- 
teyning Ivj lb averdepois is 816 oz Troy wch is 6528 oz troy to the quarter 
of wheate. Every quarter of wheate may be made into 3 sorts viz one 
halfe into wheaten a fourth part into white and a fourth pte into hows- 
hold as" appearth in the booke. 

So that according to the price of wheate at xls the quarter if you account 
the weight of xxxd in wheaten bred it comes to 378 oz troy. By wch it 
appeares that when wheat is sett at vs the bussell according to the weight 
of Ivj lbs averdepois the baker may be drawing his bread out of that 
weight, makes Ix penny worth of bread and yett have remayning to him- 
self e out of every busshell 57 lb 3 qr wch is 462 Troy over and above ye vjs 
in every quarter wch is allowed him. 

John Elliot makes a Statement on Oath. 
John Elliott of Marleborowe in the County of VViltes Baker aged twenty 
and nine yeares or thereabouts, sworne, deposeth as followeth, That ever 
since this deponents remembrance the Bakers of Marleborowe have used 
upon the faire and markett dayes to sett upp standings or stalles for the 
selling of theire bread in a certeine house in the markett of Marleborowe 
called the Markett House wthout any deniall or interrupcon of the Mayor 
of the Towne or Burrowe of Marleborowe untoU nowe of late tyme. That 
aboute three yeares since the said markett house was pulled downe and a 



320 Trouble with the Bakers of Marlborough in 1634 

newe one sett upp in the same place with some enlargement ther jf upon 
the Earle of Hertfords wast land of the mannor of Marleborowe, That the 
newe Markett house was built partlye att the charge and cost of the 
Chamber of the said Borowe and partlye att the charge of divers pliculer 
psons namely Walter Jeffery, John Elliott, John Blake, and John Bushel], 
bakers and some other of the townsmen. That ever since the rebuilding of 
the said Towne house the bakers of Marleborowe have had their standings or 
stalls in the said Towne house upon fayer and markett dayes for the sell- 
ing and ventinge of theire bread as formerly they had wth out any inter- 
rupcon ontill aboute ►St. James tyde laste. That at the last Quarter 
Sessions holden for the Borowe of Marleborowe An order was made by the 
Maior and Justices of the borowe the coppies whereof under the hand of 
the Towne Gierke is hereunto annexed for the binding of such psons to 
theire good behavior and apparance att the next Quarter sessions for the 
said Borowe that should prsume to place any standings or stalls in any 
part of the said Markett House wth out speciall license of the Maior and 
Justices of th peace of the said Borowe. That since that time this deponent 
and the said Swithen Hayes, Walter Jeffrey, Joseph Blake, Bakers and one 
Ixichard Dangerfield servant unto the afore named Bushell, for breach of 
the said order in setting upp standings or stalls in the said Markett house 
for the sellinge or ventinge of theire bread there, were compelled to enter 
into severall recognizances taken by Stephen Lawrence Maior of Marle- 
borowe and Phillipp ffrancklyn Justices of the Peace for the said Borowe 
of Marleborowe or one of them, to be of the good behaviour, and to appeare 
at the next quarter sessions to be holden for the said Borowe, And th said 
Maior and one John ffrancklyn the towne Clerke of Marleborowe have 
threatened this deponent and the other afore named Bakers, that they will 
certifie theire severall recognizances as forfeated and cause them to be 
estreated yf they sett up any standings or stalls in the said Towne 
house, And this deponent further deposeth that in the said newe Towne 
House there is roome suflScient for the placeinge sellinge and weighinge of 
all th woU butter and cheese that is at any markett or fayer daye brought 
to the markett of Marleborowe to be solde, as alsoe for the said Bakers to 
sett upp their stalls or standings there in for the sellinge and ventinge of 
theire bread as they have formerly done. 

JOHN ELLIOTT. 
XVI Day October 1634. 

The Bakers' Petition to the Peivy Council. 

To the Bight Honble the Lords & others and others of his Matie Most 
noble Privie Counsell. 

The humble peticon of Swithin Hayes, Walter Jeffrey, John Elliott, and 
Rich : Dangerfield being bakers of the Borrough of Marlborough in the 
County of Wiltes. 

Humbly sheweth yor Lqp' That whereas there is some difference be- 
tweene yor peticoners and the Maior and Justices of the said Borough 
concerning yor peticoners standings in the Market place there on the 
market dayes for the sale of there bred wch tyme out of mynd hath been 
used by the bakers of the said Borough, And the said Maior and Justices 



'Transci^ibed hi/ Capt B. Howard Citnningtoii, F.S.A., Scot. 321 

haveing latelie made an order that if yor peticoners did presume to set up 
any standings there any more that yor peticoners should be bound unto 
the good behaviour. And yor peticoners continuing their said usage, were 
all for that cause bound to bee of good behaviour by the said Maior and 
Justices And the said Maior and Justices have caused a writt of ?c facias 
to bee brought against yor peticoner Haies and doe threaten to bring the 
like against yor other peticoners, and to present them upon the said 
recognizances as being forfeited for that yor peticoners doe continue there 
said standings, And John Baily gent the late Maior and John ffrancklin 
gent the towne Gierke have of late given away yor peticoner Swithin Haies^ 
his and one Joseph Blake another Bakers bread wth out weighing the 
same. And the said John Bailey did comit yor peticoner Swithin Haies 
his Sonne William Haies to prison for saying unto him That hee might 
have done well to have weighed the bread before hee gave it away. And 
Stephen Lawrence gent the now Maior and Phillip ffrancklin gent one of 
the Justices of the Peace of the said Borough have by men unsworn 
assessed yor peticoners at 4s. 8d. for a bushell of wheate when they pay for 
the same 5s. 2d. and at 4s. 6d. when they pay 5s. by wch yor peticoners are 
inforced to lose 4d. or 6d. in everie bushell. 

And yo"" peticoners further show That the said maior and Justices will 
not allow yo' peticoners such a proporcon for baking as they ought to doe 
to yor peticoners greate wrong and prejudice. And the said Joseph Blake 
shewing the said late maior Phillip ffrancklin and the said towne clerke the 
assize booke heretofore sett forth by authority They did slight the same and 
the said Phillip ffrancklin said it was a bauble and feeble and the said John 
ffrancklin said hee brought an Epistle and Gospel and that he should fare 
nothing the better for it. And the said Maior and Justices doe weigh yor 
peticoners bred when it is not weighable and doe greevouslie amerce yor 
peticoners without cause I regard they have not set the Assize by sworne 
men nor yeild yor peticoners such allowances for backing as they ought to 
doe by the same booke and they have given yor peticoners two assizes in 
one weeke noe market day betweene contrarie unto the lawe. 

And yo' peticoners doe further shew yo' Lo'p^ that the said maior and 
Justices seldome or never weigh the forraigne Bakers bread that doe 
frequent th said Market day but doe as much as in them ly, seecke the 
utter overthrow and undoing of your poore peticoners. By reason of wch 
hard measure offered, yor peticoners, they are made wearie of theire trade 
and must be enforced to leave the same and the towne to their undoing and 
to the greate prejudice of the poore of the saide towne and of travellers 
that shall have occasion to refresh themselves there unlesse yor Lo'p* will 
be pleased to releeve yor peticoners herein. 

May it therefore please yo' Lo'p* the premises considered to take yor 
poore peticoners cause in to yor Lo'p^ consideracon and to take such speedie 
course for your peticoners reliefe herein as by yor Lo'p* grace, wisedome 
shall seeme most fitt. 

And yor peticoners as in Dutie bound shall daylie pray for yor bono* &c. 

(Note.^lti^ a pity there are no further details of this trouble.) 
VOL. XLIV. — NO. CL. Y 



322 



TISBURY IN THE ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS. 
By the Rev. W. Goodchild. 

The earliest mention of Tisbury (Tissebiri) occurs in a charter of the year 
759 (Birch No. 186). This charter belonged formerly to the muniment 
room of Winchester Cathedral, but is now in the British Museum. It 
recites and confirms an earlier charter, by which in the year 704, Coinred, 
sub-king of Wessex, nephew of king Cynegils, and father of king Ini, for 
the healing of his soul and for the relaxing of his penances, gave to Abbot 
Bectune an estate of thirty hides {i,e., sufficient land to maintain thirty 
families) having for its northern boundary the river Fontmell (Funtamel), 
and for its southern boundary the land of bishop Leutherius of blessed 
memory (bishop of Winchester 670 — 676). 

The charter of 759 after reciting king Coenred's grant to Abbot Bectune 
continues as follows "I Cyneheard, an unworthy bishop (of Winchester 754 
— 759), have made the sign of the cross ^ to confirm and ratify this char- 
ter, which I acknowledge to have been signed in the following circum- 
stances : — 

" The successor of the above-named Abbot Bectune, Catwali by 
name,' gave the above-mentioned estate of thirty hides to Abbot Wintra 
for his money, and wrote another copy of this grant and of the above 
holding, but he did not insert the words of the original grant or the 
names of the kings, bishops, abbots, aud noblemen, who were wit- 
nesses of it, because this same conveyance of land, being copied into a 
book among the other title-deeds of the abbey, could not readily be 
separated from them, nor can i it be so separated now. Consequently 
when the original witnesses were dead, there was a long dispute be- 
tween the members of the two monastic bodies, and it has been carried 
on up to the present time. But the land has been always held, ever 
since it was first conveyed by the aforesaid Abbot (Bectune, probably 
abbot of Iwerne) to Wintra by his successors ; and the original deed of 
conveyance bearing the signatures of the above-mentioned witnesses, 
has been held by the abbot of the other monastery and his successors." 
[The signatures referred to are :— "Coinred," sub-king of Wessex 704 — 
709 ; " Leotherius," a bishop but not the bishop of Winchester ^ ; Curiburt 
and Hadde, abbots ; and Wimbert, a priest, who drew up this and other 
charters]. 



' A British name indicative of some fusion of the British and Saxon races 
in Dorset. 

2 Who had been dead 28 years in 704, unless bishop (^yneheard, as rep- 
resenting the see of Winchester, thought that he might properly append tha 
name of the bishop who formerly endowed Iwerne. 



IHshiiry in the Anglo-Saxon Charters. 323 

" Therefore I and our king, and the other persons, whose testimony, 
and signatures are written below, have now reconciled and made peace 
between the parties, partly by a gift of money, partly by a sworn agree- 
ment, to the effect that henceforward the successors of abbot Wintra, 
that is Kgwald and the monks, who are in the monastery which is called 
Tissebiri, with the permission of the other monks, who are ruled by 
the abbot Tidbald, shall hold and possess the land concerning which 
the dispute has arisen, and I have drawn up this title-deed. And, 
with the permission of abbot Tidball and his monks, I have taken the 
preceding extract from the deed originally given to abbot Bectune, and 
have given it to abbot Egwald ; and the witnesses whose names appear 
below have agreed to and confirmed what I have written, and have 
condemned any other deeds concerning this property which have been 
produced. 

These things have been done in the 758th year from the Incarnation 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, in the 12th Indiction. 

The »^ of Kinewulf, the King (757-786). 

The »^ of Merewald, Bishop (Sherborne 737 — 772). 

The ^ of Scilling, Priest. 

Cerdic, Priest, and others." 

In the year 704 when abbot Wintra bought the 30 hides of land at Font- 
mell from abbot Bectune of Iwerne, Haeddi, bishop of Winchester lay 
dying, after being sole bishop of the great and increasing kingdom of 
Wessex for twenty-eight years. Ini had been pushing the power of the 
West Saxons over Somerset and Dorset. One of the canons promulgated 
by the provincial synod of Hertford, held in 673, was that every diocese 
should be divided as soon as an increase of population began to make it 
unmanageable. In July, 705, Haeddi died, probably on his great estate at 
Downton. Bede tells us that he was so deeply respected that a big hole 
was made in the ground in the place where he died, because those who 
loved and admired him carried away great quantities of the earth as a relic 
and a charm. Two hundred and fifty years later Haeddi's Grove was 
pointed out as a land-mark on the boundary of the lands of the property of 
the bishops of Winchester on the Pepper Box hill south of Salisbury. 

Soon after Haeddi's death a synod was held for the kingdom of Wessex 
at which the diocese was divided, the western portion, " west of Selwood," 
being given to St. Aldhelm, the eastern portion, east of Selwood, to Daniel, 
who had been Aldhelm's fellow student at Malmesbury. Many matters had 
to be settled in connection with this division of the diocese, and the synod 
probably met two or three times. One or more of the meetings was most 
likely at Tisbury, for one of them is called by the chroniclers the Synod of 
the river Nadder (Nodr), and no monastery, except that of Tisbury, is 
known to have existed near the Nadder in the seventh century. (David 
Wilkins in the sixteenth century said that the place was Adderbourne, and 
he has been followed by most later writers, but Adderbourne has never 
€xisted). 

2 Y 



324 Ti&hury in the Anglo-^axon Charters. 

It is certain also that abbot Wintra of Tisbury was present atone of the 
synods of 705, and took a leading part iu the proceedings. Some difficult 
matters had to be settled. St. Aldhelm's Abbeys, Malmesbury, Brad- 
ford, and Frome, were very unwiliing to part with him and the monks 
desired to keep him as abbot after he became Bishop, but the canons of 
Hertford forbade bishops to exercise any control over abbeys. Another 
canon made any election of a new bishop void unless it was approved by 
the archbishop of the province. The members of the Wessex Synod felt 
that they had been too precipitate in pressing on the division of Haeddi's 
diocese without consulting Brihtwald, who succeeded Theodore as arch- 
bishop of Canterbury in 693 and retained the primacy until 731. The 
difficulty was a serious one and required delicate handling, lest the arch- 
bishop should take offence at the independent action of the Wessex Synod 
and pronounce their proceedings irregular and invalid. 

It was felt that a tactful and competent representative must be sent to 
Canterbury to explain the circumstances to the archbishop. Several mem- 
bers of the synod said that a young monk, named Winfrith, then residing 
at the abbey of Nursling, was exactly the kind of man that they wanted 
for this commission, because of his high character, his learning, and his un- 
erring judgment. The strongest testimonials to his character were given 
by Wimbert, abbot of N ursling, Bearwald, abbot of Glastonbury, and Wintra, 
abbot of Tisbury. Winfrith was fetched to the place of meeting (probably 
Tisbury), was introduced to King Ini, accepted his commission, carried it 
out with great success, and so commenced a career of noble and distinguished 
service for the Church, which he ended as St. Boniface, the Apostle of 
Germany, by his martyrdom in Holland in 755. 

So the Synod of the Nadder brought together, at or near Tisbury, St. 
Aldhelm, Daniel, bishop of Winchester, Ini, the pious and beneficent king 
of Wessex, and St. Boniface, the greatest of English missionaries. 

It is known that considerable numbers of Anglo-Saxon men and women 
went out from Wessex to join the mission stations that were founded by 
St. Boniface in Thuringia, Hessia, Bavaria, and on the Lower Bhine, and 
there is good reason to suppose that the monks of Tisbury Abbey regularly 
remembered the monks ot St. Boniface's German abbeys in their daily 
prayers, until in the ninth century the abbey was destroyed and the monks 
were massacred by the Danes. Arrangements for mutual prayers were 
made between the English and German abbeys, and registers of departed 
saints were interchanged. 

After the year 870 we hear nothing more of Abbeys at Tisbury or at 
Iwerne. Presumably no trace of either remained when the battle of Ethan- 
dune restored southern England to king Alfred. He founded the abbeys 
of Athelney and Shaftesbury in commemoration of his victory, but had 
great difficulty in finding monks or nuns to fill them. He endowed the 
abbey of Shaftesbury with much of the land that had belonged to the 
ruined abbey of Tisbury, other portions of it were granted to noblemen and 
members of the royal family. 



By the Rev. W, Goodchild. 325 

The charters give us some information with regard to the subsequent 
devolution of the land at Tisbury and in the adjoining parish of Fonthill. 
A most interesting letter (Birch, No. 591) unsigned but clearly written 
by Asser, bishop of Sherborne, to Edward the Elder, son and successor of 
king Alfred in 901, has been preserved by the bishops of Winchester, as 
showing their title to the lordship of the manor of Fonthill Bishop. This 
lordship they still retain though they were compelled in the nineteenth 
century to transfer the advowson to the bishops of Oxford. 

Asser's letter was 'printed both by Kemble and by Birch among the 
Anglo-Saxon charters, and it was also printed with a translation by Thorpe, 
but it has attracted less attention than it deserves. 

In the following translation an attempt has been made to give the mean- 
ing of the original in an intelligible form rather than a verbatim rendering 
which would require many notes for its elucidation. 
The letter runs thus : — 
" Dear Friend (Leof), 

I am writing to tell you the circumstances connected with the land 
at Fonthill (Funtial), being five hides, which Aethelm the Monk(Higa) 
is claiming as forfeited to him.' 

"When Hi elmstan'^ committed the crime of stealing king Ethelred'sbelt,^ 
then Aethelm quickly lodged a claim against him, along with other 
claimants for his land at Fonthill Bishop."* Then Helmstan came to 
me and entreated me to intercede for him (with the king), because I 
was his godfather before he committed the crime. And then I did 
speak in his favour to king Alfred and made his peace with the king 
(may God reward his soul), and he granted, through my intercession, 
that Helmstan (instead of being outlawed) should be permitted to de- 
fend a suit for his land against Aethelm in a court of law. Then he 
bade us bring the two men to a compromise. I was one of the com- 
missioners named for this purpose, and Wihtbrord and Aelfric, who was 
keeper of the king's robes, and Byrthelm, and Wulfhun the Black of 



'This Aethelm was king Alfred's nephew, son of king Ethelred I., who, 
was wounded at the battle of Martin, died, probably at Witchampton, a few 
days later, and was buried at Wimborne. Aethelm's tender years made him 
an unsuitable successor for his father's throne, and he seems to have made no 
claim to it ; he was bred as a monk at Glastonbury and became archbishop 
of Canterbury 914 — 923. His younger brother, Aethelweald, did claim the 
throne after the death of king Alfred and was recognised king in the north 
of England for a few years. 

- A young thane at King Alfred's court. 

* A richly jewelled and ornamented belt which had been worn by king 
Ethelred, and was treasured after his death. 

* Because by king Alfred's laws, in addition to other penalties, Helmstan 
was obliged to restore three or four times the value of his thefts to the per- 
sons whom he had robbed. 



326 Tisbury in the Anglo-Saxon Charters. 

Somerton (Somertune), and Strica, and Ubba, and more persons than I 
can now remember. Then each of the parties told his tale. Then we 
all decided that Helmstan must appear before us snd bring the title 
deeds of the estate, and prove his right to possess it, that he held it as 
Aethelthryth [King Alfred's daughter] had sold it to Osulf [apparently 
Helmstan's father] at a proper price ; and she said to Osulf that she 
had full authority to sell it to him, because it was her husband'^ 
Aethelwulf's wedding present to her on the morning after they were 
married.^ And Helmstan included all these facts in his declaration of 
ownership ; and king Alfred had given Oswulf his written testimony 
that he had bought the land from Aethelthryth, and the purchase must 
stand good, and Edward [king Alfred's son, to whom Asser wrote thia 
letter] signed it, and Aethelnoth, and Deormod, and anyone else who 
chose to be present at the signing. 

When we came to Wardour to settle a compromise between the parties^ 
the above statement of title was produced and read ; all the signatures 
were upon it, and it appeared to all the commissioners who were present 
for arranging the compromise, that Helmstan had come nearer than 
Aethelm to being able to make a sworn claim to the ownership of the 
land. 

Then Aethelm was noti convinced, until we went in to the king 
and told him what our decision was and our reasons for it. Aethelm 
himself stood there among us, and king Alfred was standing and wash- 
ing his hands, at Wardour, in the inner chamber. When he had finished 
washing, he asked Aethelm why our decision did not seem right to him, 
and said that he could think of no more equitable plan than that 
Helmstan should swear a declaration of ownership of the land if he was 
prepared to do so. Then I said that Helmstan would make bold to 
swear the declaration, and prayed the king to fix a date for the 
swearing of the declaration, and this he did. 

And Helmstan consented to the date for swearing the declaration 
and begged me to support his affirmation, and said that he had rather 
lose the property than ever break his oath or deny it. Then I said I 
was willing to support him in gaining what was rightfully his, but 
never in gaining anything wrongly, on condition that he put his title 
deeds into my possession. He gave me his title deeds in pledge,^ and 
then on the appointed day we rode [probably to Wardour] to complete 

1 This Aethelwulf was the brother of king Alfred's wife, Ealhswith, and 
uncle of Aethelthryth. Posssibly the marriage was annulled on the ground 
of consanguinity. Aethelthryth afterwards married Baldwin II., Count of 
Flanders, a son of her father's stepmother, Judith. 

* This was practically a mortgage of the land at Hishops Fonthill to 
bishop Asser, to forestall any claim that Aethelm might subsequently make 
for the possession of it. Such a mortgage would include all the slaves, 
cattle, sheep, swine, and implements of husbandry that were then upon the 
land. 



By the Rtv. W. Goodchild. 327 

the settlement : I myself, and Wihtbrord^ rode with me, and Byrthelra 
rode thither with Aethelm. And we heard Helmstan swear to all 
the particulars of his claim ; and we all pronounced that the proceed- 
ings were concluded, as what the king had decided had been carried 
out. And, my dear friend, when can any litigation be brought to a 
conclusion, if it cannot be terminated either by pecuniary compensa- 
tion, or by sworn guarantee ? And, if all king Alfred's decisions 
are to be set aside, when will the sittings of our courts be brought to 
an end ? 

And he [Helmstan] then gave me the title deeds to keep as he had 
previously given them to me in pledge, as soon as he had sworn his 
affirmation of ownership. And I told him that he might retain a life in- 
terest in the land, if he would hold it without getting into disgrace. 

Then half a year, or perhaps a year, afterwards he stole the oxen 
that were not being worked at Fonthill [Funtial], so as to bring utter 
ruin upon himself.^ 

And he drove them to Chicklade [Cytlid], and he was caught in the 
act, as his drover [speremon] was careless about removing the animals* 
droppings. When he ran off from the place, a bramble scratched him 
across the face, and when he wanted to deny the theft, he was told of 
that fact as proof against him. 

Then Eanulf,^ of Pennard, the king's escheator, came down on him, 
and seized all the landed property that he owned at Tisbury [Tyssebyrig]. 

Then I asked him why he did this, and he said that Helmstan waa a 
thief, and that this property was adjudged forfeit to the king as 
Helmstan was a king's servant. And Ordlaf * seized the land [at Tis- 
bury] which belonged to him because the estate that Helmstan occu- 
pied there was leased from him* and could not be alienated from him 
by Helmstan's forfeiture. And you [king Edward acting for his 
father] pronounced sentence of outlawry on Helmstan. 

And then he went to visit your father's corpse [at Winchester]," and 
he brought a signed certificate to you, and you released him from the 
forfeiture of his own land and of the arable land on which he has lived 
till now. And I took possession of my land [Bishops Fonthill], and 



^ Wihtbrord received a grant of Fovant from king Edward the Elder, and 
he and Byrthelm witnessed many of that king's charters. 

^ He removed the cattle to other land which he held at Chicklade, thus 
lessening the value of Asser's interest in the property. 

^He was alderman of Somerset, and in 845 with the militia of Somerset 
and Dorset had beaten the Danes in a battle fought at the mouth of the 
Parrett. 

■•An earl who received grants of land at Bishops Lydeard and at Stanton 
St. Bernard. 

'• This was either to take sanctuary there, or perhaps to qualify for a par- 
don granted to certain offenders by king Edward at his coronation. 



328 Tisbury in the Anglo-Saxon Charters. 

gave it to the bishop there [bishop Denewulf of Winchester] as was 
witnessed by you and by your witan ; the five hides of land in exchange 
for five hides at Bishops Lydeard, and the bishop and all the convent 
handed over the four hides to me and the fifth was tithing land.^ 

And so, my dear friend, it is very necessary for me that the matter 
should stand as at present arranged, and as was long ago settled. If 
something else is done, then I shall be and will be pledged to do what- 
ever seems to you right as a matter of charity." 

Endorsement. 
" ^ And Aethelm the monk withdrew his suit when the king was 
at Worminster [not Warminster but Worminster, near Shepton Mallet] 
as was testified by Ordlaf, and Osferth, and Odda, and Wihtbrord, and 
Aelfstan the Blear-eyed, and Aethelnoth." 

King Edward the Elder's son, Edmund, who reigned 940—946, desiring 
to gratify his first wife, Aelgifu, made her a present of a great estate,which 
had probably belonged to the ancient abbey of Tisbury, comprising great 
part of Tisbury, Wardour, (Jhicksgrove, Sedghill, Berwick St. Leonard, and 
perhaps Fonthill Giffard. The nuns of Shaftesbury, as successors of the 
Tiwbury monks, held this land but they were compensated for the loss of it 
by a grant of Butleigh (Bucticanleah) near Glastonbury. 

This exchange of land greatly displeased St. Dunstan, who strove ener- 
getically to prevent property, which had ever belonged to a monastery, 
from being transferred to laymen or to secular clergy, Having the reins of 
government in his hands at the beginning of the reign of Edwy, the boy 
king, who succeeded Edmund in 955, he obtained the return of Tisbury to 
the Shaftesbury nuns in exchange for Butleigh. That second exchange was 
confirmed by Edwy's nephew, king Aethelred the Unready, when Dun- 
stan had returned to England after being exiled by Edwy, and was again 
directing the policy of the country as chief counsellor of a boy king. 

Aethelred's charter (Kemble, Vol. III., No. 641), probably drawn up by 
St. Dunstan himself, begins with an invocation of the Three Persons of the 
Holy Trinity, and then a quotation from the first chapter of the first epistle 
of St. Peter, verse 15, " But as He that hath called you is holy, so be ye 
holy." The lesson suggested being that only good faith and exactness in 
the management of worldly possessions can give a title to the winning of 
those heavenly possessions for which Christians hope. 

So king Aethelred in the exercise of good faith and honest exactitude 
gives in perpetuity twenty mawsae or "livings," to the monastery of holy 
ladies at Schaftesbury, situated in the place which is commonly called 
Tissebiri. And just as in ancient days all his predecessors had given these 
mansae, so he gave them in perpetual succession with the advice of his 
council. 

He then recites the history of the exchange for Butleigh and of its re- 
versal, and declares that the land so given shall be free from all lay taxation, 

^ Land given to the see of Winchester in lieu of tithes, and now trans- 
ferred to Asser for the see of Sherborne, 



By the Rev. W. GoodchUd. 329 

with the usual exception of the Trinnda necessitas, military service, repair 
of bridges, and upkeep of fortresses. 

i'he Shaftesbury chartulary, which contains Aethelred's grant, was 
copied in the thirteenth or fourteenth century, from a faded and perhaps 
mutilated original and is consequently faulty in many places. The manu- 
script, now in the British Museum, suflfered by fire. It is necessary therefore 
to make emendations here and there in the printed text, to render it 
intelligible. And of course the correctness of such conjectural emendations 
is problematical. 

In the Tisbury charter a preliminary paragraph states that a certain wood 
called Sfgcnyllebar had been wrongfully stolen from the Abbey of Shaftes- 
bury by some of the king's reeves.' Aethelred said that he now restored 
it in full and dared anyone to interfere with it in future ; it was " for the 
use of the nuns of Shaftesbury as long as the wheel of this present dispen- 
sation shall turn. If any person should presume to infringe this gift, made 
with divine sanction, let him be tormented for ever in the eternal fire of 
the bottomless pit along with the devil, unless in this present life he has 
made amends for his trespass against our decree." 

" The above property is surrounded by the following boundaries." 
" These are the boundaries of the twenty hides of land at Tissebiri." 
The surveyor who made this list of boundaries of the twenty hides starts 
" Where the Cigelmarc brook falls into the Nadder [Nodre], [Cigelmarc 
is generally supposed to be Chilmark, but may be an error for Cigesmarc, 
which is a possible variant for Cigesgraf, now Chicksgrove] ; then along 
the stream to Gofesdene [perhaps this should be Gosesdene=Goose 
Vale] ; then to the place where the stream is divided ; from the division 
of the stream to the boundaries of Wilburge [this is Wilbury, the Britons' 
fort, now called Castle Ditches] ; then on the green way to Wermund's 
'JVee [this may be a sacred tree dedicated to the Anglo-Saxon hero 
Wermund, or a pillar or post set- up in his honour, or a Christian emblem 
replacing the old heathen landmark] ; from Wermund's Tree straight down 
to the meadow fields ; from the meadows along the stream to the old Wood 
Ford [across Ansty brook] ; along the green road beneath the main boundary 
posts from the main boundary posts straight on by Twelve Acres [a name 
still preserved for a part of Wardour Park] ; where it comes to the British 
way; then to Highway [now High Wood]; then to Wood's Flood [a spring 
in Wardour Park] ; then to the ford in the south pasture ; then along a 
hedgerow till it comes to the Nadder [Nodre] ; along the Nadder to the 
Sem [Semen] ; along the Sem to Hodelee [probably for Kotherlee, the cattle 
pasture]; then to Whitemarsh ; then to Maple Tree Hill ; then tothestile 
{or perhaps the " point ") ; then to Sapcombe ; then further west to a turning 
on the right ; then it bends northward to Pole's lea [Pol is the Anglo-Saxon 
name of the Teutonic God Baldr, the God of beauty and manly grace, whose 

' In this case it is likely that the original charter had the wyrd Segchylle- 
bar, which meant Sedgehill Wood. 



330 Tishury in the Aiig to- Saxon Charters. 

name is preserved in Poulshot, near Devizes ; but perhaps Poceslea, Puck's 
Lea, should be read. There is a Pixley Hole Gate below White Sheet, near 
Feme House]. Then to the boundary brook ; then to the willow brook ; then 
to Sedgehill moor [the manuscript has " Sidinic," probably a n^isreading of 
" Sidgihil "] ; then straight on to Knoyle [Cnugel] pasture and to Hiclesham 
[this may mean the hedgeless or unenclosed pasture] ; then to the road that 
leads to the common pasture ; from the road along the ridge to Impedeforde 
[amisreadingof Nipredeforde, thedark red ford, at Niprede, an ancient estate 
in Tisbury] ; then along a road till it comes to Fonthill [Funtgeal] on to the 
broad road [herpath, a road on which horsemen could ride abreast] ; then to 
the ivy-draped combe [the manuscript has " gificancumbe," probably in 
error for ifitancumbe] ; along the combe to the gravelled road ; along the 
ridge to the little leaze ; then to Leof rich's boundaries [Leofrich was a^ 
thane who signed this charter as one of the witnesses] ; onward by those 
boundaries again to Fonthill [Funtal] ; to Finches Ridge [the manuscript 
has " Fintes hrigce " for Finces hricge] ; along the Ridge to Alfgar's 
boundaries [Alfgar was alderman of Wilts about 950] ; further on by his 
boundaries to the main boundary posts ; then to (Jhilmark brook ; along 
the stream again to the Nadder [Nodre]. 

In the 984th year since the Incarnation of our Lord this charter of my 
gift was written, with the unanimous acquiescence of all these witnesses 
whose names are drawn with their pens below in accordance with the 
proper precedence of each of them." 
I, Aethelred, king of the Angles, in renewing the above donation, have 

stamped it with the mark of the Holy Cross, and have granted it to God 

and to all His Saints for ever »^. 
I, Dunstan, Archbishop, have assented in granting ^ [Canterbury 960 — 



I, Oswold, Archbishop, have agreed k^ [York 972 — 992]. 

I, Aelfstan, Bishop, have confirmed this ^ [London 961 — 996]. 

I, Athulf, Bishop, have appended my signature »^ [Hereford 954—1012]. 

J, Aelfheah, Bishop, have signed »^ [generally known as Saint Alphege, 

was Bishop of Winchester 984—1005, Archbishop of Canterbury 1005 ; 

was martyred by the Danes April 19th, 1012]. 
I, Aelfheah, Bishop, have sealed this ^ [Lichfield 973—1004]. 
I, Aescuig, Bishop, have agreed ^ [Dorchester, Oxon, 975—1002]. 
I, Aelfric. Bishop, have confirmed it ^ [Crediton 977—986]. 
I, Aethelsige, Bishop, have added my signature ►J^ [Sherborne 978 — 991. 
I, Wulfgar, Bishop, have agreed ^ [Ramsbury 981 — 985]. 
I, Aethelgar, Bishop, have confirmed it ^ [Selsey 980—988]. 
I, Aelfwine, Earl »^ [A Prince of the royal family of Wessex, Alderman 

of Hants and Wilts] 
I, Bertnod, Earl »^ [Alderman of Essex, killed at the battle of Maiden, 

11 Aug., 991 ; brother-in-law of Queen Aethelflaed, wife of King 

Edmund Ironside]. 
I, Aethelweard, Earl i^ [Probably the Earl Ailward, who was killed at 

the battle of Assandun, Oct. 18, 1016]. 



I 



By the Rev. W. Goodchild, 331 

I, Aelfric, Earl ^ [Called Aelfric Gild, the Boy Aelfric, who succeeded 

his father, Aellhere, as Alderman of Mercia in 983. He betrayed his 

country in 992, when commanding a fleet that was intended to destroy 

the Danish fleet, by his secreti correspondence with the Danes]. 
I, Ordulf, Thane ^ [Succeeded his father, Ordgar, as Earl of Devon. 

Founded Tavistock Abbey. Was an uncle of King Aethelred]. 
I, Godwine, Thane ^ [A brother of Aelfric Cild]. 

I, Aelfric, Earl ^ [Perhaps inserted in error, but may be an Earl of Kent]- 
I, Aelfward, Thane ►J< [Son and successor of Aelfheah, Alderman of Hants 

and Wilts]. 
I, Aelsige, Thane ^ [Perhaps a grandson of King Aethelred]. 
I, Wulfsige, Thane »^ 
I, Aelfric, Thane ^ 
I, Beorhtwold, Thane t^ 
I, Leofric, Thane ^ [Son of Aethelwine, Earl of East Anglia, who was 

the founder of Ramsey Abbey]. 
I, Aethelmer, Thane »^ [Alderman of Wessex. Perhaps the man who, 

finding Aethelred utterly incompetent, joined Sweyn at Bath, 1013]. 
I, Aelfwine, Thane ^ [Son of Aethelmer]. 
I, Aethelsige, Thane ^ [Probably uncle of Leofric]. 
I, Aethelweard, Thane k^ [This may be the historian of royal blood who 

wrote a chronicle that is still preserved and valued]. 
I, Aelfgar, Thane ^ [May belthe Aelfgar, who was the son of the traitor 

Aelfric, and was blinded • by King Aethelred for hit* father's treason]. 
I, Wulfsige, Thane »^ 
I, Wulfric, Thane >^ [Perhaps the Wulfric who received many grants of 

lands that he might act as chief huntsman for the Kings. Later he 

became Earl of Leicester]. 
I, Leofwine, Thane ^ [Perhaps the father of Aelfhelm, Earl of Northum- 

bria, who was treacherously murdered by Edric in 1006]. 



332 



THE RECENT EXCAVATIONS AT STONEHENGE, 
By Lt.-Col. R. H. Cunntngton. 

The reports on his excavations at Stonehenge by Col. Hawley are spread 
over a number of years, and the subject matter is arranged in the order of 
his discoveries ; so that the recent knowledge gained about the monu- 
ment is difficult of access, and a summary, arranged feature by feature, 
appears desirable. 

The object of this paper is therefore to give a short account of every dis- 
covery of importance that has been made, with full references to the vols, 
of the Antiquaries Journal in which the reports appear. The attempt has 
also been made to draw deductions. These appear to lead in a definite 
direction as regards dating the monument ; but naturally no claim for finality 
is made with such a difficult subject. 

The Ditch. 

Nearly half the circle, from N.E. to S. W., was excavated, and the centre 
line was found to be a very fairly true circle concentric with the rest of the 
monument. 

The width was usually 6ft. or 7ft. at the bottom, and the depth 4ft. or 
5ft. ; but these dimensions varied very much, and there were two gaps of 
10ft. (Vol. VI., p. 4) on the south side, and of 3ft. a little further round 
towards the west (Vol. VIIL, p. 162), where the ditch was not excavated. 

The filling consisted of a layer of turf about 12in. thick, followed by a 
layer of earthy chalk rubble extending from about 12in. to about 18in. be- 
low ground level, and then silt to the bottom of the ditch, the lower part of 
the silt being usually of white chalk rubble. 

The two upper layers are described (Vol. V., p. 21) as the '* top layer" 
distributed more or less evenly over the whole surface. " It varies in thick- 
ness from 1 to 15 inches, rarely deeper "; and in it the finds, such as frag- 
ments of Bronze Age and Romano- British pottery and mason's chips are 
jumbled in any order, with no stone chips below it. 

Again in Vol. VIIL, p. 173, stone chips are said never to have been found 
in the silt. 

There are, however, important exceptions to the absence of stone chips 
below this top layer. 

Vol. I., p. 34, gives a section 39in. deep in which the earthy chalk rubble 
of the top layer extends to a depth of 18in., at which depth was found a 
Lee Enfield cartridge case. Stone chips are reported to have been found 
in decreasing quantities down to a depth of 22in. On the same page is a 
second section, 54in. deep, with the earthy chalk rubble extending to I7in. 
Blue stone chips are figured in the section and described, at a depth of 25in. 
that is to say Sin. deep in the silt. 

In a later report the exceptions, which are evidently still being met with, 
have to be explained away as follows (Vol. III., p. 22), " Sometimes 
there are cavities which contain chips of stone throughout their depth, In 



The Recent Excavations at ^tonelienge, 333 

this instance it can be inferred that the cavity was filled at the time Stone- 
henge was built." " Another cavity might have chips and Eomano period 
pottery." 

In Vol. VIII., p. 156, a length of ditch (sections 17 and 18), at least 20ft. 
long, is suspected of disturbance, " a chalky humus takes the place of silt 
as in section 17 " where vegetable matter was found Sin. to Sin. thick near the 
bottom, (Vol. VIII. , p. 155). In this section a large sarsen maul was found 
embedded in the silt with a similar fragment in contact below it. Close to 
them at 27in. below ground level (i.e , 7in. below the "top layer") burnt 
matter was found, and at the same level and quite near, a large piece of 
rhyolite shaped like an axe hammer.^ The presence of these so far down is 
explained by this being " rather a disturbed spot." 

Another slab of rhyolite and a broken rhyolite axe were found in the 
next (No. 19) section embedded in the silt (17in. below ground level). 
Here " the silt was not so earthy as before but not altogether like normal ' 
(Vol. VIII., p. 156), and the objects found embedded in it are said to have 
" belonged to the upper layer." 

It should be noticed that the suspected disturbance apparently left no 
trace of stratification in the refilling, and, if a reality, would have meant 
emptying 20ft. or 30ft. feet of ditch for no imaginable reason. We have 
also no record of any unusual stratification in the " cavities " referred to 
previously, and nothing beyond this brief mention is said about them. 

A further suspected disturbance (Vol. VIII., p. 163) also appears to need 
more evidence than this change in the appearance of the silt which again 
becomes more earthy ; every ditch filling will show such changes. It is de- 
scribed as a bowl-shaped cavity in the silt filled with more earthy matter 
than usual. An exceptional depth of turf (27in.) had grown over this. 
The conclusion drawn — that it was later than the ditch, but earlier than 
Stonehenge, because no chips were found in it— is surely unwarranted. 

In addition to the Sarsen maul already referred to as embedded in the 
silt, another Sarsen maul of 30 lbs. weight was found similarly embedded 
(Vol. 11. , p. 50) where the filling was above suspicion. 

The silting of a ditch is not likely to remain exposed without a turf covering 
for more than quite a few years after the ditch has been excavated, railway 
cuttings are quite sufficient proof how turf will grow under much more 
unfavourable conditions. These Sarsen mauls could not, when falling into 
the ditch, have penetrated through turf and into the silt ; we must suppose 
therefore that they fell when the silt was still exposed, that is to say shortly 
after the ditch was made. 

.As regards the pottery found in the ditch. That of the Romano-British 
period was found at all depths in the " top layer " but never below. Beaker 
pottery, 10 associated pieces in one place (Vol. VIII., pp. 149 and 150), and 
12 in another (Vol. VIII., 151), were found lying on the silt at depths of 
20in. and 18in. respectively. 

^ Some of the rhyolite axes found at Stonehenge had ground edges : it is 
questionable how far this makes them dateable. 



334 llie Recent Excavations at Stonehenge. 

A piece of " gritty " pot was found lOin. above the bottom and 28in. down 
in the silt (Vol, VIII., pp. 151 and 152). "Coarse pot with incised lines 
marking" was found at the junction of the silt (Vol. VIII., p. 154). 

The Beaker pottery, as shown by its appearance anywhere in the " top 
layer " is of course no evidence of a contemporary date. 

A report on the flints will be found in Vol. VI., p. 17. 

Cremations found in the Ditch. 

Five of these were found in bowl-shaped cavities cut partly in the silt 
and partly in the solid chalk of the ditch side (Vol. VI., p. 5 ; Vol. VIIL, 
pp. 151, 152, and 154) ; and in one of these cases there was distinct evidence 
of a hole, 5ft. X 5ft., at the top, having been dug down to the interment. 

Three are described as being found in the silt itself at depths of 35in., 
I7in , and about I7in. respectively (Vol. II., p. 49; Vol. VI., p. 4 ; Vol. 
VIII., p. 156). It is clear that all these had been made after the ditch was 
silted up. But there was one other made in the floor of the ditch where no 
suspicion of disturbance in the ditch filling is reported (Vol. I., p. 34). It 
is described as lying in a bowl-shaped cavity at a depth of 4ft. 6in. in the 
floor of the ditch. The ditch section drawn opposite page 34 shows all the 
normal silting above it— Sin. of white chalk rubble immediately over it, fol- 
lowed by the usual silt — but places the cremation on instead of sunk into 
the floor. 

The ditch cremations are mostly in the east and south-east, a few were as 
far north as the main entrance, but none further west than the south 
" causeway" (Vol. VIII., p. 156). In the greater number hardly any wood 
ash was present. 

Cremations containing a few bones were also found not in the ditch but 
under the surface near the rampart (Vol. V., p. 33). In one of these was 
found a polished mace head of the cushion type. The " cremation was like 
the others, but with a shallow cist scraped 2in. deep in the chalk rubble." 
None of the others contained anything but the bones. 

The modern " Druids," who practice cremation, used until recently to 
bury a few bones from each cremation in the Stonehenge enclosure, and 
some of the surface cremations found may be these. The mace head cre- 
mation is of course of no value in dating the monument as it may have been 
made before or after its erection. 

Evidence of Date. 

Two conclusions seem to follow from the evidence of the ditch as we 
have it. 

The first is that it is of about the same age as the monument, and not 
earlier as the report is inclined to insist. The grounds for thinking so 
are : — 

1.— The plan is concentric with the monument and almost truly circular. 
2. — The presence, though rare, of blue stone chips in the silt. 
3.— The two sarsen mauls and the rhyolite embedded in the silt. 



By Lt.-Gol. B, H. Cunnington, 335 

4. — The filling up of the ditch near the entrance where it overlaps the 
the Avenue (see later under " The Entrance"). This appears to 
have been done very shortly after the ditch was excavated in 
order to rectify a mistake, or perhaps, if the Avenue on the axis 
was an afterthought, on a change of plan. The Avenue, follow- 
ing the line of the axis, must of course have been contemporary 
with the monument or later. 
It should be remembered the first silting of a ditch takes place very 
rapidly, especially if the rampart has been placed close to the edge. At 
any rate near the South Barrow it must have been very close, judging from 
the position of the South Barrow ditch. Pitt Elivers, in Excavations, vol. 
IV , p. 24 (address to the Arch. Inst.) states that the freshly re-excavated 
ditch at Wor Barrow silted up (without help from the rampart which was 
turfed over) to a depth of 2Jft. in four years. It is difficult to estimate 
how much a rampart near the edge might add to this. 

The rampart at Stonehenge is on the inner side and would have protected 
the ditch during this period from all but a very few chance admissions of 
stone chippings from the enclosure. In the course of time these found 
their way in (perhaps from further subsidence of the rampart after being 
made up with debris from the surface when construction was completed), 
and eventually Romano- British and other later relics forming the finds of 
the " top layer." The " top layer," though considerably shallower, repre- 
sents an immensely longer period, and naturally contains far more relics 
than the silt itself. 

The second deduction that may be made follows from the cremation at 
the bottom of the ditch, which appears to date it as later than the Beaker 
period. 

The Aubrey Holes. 

The Aubrey holes were excavated for about half-way round the circum- 
ference, and as the plan shows, they follow very nearly a true circle con- 
centric with the monument. 

Of the 23 excavated in the first year the largest was 5ft. in diameter, and 
-3ft. 5in. deep, and the smallest 2ft. 6in. in diameter and 2ft. deep. 

Stone chips were found plentifully in the upper portion of the filling, but 
-decreased in number downward, and were rarely found below 20in. from 
the surface (Vol. I., 33). 

Examples are given of blue stone chips and Romano- British pottery at a 
■depth of 2uin., t.g., 6in. to 8in, below the level of the solid chalk and 17in. 
from the bottom of No. 21 hole (Vol. I., 31). In No. 5 hole Romano- British 
pottery was found at a depth (as measured in the section) of 2ft., and blue 
stone chips at 2ft. 6in. The full depth of the hole is 3ft. 3in., and the 
depth to the solid chalk 15in., so that these objects were 9in. and 15in. re- 
spectively below the level of the chalk (Vol. L, 33). 

A piece of pottery described in Vol. III., 17, was found 23in. down in No. 
-29. Other particulars of this hole are -.—depth, 3ft. 7in. ; diameter, 3ft. 4in. ; 
depth of solid chalk below surface, 1ft. 3in. There was a central depression 



336 The Recent Excavations at Stoiiehenge. 

with humus in the filling extending to a depth of 9in. below the solid chalk. 
Two blue stone chips and one sarsen chip were found in the " deeper cen- 
tral humus." 

In Aubrey hole 19 were found 92 stone chips and six small pieces of 
Roman period pottery in the 18in. of *' top soil " (Vol. IV., 37). The solid 
chalk was 9in. below the surface, so that in this case some of the " top 
soil " finds were 9in. down in the hole, and cannot fairly be included in the 
jumbled material of the " top layer." 

Cremations in the Aubrey holes were found in all but four of those ex- 
cavated in the first year (Vol. I., 31). In the summary (Vol. VIII,, 157) it 
is stated that "they were not in those last excavated toward the west" [It 
is not said which these are, but they are presumably Nos. 29 and 30, for a 
cremation was found in No. 28 (Vol. Ill, 17), where the hole is numbered 
29 ^), but not in No. 30 (Vol. VI., 14)], " with the exception of these they 
have been found in all the others from hole X 2 in the main entrance all the 
way round to the south-west, except in hole No. 19 where there was a dump 
of white flint flakes." 

No. 19 is the hole cut into by the ditch of the South Barrow, so that any 
cremation there would have been lost. The holes which it may be sup- 
posed held cremations are therefore Nos. 2 to 28 inclusive and those 
without were presumably X, XX, and No. 1 (excavated the first year) and 
No. 29 and 30 (excavated last). 

If no cremations are found when the other half circle is excavated it must 
be concluded that the south-east and south-west quadrants were preferred. 
If cremations are found we should have the interesting fact that they are 
absent only in X, XX, and No. I on the path of the Avenue, and in the holes 
almost (but not quite) opposite. 

Absence of cremation on the path of the Avenue suggests the possibility 
that no posts were put into these three holes as in the remainder [we are 
not told if the filling was in any other way different], in which case the gap 
in the Aubrey circuit would exactly fit the width of the Avenue, and may 
well have determined it, and we should have additional evidence of a change 
in plan. 

It is also stated that " all had been disturbed." 

Some of these disturbances are referred to in previous reports. In No. 16 
(Vol. I., 32) wood ash and cremated bones were found from a depth of 
1ft. 7in. to the bottom at 3ft. 3in. In another hole a cremation at the side 
was ■* dififused downwards from 19in. to 30in. below ground level " (Vol. II., 
47). In No. 28 (first called 29) a bowl-shaped recess with human crema- 
tion was found at 18in. below ground level and other burnt human bones 
distributed downwards (Vol. III., i7). In No. 18 (first called 19) cremated 
remains were found 6in. down extending to within 3in. of the bottom (Vol. 
IV., 37). 

^ A comparison of the plan and text of the earlier vols, shows that some 
of the holes have been renumbered, probably all between 18 and 28, and 
perhaps others. 



By Lt.-Col. R. H, Gunnington. 337 

More wood ash was found with the Aubrey hole cremations than with 
the others, and in most cases they seemed to have contained all the bones 
(Vol. VIIL, 158). 

The conclusion is reached in Vol. VIII., p. 158, that the Aubrey holes 
contained wooden posts in that they resembled very closely those recently 
found at Woodhenge. Wooden posts would also account for the way in 
which the cremations are diffused downwards ; if placed originally near the 
surface and against the post they would slip down into the hole as the wood 
decayed. This of course indicates a date later than the Beaker period for 
the posts. 

There appears often to have been a slight ramp or recess on one side of 
the hole, presumably to assist in lowering the posts. In describing No. 19 
(afterwards 18) the report (Vol. IV., 37) states " The crushed depression on 
the side observable in most of the other holes was longer than usual, being 
2ft. 6in. wide and extending down to 22in." 

As regards position. 

The Aubrey holes are placed at intervals of 16ft. These are described as 
regular both in interval and line of circle (Vol. II., 46). 

The first plan published in Vol. V. shows Nos. 17 and 18 ^n each side of 
the stone hole in the " South Barrow," at the exceptional interval of 2Uft., 
and equally spaced from it ; and No. 19 only 12ft. from No 18. The report, 
however, (Vol. III.. 16) describes the finding of No. 18 (there called 19) 
close up to the stone hole [it was not actually dug out till later] ; and the 
plans in subsequent vols, place it in this position, and give a regular inter- 
val of approximately 16ft. to all the holes. It may be supposed that the 
later plans are correct. 

As regards indications of date. 

The presence of Romano-British pottery so low down in the filling is ex- 
plained most naturally by supposing that the wooden posts had not fully 
decayed when the pottery began to be scattered on the site, and that the 
pottery slipped down the holes as the wood decayed. The only alternative ^ 
seems to be to account for its presence by the action of worms ; but 
neither worms nor anything else carried Romano- British pottery down into 
the Woodhenge post holes under apparently precisely similar conditions, for 
there is plenty of surface Romano- British pottery at Woodhenge available. 

This supposition involves a later date than is usually accepted for the 
holes, and a later date is also suggested by the fact that Aubrey saw de- 
pressions in the ground over the holes now named after him. These de- 
pressions had apparently disappeared in Colt Hoare's time 150 years after, 
and have now so completely gone that knowledge of the exact spot where a 
hole will be found does not assist in detecting the least sign of a depression. 

Since it has been shown that the holes probably contained wooden posts 

'The suggestion of disturbance in Vol VI. is not repeated in the sum- 
mary (Vol. VIIL, 158] when wooden posts are first suggested. It would 
not account for the observed facts. 
VOL. XLIV. — NO. CL. Z 



338 The Recent Excavations at Stonehenge. 

it must be assumed that the depressions were due to the stumps gradually 
rotting away. The slow sinking caused by the disappearance of the wood 
would be balanced to a great extent by the growth of turf above, and the 
filling of the depressions since Aubrey's time shows how quick the process 
is. But in Aubrey's time there were still depressions, and that implies that 
the wood had not then, or had not very long before, completely decayed 
away. 

The presence of blue stone chips so far down in the holes can also be 
best explained as following down the rotting wood. They were "rarely 
found below 20in." (Vol. L, 33) and decreased in quantity downwards. One 
hole, No. 5, shows them at 2ft. 6in. depth, or 15in. below the level of the 
surrounding chalk (Vol. I., 83), but they were never found quite at the bot- 
tom. It is unlikely that the blue stones were chipped until after the posts 
were erected, for if the chips had been lying on the surface some would 
have fallen in with the packing, but there is no reason to suppose that any 
long interval intervened. 

The gradation of stone chips also shows that the filling was never sub- 
sequently disturbed by renewal of the posts. 

'rhe early reports suggested that the holes might have held a ring of the 
blue stones before they were trimmed. The only argument for this seems to 
have been that the numbers roughly correspond. The shape of the holes, 
round instead of oblong, is almost sufficient to preclude this idea ; they also 
seem to be too small ; and even without the further blue stone stumps or 
holes that have been found, they were probably too few. Also if stones 
had been taken out and the holes filled up, it is hardly conceivable that de- 
pressions would remain until Aubrey's time, at least 2000 years later. 

Finally the Woodhenge explorations put the matter beyond doubt and 
Col. Hawley, as already stated, believes now that they held wooden posts. 
He still considers, however, that they are older than Stonehenge, but gives 
no reason for this except " If the shallow line of chalk occurring a little be- 
low the top of the ditch silt was discarded from them, they would have 
been made when the ditch was nearly silted up and would antedate the 
monument by a short period " (Vol. VIIL. 174).' 

A contemporary date seems the most natural supposition. The spacing 
and alignment are both so exact as to be compatible with the rest of the 
monument and superior to any other. It would be a strange coincidence if 
two such exceptional works were carried out on the same spot at substant- 
ially different dates, and the onus of proving it certainly lies with those 
who wish to think so. 



^ This material in the ditch silt seems, to say the least, more likely to have 
come from the bank slipping back into the ditch. It is hardly likely that 
the contents of the Aubrey holes would have been thrown over the bank into 
the ditch beyond, and even less likely that such material could be recognis- 
able, considering how trifling must have been the amount. 



By Lt.-Col. B. H. Cimnington, 339 

The circle is so true that it is possible to locate the centre within a few 
inches, as is also the case with the lintel circle ; and it seems that the former 
has been taken from a point about 2ft. S.S.W. of the latter. It is equally 
evident that the Aubrey circle was marked out before any work was started 
in the inner enclosure which would have prevented the use of a cord, 
picketed at the centre. 

The precise centre of the ditch circle is less certain, but it seems to have 
been that used for the Aubrey circle and not the lintel. Though the ditch 
appears to have been contemporary, doubtless it too was laid out before the 
centre was obstructed. 

After marking out the line of ditch and position of the Aubrey holes, 
there is no reason to suppose that any particular care would be taken in 
preserving the exact position of the centre, and it is evident that no par- 
ticular care was taken to recover it when the lintel circle was marked out, 
for it could easily have been found with more accuracy. The loss and re- 
covery show the same disregard of minutiae, and the discrepancy cannot be 
taken as an indication of any considerable interval in time, and it is of 
course not noticeable. In this connection we must distinguish between the 
plan as designed and the plan as actually laid out on the ground : the for- 
mer may have been conceived as a whole from the start, but the latter 
would proceed step by step as the execution advanced. 

The South Barrow. 

This was opened by Colt Hoare who thought it to be a barrow, but found 
nothing in it {Ancient Wilts, Vol. f., 144 — 5). The evidence now obtained 
(Vol. Ill , 15) points to there having been an undoubted stone hole in the 
centre, 4ft. deep with a ramp ; and its position corresponds to that of the 
two existing stones of the " Four Stations." A ditch surrounds the *' bar- 
row"; the side next to Stonehenge rampart is nearly straight and 15in. 
wide and Sin. deep ^ ; on the east it is 18in. wide and 16in. deep. It descends 
rapidly to a depth of 30in, where it cuts into Aubrey hole No. 19 [in the 
report this is numbered 20 but corrected to 19 in the subsequent plan], and 
rises rapidly the other side of it. Stone chips were found to the bottom of 
the ditch. 

The inference is drawn that it is not earlier than Stonehenge ditch and 
the Aubrey holes. 

The stone hole is apparently contemporary with the monument and its 
position indicates that it was made at an early stage in the erection, before 
the trilithons and lintel circle, which obstruct the view. The " Four 
Stations " are exactly opposite each other across the centre, and so placed 
that the lines joining them form half a right angle, symmetrical with the 
axis (Flinders Fetrie Stonehenge, Plmis, Descriptions^ and Theories). 

The mound was found to be a very low one, owing most of its prominence 
to a rise in the natural level of the chalk. The depth of the soil upon solid 

' Presumably Sin. in the solid chalk, not Sin. from the surface as with 
most other measurements. 

2 Z 



340 Tlie Recent Excavations at Stonehenge. 

chalk is stated to be 14in. (Vol. IT., 48) ; but near the centre it seems to 
have been only 9in.; vide report on Aubrey hole No. 18 (first numbered 
19) in Vol. IV., 37. It seems likely that no mound was intended, in 
which case the site would correspond to that of the Heel Stone and its 
ditch. [The corresponding station in the north has lost its mound, if it 
ever had one. Colt Hoare notes that both had ditches]. 

The purpose of these ditches is not suggested, and it would appear 
probable that they formed no part of the original design. There is a lack 
of symmetry in the absence of a ditch round the East Station stone. 
That round the Heel Stone obstructs the avenue. The plan of the ditches 
is incompatible with the regularity of the rest of the monument. 

What is more vital is that the South Barrow ditch cuts down deliberately 
to the bottom of the Aubrey hole on both sides. This would upset the 
stability of the Aubrey post, supposing it held one, and quite needlessly 
unless it was intended to extract the post ; and this seems the only reason- 
able explanation. A conceivable alternative — that it was intended to reach 
the solid chalk to secure a firm foundation— is an explanation that fits only 
with our modern conception of building where a brick or stone wall is in 
question. 

If an Aubrey post was excavated down to the bottom on both sides to 
extract it, it was probably because the post was already a stump, broken off 
short, as posts do, at ground level ; otherwise it could have been dragged 
out with much less excavation. 

One can imagine purpose in such a trench after Stonehenge was in decay, 
e.g., in connection with the sides of a wooden hut where the central stone 
supports the roof. But if contemporary, the object is obscure, the plan 
strangely irregular, and the excavation quite gratuitously dangerous. 

The Slaughter Stone. 

Excavation showed that a hole had been made all round and lOin. below 
it in the middle, deep enough to bury it, so that the upper surface is at 
ground level (Vol. I., 34). 

A hole lOft. in diameter and 6^ft. deep was found about 14ft. (centre to 
centre) from it (Vol. I., 36) and about 6ft- (centre) west of the axis. It had 
a slab of stone, presumed to be a packing stone, at the bottom, and the hole 
is suggested (Vol. I., 36) to have been that in which the Slaughter Stone 
stood. 

If this was the case, as seems likely, the Slaughter Stone would have 
stood west of the axis, and the Heel Stone when upright east of the axis, 
the two forming sights or pointers left and right.' Its distance from the 
lintel circle would equal the diameter of the lintel circle, and it would 
stand very nearly half way between the circle and the Heel Stone. 

Heel Stone. 

Two pits (called stone holes " ) 4ft. 6in. deep and 5ft. and 4ft. diameter 

^ On the axis these stoues would have hidden the rising sun. 
2 In the report all the larger holes or pits are called stone holes, irres- 
pective of the shape, and the smaller are called post holes. 



Iry Lt.-Col. 11. H. Ciinninyton. 341 

respectively, were found about 24ft. south and and south-west of the Heel 
Stone, and post holes 2ft. in diameter and about 3ft. deep partly across the 
avenue (Vol. V., 24). A trench enclosed the Heel Stone on the southern 
(excavated) side, and presumably goes all round ; it is 10ft. from it and 
4ft. deep and S^ft. wide (Vol. V., 25). 



The Entrance. 

A causeway was found 37ift. wide (Vol. IV., 32) and on each side of it 
the ditch was exceptionally deep and wide, forming craters with steep sides. 
Opposite the causeway the side was nearly perpendicular (Vol. IV. 32), 
The crater on the N.VV. side is Vjft, deep and 22jft. wide. That on the S.E. 
is 4ft. 9in. deep against the side of the causeway. Under the usual top 
layer the filling "instead of silt was clean white chalk, which had been 
brought from elsewhere and cast into the ditch. Some of this chalk had 
been bruised and crushed to a fine consistency and had become set into 
masses so extremely hard that they could only be removed by under-cutting 
the softer material below them and breaking the substance into blocks. 
They gave the idea of the chalk having been wet when cast into the ditch " 
(Vol. IV., 30 and 32). 

The steeper sides are also evidence of deliberate filling, as they cannot 
have weathered, and the hardness of the filling suggests ramming. 

The inference (which is not drawn) is that this part of the ditch was 
filled up again shortly after excavation, and before it had time to silt up in 
the normal way. The end of the ditch to the east of the causeway cuts 
some 30ft. into the line of the Avenue or nearly half-way across, and the 
deliberate filling of this end has been generally recognised to have been done 
to make the ditch accord with the position of the Avenue. It is even more 
evident that the filling was done in a newly excavated ditch, otherwise there 
must have been silt in all the lower half with a definite turf line between. 

The report suggests that the craters were used as hut dwellings or guard 
houses to a fortified enclosure ; but there appears to be very little evidence 
for this (Vol. IV., 36), and Stonehenge ditch elsewhere bears little resem- 
blance to that of a fortified enclosure. Traces of fire were found near the 
bottom, but no human remains except some bones in the chalky filling. 



The Avenue. 

The Avenue approaches to within lOft. of the ditch (Vol. V., 22) and its 
ditch at this point is very shallow, 18in., and narrow, 3ft. (Vol. IV., 30). 
The distance between the Avenue ditches is about 68ft. Near the Heel 
Stone the depth of the ditch, as seen in the section (Vol, V., 24) is 39in. be- 
low ground level and the width is 6ft. The sides are cut V shape and 
earthy chalk rubble coming from the rampart side only fills one side and 
bottom to a depth of 12in. On the other side the filling is shown as earthy 
and similar to the top turf layer. Blue stone chips are shown lying an inch 
or two in the silt, while the report (Vol. V., 23) states that masons' chips 



342 The Becent Excavations at Stonehenge, 

reach down to the top of a layer of muddy silt about 12in. thick over the 
bottom. 

The inference is drawn that the Avenue ditch is older than Stonehenge 
because there are no blue stone chips at the bottom ; but there seem^ 
even less reason for this than for a similar inference drawn from the con- 
tents of the main ditch ; and it is evident from its alignment that the 
Avenue is certainly not earlier than Stonehenge. 

Post and Stone Holes near Entrance. 

A large number of post holes, ]2in. or 15in. in diameter, were found 
on the causeway, and a few larger holes big enough to have contained 
stones. The report suggests that these formed part of a barricade (VoL 
IV., 36). No trace was found of the four stones mentioned by Inigo Jones 
(Vol. IV., 36). It is impossible to say whether the post holes of the cause- 
way were extended over the filled in ditch to cover the whole width of the 
Avenue approach. Their position would be lost in the ditch itself ; and it 
is not reported whether they were looked for, close up to the ditch on its 
northern side, where they might appear. The suggestion that these post 
holes were ever a barrier becomes more doubtful, however, in view of the 
numerous other post holes subsequently found in the enclosure (see under 
Post Holes). 

Z and Y Holes. 

These were explored over half the circumference and found to lie exactly 
behind each stone of the lintel circle except one which is apparently miss-^ 
ing behind No. 8. The Z ring is that nearest the lintel stones and the Y 
ring that further out. 

The first opened was the Y hole 37ft. from No. 30 (Vol. V., 27). It was 
5ft. X 3ft. on top and 2ft. Sin. X 1ft. 4in. at the bottom, and 3ft. deep. The 
soil was "humus" down to the bottom ; and the lower portion, below the 
surface layer, had 65 foreign stone chips, and 12 more were found at the 
very bottom. The second hole, 36ft. from 29, also had chips to the bottom^ 
which was again found at 3ft. The sides were sharply cut and three entire 
antlers at the bottom showed that no stone had stood in it (Vol. V., 27). 

In the summary (Vol. VIII. , 175) it is stated that all the Z and Y holes 
had steep sides without any sign of packing stones, and that blue stone 
chips were found penetrating to the bottom. The conclusion drawn is that 
they " are certainly of the same date as the monument and came into the 
original plan as can be seen from their position." It is evident that they 
were constructed after the blue stones were chipped. They were also dug^ 
after the lintel circle was erected, for some of the Z holes are cut into the 
ramps required for their erection (Vol. V., 29) ; and the holes, even with- 
out stones in them, would have been in the way. 

The report suggests that they may have been intended for the blue stones„ 
and a little consideration will show that this is almost inevitable. It can 
hardly be supposed that this double ring of stone holes was dug without 
having the stones available to put into the holes, and, as no stones were put 



By Lt.-Col. R. H. Cuiiiiingtoii. 343 

in, we must conclude that they were used elsewhere, If they were not the 
blue stones, these 60 have vanished completely, leaving no trace of where 
they were used. 

The holes are all rectangular, unlike the Aubrey holes, and were evidently 
intended for stones, and their shape corresponds to that |of the blue 
stones. 1 

Details of the Z and Y holes are given in pages 37—50 as an appendix to 
Vol. V. report. The depth of the Romano-British pottery found in them is 
interesting : Y3 at 30in., Y5 in the layer between 17in. and 22in., Y6 be- 
tween 19in. and 27in., Y9 between 2lin. and 27in., YlO 104 pieces at 15in., 
Za Romano-Gallic at 2lin., Zll between 20in. and 27in. It is unfortunate 
that the exact depths are not recorded, nor in most cases the distance 
down to the solid chalk : that of Y5 is recorded at I7in. and Y6 at I9in. 
The steep sides show that they were deliberately filled, as might be 
expected, for they would have been unsightly obstacles if left open. As the 
filling sank with consolidation, hollows would be left on the surface in 
which apparently the Romano-British pottery collected 'before the growth 
of turf had completely filled them. 

In only one hole is there reported any other evidence bearing on the date, 
namely Z4 ( Vol. V. 29). With Z4 the top layer is 14in. in depth. At I8in. 
was found dirty soil mixed with burnt matter, and below that charred wood. 
Below that "a fairly level place holding natural flints indicating a roughly 
improvised hearth." " About the same level were found 42 pieces of black 
pot with plain round beaded wide mouth." Below this were three pieces of 
gritty pottery identified as La Tene^ at 24in. depth (Vol. V., 30 and 32). 
The total depth was 41in., and the section shows the solid chalk level at 
about 16in. down. It is suggested in the report that the pottery owes its 
presence to a disturbance, the hole being used in the Early Iron Age as a 
hearth. The size would be about 4ft. X 2ft. at 18in- depth. This involves 
the supposition that the hole was re-excavated to that depth, or a little 
more, that a fire was induced to burn in it, and that pottery was left at or a 



^ The dimensions varied as much as do those of the blue stones, but the 
average size at the bottom is about 3ft. X l|ft. and the average depth 
about 3ft. 

2 This is almost the only, if not quite the only, instance recorded of Early 
Iron Age pottery, and the identification was made by Mr. Reginald Smith. 
Not much pottery of any kind was found, and most of it still awaits expert 
examination. The Beaker pottery, while found anywhere in the top layer, 
is said to occur more often near the bottom (Vol. VIII , 173). This would 
be the case if the soil accumulated in depth from rubbish brought into the 
enclosure, because any pottery lying under the original turf would get 
buried up. (See under Surface Soil of the Interior). 



344 The Recent Excavations at Stonehenge^ 

little below the bottom.^ The more natural supposition is that the remains 
of a fire and rubbish heap were thrown in when the hole was first filled, and 
that the hole was cut in the Early Iron Age. 

The Rampart. 

Only a few feet of the rampart has been dug into and apparently nothing 
has been found under it which would help to date the monument (Vol. III., 
14). It is suggested that this might be a useful field for further exploration, 
as any objects found under it must have been lying on the ground when the 
rampart was first thrown up and have been safely covered by it ever since. 
The Blue Stone Circle. 

Stumps and holes were found in much disturbed ground between 
Nos. 34 and 33. They indicate stones having been placed at a very close 
interval in an almost continuous trench ; one stump was 18ins. from No. 34 
(Vol. VI., 8). 

A similar almost continuous trench was found opposite the lintel stones 
15 and 16, from which four stones may have been taken (Vol. VI., 11), and 
in this sector also stumps and holes appear to show the same close interval. 

The conclusion is drawn that the blue stones of the circle may have 
formed an almost continuous wall (Vol. VI., 12) ; but it is admitted that 
the ground was much disturbed. 

Blue Stone Horseshoe. 

Four stone holes were found in an alignment which would have closed the 
horseshoe and converted it into an oval. No packing stones were found in 
them, but no packing stones were found with Nos. 49 and 31 (Vol. II., 43). 
These four holes are as follows : — 

(1). Is placed in continuation of the south-east end of the horseshoe : 
it is about lift, (centrally) from the last stone and the same dis- 
tance from No. 150. The size of the hole is 3jft. X 8ft. and 4|ft. 
deep (Vol. VIII., 172). 
(2).'^ Continues the same curve at the same interval of lift., and lies 
about 9ft. centre to centre behind No. 31. It is 3ft. lin. X 1ft. 
Sins. Ind 4ft. deep or 2ft. 3ins. in the solid chalk (Vol. VIII., 169 
and No. 2 on list p. 168). 
(3).2 In the same alignment and nearly 4ft. clear from No. 2 above. It 
is situated about 9ft. centre to centre behind No, 49 (Vol. VIII., 170). 
The size is 51 in. x 20in. and it is described as 15in. and 28in. deep 
in the solid. (No. 8 li.< p. 168). 

^ It is possible that 9in. out of the 16in. of surface soil may have accumu- 
lated since the hole was dug (see under Surface Soil of the Interior) 
so that the supposed re-excavation need' not necessarily have been much 
more than 9in. deep. Even at that depth it would be very difficult to make 
a fire burn in this confined space, and one cannot see why the attempt 
should have been made. 

^ The excavation of Nos. (2) and (3) afi"ords some further evidence of a 
change of plan in connection with the blue stones. Each of these holes is 



Bij Lt.-Col. R. H. Cnnniiigton, 345 

(4). About lift, behind No. 46 and lift, centrally from No. 3 above. 
The hole is stated to be oval and about 3jft. wide (Vol. VIII., ) 72). 

There was a fifth hole rather out of the line behind No. 48 at a distance of 
4|ft. clear, which would have held a small stone (Vol. VIIL, 170). This is 
given as No. 4 in list p. 168, and is 38in. X 21in.and 14in. deepin the solid 
chalk. Omitting this, the four holes form a continuous curve and are 
symmetrically placed about the axis giving spacing centre to centre of lift, 
{from last standing stone on S.E.), lift., 7ft., and lift., the 7ft. space coming 
centrally on the line of axis. 

It is not suggested in the report, but it seems possible that the lintel 
stone No. 150, which is 7|ft. long (Vol. VI., 13), was designed to bridge the 
gap between (2) and (3) over the axis. It was, however, used, as an excava- 
tion shows, in its present position. The sockets on this stone are 3ft. 5in. 
apart centre to centre, and would have served for stones in Nos. (2) and (3) 
holes if these stones were a little wider above ground than below. 

Nothing is said in the report of the holes being damaged or the filling 
disturbed by the extraction of stones ; and it seems not unlikely that the 
oval continuation of the horseshoe was contemplated but never carried out. 
We have fairly clear evidence in the Z and Y holes of one change of plan 
in connection with the blue stones, and this continuation of the horseshoe, 
if not carried out, would mean another. It should be noted also that the 
earlier plan, in the Z and Y holes, gives the blue stones a position of inferior 
importance. 

There is evidence that the blue stones were the last to be erected. The 
Aubrey circle and ditch circle must have been laid out before any stones were 
put in the middle, which would have prevented the use of a cord. For the 
same reason the lintel circle must have followed (presumably with a gap to 
introduce the trilithon stones). In none of the Sarsen holes excavated have 
blue stone chips been found near the bottom. Also that Gowland's excava- 
tions prove the trilithons must have been put up before the blue stone 
horseshoe. If, as seems likely, the blue stone circle was also later than the 
trilithons, it would depend for alignment on the position of stones already 
up ; this would explain why the circle is not so true as the lintel circle, 
and also, perhaps, why the spacing is comparatively irregular. 

The blue stones are usually supposed to have been brought from Wales 
for kStonehenge ; but they may have been standing as part of an earlier 
monument or Long Barrow on Salisbury Plain when Stonehenge was built. 
They were evidently not trimmed to lighten them when the labour of 

dug in what is described as the floor of a ramp leading respectively to Nos. 
31 and 49 of the blue stone circle. But Nos. 31 and 49 are 7ft. distant in 
the clear, and it seems incredible that ramps of this length (or longer) 
should have been made for such small stones ; furthermore none of the other 
blue stones appear to have had (or needed) ramps. If these are indeed 
ramps one must suppose they were meant for much taller stones, such as 
those used for the horseshoe trilithons; and the existence of holes already 
dug may explain why Nos. 31 and 49, when eventually placed in them, are 
a little out of line with the rest of the circle. 



346 TJie Becent Excavations at Stonehenge. 

moving them from Wales was undertaken (see under Stone Chips) ; and if 
they were put up latest at Stonehenge and first planned to occupy the fringe 
of the circle, they do not seem to bear the significant part we should expect 
if specially brought all the way from Wales. 

Post Holes. 

It is difficult to give any description of these. They were almost every- 
where on the southern side, from near, but not on, the lOft. southern cause 
way, past the neighbourhood of Y. 10, and into the enclosure as far as the 
S.E. end of the horseshoe (Vol. VIII , 172). Some were small and shallow 
and others as deep as 28in.; the width varied as much as their depth, the 
average diameter being about 1 2in. to 15in., and the largest 23in. A second 
group, already mentioned, is near the main entrance and resembles them 
closely (Vol. VI., 3). The filling is fine dirty chalk (Vol. VL, 15) with no 
Stonehenge material (Vol. VI., 3) except in one near stone No. 10 (Vol. VL, 
6), which it is supposed was dug into and enlarged ; stone chips in this 
hole were found to the bottom. The end of a post hole is said to have been 
found at the bottom of Z. 13, projecting 9in. into the chalk and filled with 
earthy chalk rammed hard. 

As, with the one exception stated, none had stone chips^in the filling it 
is argued that they are older than Stonehenge (Vol. VI., 6) ; but this does 
not seem very convincing. There is no reason to suppose that the posts 
standing in them were anything like the same size as the holes, which must 
necessarily be fairly large for convenience in excavation ; there was 
probably therefore very little organic matter to decay as the posts rotted, 
and the holes would be filled by the surrounding disintegrated chalk, only 
the very top getting a small increment from the turf layer above. Unless 
therefore stone chips were used, as well as the excavated chalk, in packing 
the sides of the posts, we should not expect to find stone chips in the holes 
now. The chips may have been there, but buried, as now, in the turf, and 
not lying available on the surface, as when the Z and Y holes were filled. 
In such a position the chances of chips getting into the holes would be very 
small. 

In any case, as their plan is confused, they do not, with our present state 
of knowledge, appear to be of much importance. They might have served 
for the erection of shanties at almost any period. 

The large number of precisely similar post holes elsewhere tells a little 
against the supposition that those at the main causeway were ever intended 
as a barricade. 

Stone Chips. 

Far more blue stones than Sarsen chips were found. In the N.E. quad- 
rant of the surface the numbers of each were 3911 and 864 (Vol. V., 34). 
Another area gave 2C61 and 398 (Vol. IL, 37) ; and in the small space of 
10ft. by oft. there were 700 and 85 respectively (Vol. I., 29). 

Considering the much greater bulk of the Sarsen stones, this has been 
recognised as almost conclusive evidence that the Sarsens were chipped, at 
least roughly to shape, elsewhere ; while the blue stones arrived at Stone- 
henge untrinuned. The stone chips are comparatively scarce in the area 
furthest from the entrance (Vol. VI., 14). 



By Lt.-Col. R. H. Cunnington. 347 

Surface Soil of the Interior. 

Trenches were cut over most of the southern area (Vol. V., 26 ; Vol VI., 
1 and 14). The surface soil near the causeway was very shallow, but gradually 
deepened inwards ; and on the line of entrance there seems to have been a 
definite layer of flint 9in. below the surface and with 5in. to 9in. of chalk 
rubble below it, which extended inwards as far as stones 29, 30, and 32 
(Vol. VI, 13; and Vol. V., 26, 27). 

In the enclosure of the lintel circle the soil averages from 15in. to 19in. 
thick above the solid chalk (Vol. VIII., 168—170), and quite close to the 
lintel stones the depth might be even more. 

From trial holes (not made by Col. Hawley) at three places round the 
outside of the enclosure the depth of soil was found to average about 7in.s 
as it usually is on the Plain, so that it is likely that some Sin. to 12in. of 
soil has accumulated at Stonehenge. 

This may be all due to the refuse left there since the monument was 
erected ; or some of it may, as has been suggested, be the debris of ramps 
used for the erection of the stones and not all put back on the rampart, 
together with material from the excavated stone holes. ^ Some allowance 
should be made for it in the recorded depth of the holes. No explanation 
is given for the flint layer. One that seems possible is that the surface was 
so worn during construction that the turf perished ; and the 5in. to 9in. of 
chalk rubble represents the disintegrated surface of the original chalk 
together with the remains of the turf, excavated material, and ramps, which 
may have been repaired with flints ; while the upper 9in. represents the 
growth of turf and imported refuse since. Flints, however, if left at any 
time on the surface of the turf would sink to that level by the action of worms.' 

It is not stated if there was any difference in the " finds " above and 
below the flint layer. 

The Date of the Monument. 

There seems to be not only no evidence of different dates for the principal 
features— the ditch, avenue, Z and Y holes, Aubrey holes, or stones — but 
definite evidence that they are all roughly contemporary. This, however, 
does not mean that they were all put in hand at the same moment. 

The evidence from the ditch points to a period later than Beaker ; the 
evidence of the Aubrey holes to a period later than Beaker and probably 
not very long before the Roman invasion ; and the evidence from Z 4 hole 
puts this period in the Early Iron Age, which should therefore be con- 
sidered, provisionally, as the date for the whole monument. 

^ Material from the holes of the stones now standing would raise the level 
of the area within the Z holes by nearly 2in. if spread evenly. 

^ Darwin has shown that stones will be lowered by the action of worms 
through vegetable mould ; but not, one would suppose, through stony 
ground or anything like chalk rubble ; and it is questionable how far light 
articles such as pottery fragments would be affected. There may indeed 
be more stratification of the pottery in the " top layer" than has been sus- 
pected, which has been overlooked owing to the presence of Romano- British 
pottery so low down in it. 



348 



STONEHENGE. THE KEOENT EXCAVATIONS. 
By R. S. NEWALL, F.S.A. 

[Reprinted by permission from Antiquity^ Marcli, 1929, Vol, III., pp. 75 — 
88, with folding coloured plan.] 

John Webb, in his preface to Inigo Jones's posthumously published jS^one- 
henge, in 1655 says: — "This discourse of Stonehenge is moulded oflf and 
cast into a rude form, from some few indigested notes after the late judicious 
Architect, the Vitruvius of his Age, Inigo Jones." Upon these notes, Webb 
undoubtedly dined not wisely but too well and I trust I shall not be 
accused of doing the same with Colonel Hawley's many and well digested 
notes. I have one advantage over Webb in that I have seen Stonehenge, 
and I very much doubt whether he had. 

[n describing the stones, I shall begin at the centre and work outwards, 
taking as centre the point where a line drawn from stone 91 just inside the 
bank to stone 93, and a line from hole 92 in the middle of the supposed 
barrow to hole 94 in a similar barrow in the N.W. quadrant, cut each other 
and the axis of Stonehenge. It is from this point as centre that all the